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(the natives of the Malabar coast) which exceeds not two. pence or twopence-halfpenny a day, there is no reason to hope that this valuable drug may be in a short time afford. ed from thence at a much smaller expence than it can be had for from the Spanish Main.. ..That gentleman, ever attentive to whatever can augment the happiness of individuals, or advance the prosperity of the ftate, has also lately sent over to this country a considerable quantity of the seeds of the plant, from the roots of which is extracted that beautiful and permanent red dye, with which Indian cotton's are sometimes stained, together with full directions for cultivating it. These seeds, with directions, have been sent to different persons in the Welt Indies, and in this country, who are the most likely to give it a fair trial. When the result of these trials are known, they shall be communicated to our readers. The plant is called by the natives, . Che, or Chay. Its botanical name, according to the Linnæan fyftem, is Oldenlandia Umbellata. i. . Our limits forbid us at present to enter more fully into, the other patriotic exertions of this worthy and respectable member of fociety ; but we cannot deny our readers the satisfaction they will derive from the perusal of the following letter, which discovers at once the liberal views, and the warm beneficence of heart of Dr Anderson. May his patriolic exertions be crowned with success!
To the Honourable Fohn Hollond, Esq. President and
Governor, &c. Council. Hon. Sir and Sirs, Your ready acquiescence to the importation, of valuable plants, will enable me to derive advantage from the researches of the Asiatic fociety, by the hopes I entertain, that you will folicit the supreme board for plants of the Mahwah tree, fu certainly supplying food in hot countries, as described by Lieutenant Charles Hamilton, a Member of that society,
In this country the Materia Medica extends to the bark of every tree, and is the principal cause of our want of tiinber, almost every tree being stripped of its bark at an early period by the natives, either for themselves, or on purpose to cure the diseases of catele; and it must be allowed, that many of them are ufeful in this view, such as the Melias some Mimosas, the Genus Ficus, and Cassia. Perhaps the eustom of living in clay houses has prevented them seeing much disadvantage in the want of timber. Thatch, in moft common use, of Andropogon Nardus, is light and easily fupported, rendering large timbers as beams of houses, unneceilary.
But it may be considered, that the honourable company are at a very considerable expence for the Pegu Teak, employed in gun carriages and other necessary works, as well as the Europeans here in house building : nor should the unhealthiness of the clay houses of the natives in the wet season pass unnoticed, while the true riches of a country is the number of useful inhabitants.
It is a distant prospect to look forward to the growth of trees; but this affords the best reason why no time should be lost in beginning to plant them : Some vines I planted here, gave grapes in thirteen months, when they were of such a fize, that a native of the territory of Berry affured me, would be deemed the growth of seven years in France : and I am convinced that timber trees come to as much fize and perfection here in twenty years, as the timber trees in England attain in fixty.
Previously however to the planting of trees for timber, it would be well if the head men of every village were advised of the utility of establishing a store of bark of every different kind of tree, the bark of which is in use, that those who are in want may be supplied at a moderate valuation, without exposing all trees promiscuously to be barked.
Another eircumstance in this country merits much atten. tion, being no less than the idleness of many of the labourers from the beginning of February, when the crop is gathered in, until the month of August, that the partial showers
of the season enable them to scratch the ground with the • small unimproved ancient plough.
A suspension of labour for half the year, or even a shorter time, will occasion a want and disease amongst the lower classes in' any country: and here the extreme wretchedness that appears in their countenances, marks those termed Parajadi another cast, and Teidpu, base tribe, most conspicu. oully.
In the Talinga countries, they are called Coolie Tribe, Pariar Tribe, and in general bear a proportion of one to two, or a third of those that labour in the field for the cultivation of the crop, and a feventh of the whole inhabitants of the country. They are considered hereditary Naves to the villages, and their offices, from which they are excluded by an uncharitable superstition to a place called the Par. cheree, and when troops march through the country, are forced out to carry the baggage of the army. In the late war, attended with famine and peftilence, these men were the first and greatest sufferers.
