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fame, thy profit will be as great as minė. .
RICHARD SAUNDERS: As it is a principal part of our plan, to select valuable fu
gitive papers, wherever they can be found, to be preserved in this miscellany, we deem the following, which
appeared a short time ago in a morning paper, too va. ·luable to be suffered to perish. When we meet with any - other of equal merit on the opposite side of the question,
it shall be admitted with equal readiness.
On the Late Convention with Spain.
SIR, WERE à party of armed men to break into your house and office, and, after thrusting you out; carry off or demolish the contents; should you look upon yourself as made whole again, if, two or three years hence, after a heavy law-suit, the empty walls were to be given back to you, you sitting down with your own costs? --Were the same treatment again repeated; would the fame amends again and again content you ?--Could a livelihood be gained, do you think, or trade carried on, üpon such terms ?-Such are the terms for which we have been called upon to join in thanksgiving to the minister.
The convention has two objects--adjustment of limits; and satisfaction for known or eventual injuries. First, let us cast an eye on the latter or remedial part, and then on the geographical.
The injuries in questions I observe, are spoken of under three heads.
1. Acts of “ Difpoffeffion" committed about the month of April 1789. These form the subject of the firft article.
2. Acts of “ Difpof fron" committed subsequent to the fame period. These form the subject of the latter part of the fecond article.
3. Acts of “ Violence or Hostility” at large, committed subfequent to the same period. Thefe form the subject of the former part of the fame article. .
From these several classes of injuries, what are the allotments of satisfaction respectively provided.
For the first class--fpecific restitution, and reftitution merely. Restitution, too, of what !--of " lands, buildings, vessels, merchandize, or other property whatever," as fpecified with regard to the injuries spoken of under the second article? No such thing-No vessels, no merchandize, no moveable property whatsoever-nothing but “ buildings and tracts of land," bare ground, and emptied walls. The vessel and cargo, which were the original, fubject of complaint, are left in the hands of those, whose violence gave birth to it.'ni wae. :Ob! but, fays somebody, you forget there was a former Convention, and that whatever satisfaction for this affair is not Specified in the preferit; will be found provided in that former one. -Not so neither. Of the business done in this concluding convention, the first part is; the turning every thing that preceded it into walte paper. In this “folid-agreement,?? (fays the preamble) the differences that have arisen are declared to be terminated.” By this, all retrospective discuffion of rights and pretensions are expressly declared to be 66 set aside.” After a waver fo full and explicit, "had it been agreed to keep alive the benefit of the former ftipu. lation, is it conceivable that a faving clause for that pur. pofe would not have been inserted ?-One part of what is due to us, given up in exchange for another pårt-moveable for territorial_what costs thousands of pounds, for what is not worth a straw. Such are the terms, which, in the language of ministerial exultation, I have heard called our own-as if prowess had extorted them from us, at the expence of justice.
I m a • One principle is uniformly observed that in all cases of dispofseffion, the fatisfaction is to be a nominal and not a real one that it is to afford ruin to the objects,'triumph to the authors of the injury. If there were any difficulty in the construction of this releafing clause; analogy would clear it up. Have you still a doubt as to this point, with regard to the first of these heads of injury turn, then, to the next What says the fecond article ? Reftitution" of property, together with “ compensation" for the damage restored or not restored, and for the suspension, perhaps the destruction of the trade ? -Neither the one nor the other, determinațely muchless both, but either the one or the other, as fomebody shall please.—Who is to be that somebody! Which of the two powers is to determine what this “terînati ng” convention leaves expressly undetermined ? This we are to learn, from futúre negociations and future armaments. Thus much, however, seems to be tolerably clear already—that when the goods, whatever they may be which the Spaniards at any time may chuse to take from us, are become good for nothing--the arms, for in. Itance, honey.combed--the powder wetted-the biscuit mouldy-and the beef putrid--they have but to give it us back again, and the account is settled, . .
What, then, is the security provided for so much of our trade, as we might be desirous of transferring to these im. menfe regions : Power secured to the Spaniards of ruining our settlers and traders, as often as their prosperity may attract notice ; and liberty to succeeding settlers and traders, to run toties quoties into the same snare. in · So much for the remedial part.-A word or two of the geographical.'
