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“ Commerce. Both our exports and imports have greatly increased. We export here goods from Paisley, Manchester, &c: ; and we import confiderable quantities of the Irilli liben manufacture. The inhabitants of Port-patrick, how.' ever, are generally only the carriers; the dealers are those, who, not being sufficiently opulent to freight and load large fhips, carry on a hawking business by land. They bring their goods in carts, and hire the Port-patrick vessels to convey them from one shore to the other,
"Irish Cattle.But of all the articles of the commerce of Port-patrick, the import of black cattle and horses from Ireland is by far the most interesting. Formerly such a commerce was prohibited, for the purpofe of encouraging our own breed. The free importation was first permitted by 5th George III. cap. 1o. $ 1: for seven years, and from thence to the end of the next session of Parliament. It was afterwards continued by several temporary acts, and at last made perpetuał, by 16th George III. cap. 8. From the firkt removal of the prohibition, there was a small annual importation; but it was never carried on to any great extent till 1784, when it rose fuddenly, without any cause that has yet been assigned for it. In that year there were impor. ted, between the 5th of January 1784, and the sth of January 1785, no less than 18,30 1 black cattle, and 1233 horfes. The importation of cattle and horses, for the last five years, 'ending the roth of October 1790, has varied in the following manner :
Black Cattle. Horses. From 10th O&. 1785 to do. 1786 . 10,452, 1,256
7,007 1,623 - 1988 9,488 2,777
1789 13-321 2,212 1790 14.873 2,402
Total in five years, :
Which at an average is about 11,000 head of cattle and 2000 horses per' annum. Great as this importation has been,
it has not as yet materially hurt the fale, or diminished the - price of cattle in the neighbourhood of Port-patrick, On You, I.
the contrary, the demand for them has been rather on the increase. It is probable, however, that it would have been greater, had there been no import.
“ Besides the cattle imported here, there are also considerable numbers sent from Belfast, Bangor, Newry, &ć, dire&tly to England. The English coal vessels always take black cattle from Ireland, when they have it in their power: but it is believed that the largest import is at Port-patrick. The extent of sea by any other paffage, especially in the winter season, is much against the sale and successful transportation of a cargo, fo perifhable in itself, and liable to lo' many accidents.
“ This trade depends fo much upon the quantity of grass, of hay, and of turnips in England, and fometimes even uron the prospect of large crops of these articles, that there is much fpeculation in it. Great gains and great losses are therefore sudden and frequent. Hence the import is un. equal. Some people suppose that the trade is favourable to smuggling, and hostile to the revenue. Other's object to it, as in a peculiar manner detrimental to thofe districts in Scotland where black cattle are bred ; and there seems to be ra. ther a hardship in permitting such numbers of cattle to be imported into North Britain, or even carried through it, in order to riyal the productions of that very country, in the only market to which it has accefs. Without entering, however, into these speculations, it may be sufficient at prefent to remark, that the import will probably diminish of itfelf, in consequence of the rapid progress which Ireland is now making. The time is fast approaching, when that kingdom will be in the Tame state in which England is at present, having a market within itself fufficient for the con. sumption of its own productions. Perhaps that may foon be the cafe in regard to other commodities, befides cattle. The Irish are rapidly improving in our manufactures, and we in theirs ; at least the cottons of Manchester and Glasgow are likely foon to supply the place of the linens of Ireland ; so that in time there will remain few articles to barter between the two kingdoms.
“ Population. The return to the inquiries made by Dr Webster, regarding the population of the parish of Port-patrick, about forty years ago, was 551 svuls. It has since
considerably increased. It appears from an enumeration recently made, that there are in the country part of the parish, 484, and in the town, 512 souls; fo that the whole population amounts to 996, being an addition, in that space of time, of 445 fouls. · The births, deaths, and marriages, as entered in the pa.. rish register, for the last eight years, are as follows: Years. Births. Deaths. Marriages. 1783 1784 25
18 -- 9 1785 --- 27 --- 13. ... 4 . 1786 ... 31 --- 16 ... 9
... 34 -... 20 .. 1988
-. • 50. ... 16 .. . 3 1789 .. 37 --- 30 --- 4 1790
“ Rent of the parish.—About the year 1761, the whole parish was valued, for the purpose of ascertaining the amount of the teind, or the value of the tythes, and it was then eftimated at 472 1. Sterling. But as the increase has since been very considerable, the land rent alone is now about 1000ʻl. per annum ; the town rent is at least 200 l. more;. the dues of anchorage, and a duty of 2 d. per head on all *cattle and horses, exported or imported, payable to the Blair family, may also bring in about 1201.; fo that the rent of the parish is rather better than 1300 l. a-year., *** A fuller extract will be given from this valuable
performance in our next.