A certain ratio is extorted from the country, which is more moderate in the possessions of the honourable company than elsewhere, amounting to half the whole produce : let it be considered however, that this half is always taken without exception ; and the reason will appear how no work is begun or carried on, that requires time and apparatus to accomplish, how moft villages are even without a garden ; how none of the palms are to be seen, the fruit of which are such defireable objects of food, that they are imported from other countries; how so little good indigo is made here, where the best indigo plant is a weed ; how there is no cotton for exportation, although the manufactory of cloth here declines ; the sugar boiler and collector can never determine who should defray the expence of copper vessels to improve his work; and fields of salt are diffolved and washed away by the rains, because government claims a useless share, and the natives want the incitement of a foreign market.
To improve and extend materials for foreign trade, without which these establishments cannot long exist, a certain fubftantial provifion for the labourer should first be devised, as the dryness of some seasons does not even afford a fuffi. cient supply of rice.
It is therefore necessary for the villages to be indulged in laying out the dry ground near them in inclosures, where they might cultivate yams, potatoes, melons, pompions, beans, &c. and fruit trees, for their own use, without deduction.
This would enable them to employ the slaves and lower classes throughout the year, in a healthy and robuft itate,
for the culture of the great crop, and advantage of the revenue.
I would recommend that villages be marked out in those parts of the Jaguhire that remain uroccupied fince the late war, where the native pensioners may be permitted to settle at pleasure, exempt from all taxation for at least ten years to come, and in the home farms of like desertéd description, the wotters, who do all the heavy work of removing earth, may be permitted to settle with great advantage to Madras.
It gives me much satisfaction to obferve the directors corresponding on the article of indigo, with men of such adequate information as the Lords committee of the privy council for trade, as published in October last by the Hopourable the Governor General; and request you will transmit the honourable court a small box, filled with the white covering of insects mentioned in my last letter, which I now find to be the covering of an infect, similar to the Lac infect, described by Mr. Keir of Patna. I am, &c.
INTRODUCTION. A Cursory View of the present POLITICAL STATE OF ...... EUROPE, continued from page 120.
France.. To a contemplative mind, the situation of the European na. tions already mentioned, will afford matter for many serious reflections. It would seem, as if at present there was a general ftruggle between error and truth, between light and darkness : That darkness as yet predominates, though there are fome feeble rays of light beginning to break forth, which give room to hope, that the dawn of that day is approaching, when man shall think each man he meets his brother, without distinction of rarik, of country or condition ; and when the prosperity of cach shall be generaliy known, to depend
upon the welfare of the whole : But thick is the film that yet overspreads his eye, and prevents him from receiving that effulgence of light, which is necessary to enable him distinctly to know his real interest. The happy æra we wish for will not arrive in our day ; but we ought to rejoice in the prospect of the empire of knowledge gaining ground perceptibly over that of ignorance.
Perhaps no nation ever afforded a more interesting object for the political speculator to contemplate, than that of France at the present time, and for a short period back. wards. Never was there experienced such a great and uni. versal revolution in the ideas of a whole people, as has taken place in this country, within a few years past. Formerly all ranks of men, gloried in shewing the most profound respect and veneration for the name of royalty ; and every thing that was connected with it, was deemed facred. Now, it is the glory of a Frenchman to disregard his sovereign, to trample upon authority, to laugh, at distinction of ranks, and to mock at legal subordination. Under the fascinating name of freedom, every breast is warmed with enthusiasm; and many an honest man seriously seems to believe, that under the banners of this bewitching power, nothing is too difficult to be accomplished. Whether they judge wisely in this respect, time only can fully discover ; but many of the best friends of liberty begin to fear, that by grasping at 'too much, they may endanger the loss of the whole ; and that by snatching at the shadow, they will allow the real object to elude their grasp, which they had once in their own power.
Every man of upright principles and sound sense, muit wish well to the cause of freedom; but every man acquainted with the human heart, and the principles of government, is aware of the difficulties that must ever stand in the way, in an attempt radically to alter the constitution of any country. When great changes are suddenly made, the interest of many individuals must be deeply affected; which will produce secret discontents, that, though suppressed for the time, seldom fail, sooner or later; to produce internal convulsions, that disturb the public tranquility, and often reverse the most beneficient plans of a humane legislature. For these reasons, a prudent man will always behold with anxiety and doubt, that apparent calm, which succeeds to any violent revolutions in 'government. The very doubt