In a treaty for adjusting territorial differences, you may take one or other of three courses.-One is, to draw boundary lines in the treaty itself :--Another is, to leave them to be drawn in a subsequent treaty by commissaries : The third is to say nothing about boundary-lines, but tó make it as if they were drawn already. The firit of these courses, was that pursued by the authors of the peace of 1748; and the war of 1755 was the result the fecond was that observed by the then Earl of Shelburne, in the peace of 1783:-The third is that preferred by the now matured judgment of Mr. Pitt.
We are to“ retain” (fays the fixth article) the liberty of “ landing on the coasts and islands situated" so and so with regard to " the coasts ånd islands already occupied by: Spain.”What are the coasts and islands thus already occupied ? How far along the coasts in question shall the virtue of the occupying foot; be in such case admitted to extend ? By what specification of natural limits, fhall.this otherwise undeterminable propofition be determined - This is the very thing which ought to have been done-which, in 1748, was meant to be done-which, in 1783, was done and which now, in 1790, has neither been done, nor at
had before. What is it we had before - That is the very point that was in difpute ; and that is the very point that pemains to be disputed. ".'
, In 1783, the minister of 1799 was in leading-strings, of which he did not know the value.-Having broke loose from his nurse, he now stands upon his own legs- Behold the consequence !
Intelligence respecting Sciences, Arts, &c.
i S.Apoll Since the establishment of the British power in India, a spirit of inquiry has begun to prevail there, respecting those Afiatic countries in which we have now so near an interest. This had a beginning several years ago ; but its operations were feeble, before the arrival of Sir William Jones in that country, whose ardent taste for literary pursuits is well known, and who no suoner set foot in Alia than he excited a general spirit of inquiry there, which promises to be pro-' dučtive of the happiest effects. The Afiatic society, which owes its institution entirely to him, has already sent a printed volume of their transactions to Europe, which affords the happiest presage of farther advances in that country in the paths of literature and oriental knowledge: And we are glad to think, that Sir William will obtain a powerful coadjutor in this department, in Mr. Richardson, the well known author of the Persian grammar and dictionary, who has lately gone to Calcutta in a high law department.
Cochineal. Among the individuals who have distinguished themselves in India by an active spirit of literary research, Dr. James Anderson, physician to the presidency of Madras, deserves to be particularly mentioned. In the course of his usualinveftigations, this gentleman, in the year 1787, discovered an insect of the coccus tribe, very like the real cochineal insect, in great numbers, feeding on a kind of marine grass, frequent in the neighbourhood of Fort St. George. It immediately occurred, that if this infect possessed any thing of the qualities of the true cochineal, it might turn out greatly for the benefit of this country, by rearing it there ; as he eafily foresaw it would be furnished at a much less expence, Vol. I.
than is paid for cochineal imported from the Spanish Main. He prosecuted this thought with his usual ardour ; but a little time, and some accurate experiments, satisfied him that this infect could not be made to answer the same pur, poses with the true cochineal in dying ; and the farther pur. suit of that object was given up. . But in the course of his inquiries, in consequence of a very extenfive correspondence through all the territories of India, he discovered, in different parts of those regions, no less than fix different animals of the coccus class, which he has described with great accuracy in a series of letters to Sir Joseph Banks and others, printed at Madras, but not for Tale, and has specified the plants on which they respectively feed. As it is well known that all the animals of this class afford juices that stain woollen goods of a permanenţ dye, it is probable that, in future times, these inquiries may lay the foundation of several useful discoveries in arts. .
In the mean while, Dri Anderson was active in his researches to discover the Cactus Cochinilifer, which is called Nopal in America, on which plant alone the true American cochineal is reared : But after the most diligent search, it could not be found in either the British, French, or Dutch settlements in India. Chance, however, made him discover it in China. From thence it was brought to Madras, where it was cultivated with care, and prospered abundantly, Another plant of the Spanish nopal was obtained from Manilla : A third from the Cape of Good Hope ; and a fourth from the King's garden at Kew, by the intervention of Sir Joseph Banks; all of which arrived safe at Madras, and. proved to be exactly the same plant. The East India Com. pany, on being informed of these facts by Sir Joseph Banks, very easily perceived the advantages that might accrue to this country from the cultivating of this article in their set. tlements in India, and gave orders for a garden to be laid out in the neighbourhood of Madras, under the eye of Dr, Anderson; to ferve as a popalary, or nursery of nopal plants, from whence the natives can be fupplied with what number they may want. Measures have been also adopted for sending out the true cochineal insect thither, which are no doubt arrived there before this time, and where there is no reason to suspect they will not profper abundantly : 'And on account of the surprising cheapness of labour by the Tamuls,