Hapings? Turnip.. Mr. Hastings, when he Kvas ik the East Indies, was attentive to every rural object that promised to prove useful to the country. Among other products of the East, that he imported hither, were the seeds of a kind of turnip from Bentar, which has not yet been long enough cultivated to afcertain its qualities. The following letter from Sir Joseph
Banks, Bart. to Mr Arthur Young, contains some hints. relative to it.
“I have an experiment with the turnips which Mr Haf-. tings brought home from Bentar, that I hope may prove, very interesting. I sowed fome feed in March last without producing one turnip. My gardener faid, the feed had degenerated, and could never bring turnips again. I dif-fered in opinion from him, and told him I thought it would prove a valuable autumnal turnip; for, as the increasing heat had forwarded its growth fo rapidly as to change a biennial plant into an annual one, I concluded that in the decreasing heat of autumn it would increase in its biennial form with more than usual rapidity ; I accordingly crdered him to fow some in August, as soon as. the wheat and oats were well off the ground. He lowed accordingly on the 26th of Auguft; and, on the 30th of November took up his turnips, as his usual mode, to bury them in holes, thet they be preserved from froit: twenty turnips then taken indifferently from the heap, weighed eight pounds; twenty other turnips he had fown about the same time, had scarce bottled at all. What say you to the hopes of a valuable stubble crop from this?
Soho Square Dec. 16. 1790..
INTRODUCTION. A Curfory VIEW of the present POLITICAL STATE of
EUROPE, continued from page 12Q.
Nothing can exhibit a more striking proof of the justice of this maxim, that extent of empire does not always augment the prosperity of a nation, than the present state of Great Britain. A few years ago, she loft several extensive provinces that were generally deemed of so much consequence to her, that few people imagined she could well fubfift without them. Yet it is now univerfally admitted, that, since, that period; her trade has augmented, her manufactures . have become more flourishing, and her internal prosperityi. is greater than was ever known at any former period. It is not to be expected, however, that this strong example should either check her own desire of acquiring farther dominion, or teach other nations to judge rightly in this respect. All mankind are accustomed to act from the influence of habit, rather than from reasoning; and they will continue to do so.
Since the peace of 1782, Britain had no juft cause for being alarmed for her own safety, or for dreading the effects of foreign powers : the might therefore have been permitted to attend quietly to her own domestic concerns. But tranquillity is not so suitable to the wishes of the people, as some. bustle; and, most ministers will think it their intereít: to in... dulge the people in this their favourite paftime. Tilla man, therefore, can be found, acting as.prime minister, who shall prefer the fubftantial interests of the country to his own private gratification and that of his friends, a long tract of continued tranquillity cannot be expected : and he who looks for such a man, mast search a long while in vain. Twice, since that period, has Britain been alarmed with imaginary fears, and forced to equip powerful armaments at a very great national expence, which-have been again laid down, as useless.
" The king of France, with twenty thousand men, “ Went up the hill, and then-came down again."
These facetious lines may with justice be applied to our late armaments, which would not have been here taken no." tice of, did it not seem that this mode of obtaining mock
systematic arrangement, to which recourse is meant to be had whenever it is intended to put the good people of Britain into good humour, when any favourite point is to be aimed at. It would be well if a less expensive kind of pastime could be contrived; or one that would tend less to injure trade, to derange the national economy, or to diftress individuals ; for such a sudden adoption of measures, in themselves fo arbitrary, ought furely never to be resorted to, but in cases of the most urgent necessity. .
These troubles are for the prefent overblown; and though Spain had reason to complain, that by the overbearing im