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Wild and distracted, to the shade,
All throbbing, he retires, Till worn with hunger and fatigue, · He flutters and expires..
So man, when born in hapless climes
Where freedom ne'er was known, Learns cheerfully to bend betimes
To power, without a groan. . .
Content within his humble shed,
Full joyfully he fings; Though poor his fare, and meanly clad With mirth his hamlet rings.
Untie at once those filken bands
Which willingly he wore, Give freedom to his shackled hands,
Which ne'er were free before.
Unus'd to tread those rugged wilds
Where freedom loves to range, Soon tired, like a wayward child,
He wishes still to change,
Madly he grasps at wealth and pow'r,
At pow'r he cannot wield;
No good to him can yield.
His wonted joys now fied, his life
In dire contention flow's ; In rapine, blood-shed, tumult, strife ;
Till death does end his woes.
A Frenchman's Remarks on Nobility *. NOBILITY is the proper reward and incitement to virtue. Nothing then is more just or more useful than the institution of it. A prince ought to reward virtue ; and, if I may be allowed the expression, he ought to recompence it ace cording to the taste even of virtue; that is to say, by honourable distinctions. After the reward which it procures for itself by the inward satisfaction which accompanies it : after the glory and reputation, the desire of which is the princia pal source of virtue, purely human, nothing is more flat. tering to it than these marks of honour established in all nations, to justify and confirm in some manner the public esteem.
To reward virtue, ís a justice which the prince owes to virtuous men; he owes it also to the public, to the rest of his subjects : Since by rewarding virtue, he endeavours to make it both more perfect and more common. It is a duty a prince owes to his subjects, to endeavour to excite yirtuous exertions; he owes it them, I say, both on account · of the advantage it procures to those themselves who shall be virtuous, as of those who shall profit by the virtue of others. I have only farther to remark, how much the vir. tue of his subjects is advantageous to the prince himself.
On the Queen of France, &c. by Mr. Burke. / It is now sixteen or seventeen years since I saw the Queen of France, then Dauphiness, at Versailles ; and surely never lighted on this orb, which she hardly seemed to touch, a more delightful vision. I saw her just above the horizon, decorating and cheering the elevated sphere she just began to move in, glittering like the morning-star, full of life and fplendor, and joy. Oh! what a revolution ! and what an heart must I have, to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall! Little did I dream, that when she added titles of veneration to those of enthusiastic, distant, respectful love, that she should ever be obliged to carry the fharp antidote against disgrace concealed in that bofom : • l’Abbe Trublet,-written in the year 1755. Vol. I.
Little did I dream that I should have lived to see such disasters fallen upon her in a nation of gallant men, in a nation of men of honour, and of cavaliers. I thought ten. thousand swords must have leaped from their scabbards, to avenge even a look that threatened her with insult. But the age of chivalry is gone: That of fophifters, economists, and calculators, has succeeded ; and the glory of Europe is extinguished for ever. Never, never more fhall we behold that generous loyalty to rank and sex, that proud fubmislion, that dignified obedience, that subordination of the heart, which kept alive, even in fervitude itself, the spirit of an exalted freedom. The unbought grace of life, the cheap defence of nations, the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise, is gone! It is gone! that fenfibility of principle, that chastity of honour, which felt a stain like a wound, which inspired courage whilst it mitigated ferocity, which ennobled whatever it touched, and under which vice itself loit half its evil, by lofing all its grosiness.
This mixed system of opinion and sentiment, had its ori. gin in the ancient chivalry: and the principle, though varied in its appearance by the varying state of human affairs, fublisted and influenced through a long succession of generations, even to the time we live in. If it should ever be totally extinguished, the loss, I fear, will be great. It is this which has given its character to modern Europe. It is this which has distinguished it under all its forms of government, and distinguished it to its advantage, from the states of Asia, and pollibly from those states which fourished in the most brilliant periods of the antique world. It was this, which, without confounding ranks, had produced a noble equality, and handed it down through all the gradations of social life. It was this opinion which mitigated kings into companions, and raised private men to be fellows with kings. Without force or oppofition, it fubdued the fierceness of pride and power; it obliged fovereigns to submit to the soft collar of social esteem, compelled stern authority to fubinii to elegance, and gave a domination vanquisher of laws to be subdued by manners.
But now all is to be changed; all the pleasing illusions which made power gentle, and obedience liberal, which harmonized the different shades of life, and which, by a bland aflimulation, incorporated into politics, the fenti,
ments which beautify and soften private fociety, are to be disolved by this new conquering empire of light and reason. All the decent drapery of life is to be rudely torn off : all the superadded ideas furnished from the wardrobe of a moral imagination, which the heart owns, and the understanding ratifies, as necessary to cover the defects of our naked shivering nature, and to raise it to dignity in our own estimation, are to be exploded as a ridiculous, absurd, and antiquated fathion.
On this scheme of things, a king is but a man; a queen is but a woman ; a woman is but an animal, and an animal not of the highest order. All homage paid to the sex in general as such, and without distinct views, is to be regarded as romance and folly. Regicide, and paricide, and sacrilege, are but fictions of superstition, corrupting jurisprudence by destroying its fimplicity. The murder of a king, or a queen, or a biihop, or a father, are only common hoinicide ; and if the people are by any chance, or in any way gainers by it, a sort of homicide much the most pardonable, and into which we ought not to make too severe a scrutiny.
Intelligence respecting Literature, Arts, Agriculture, &c. Voltaire has writtten an eulogy on the age of Lewis the fourteenth ; nor can it be denied, that in regard to polite literature and the belles lettres, France, during that period, made a moft conspicuous figure in the republic of letters. It is, however, highly probable, that in future ages the hiftory of the eighteenth century will afford a more ample field for the literary historian, because of the many important discoveries in all branches of science, and useful arts, that have been made during that period. The field is too ample to be entered on at present. Reserving for a future period fome detached accounts of the most important objects that have occurred in it, we must confine our views to the communicating to our readers fome of the more recent discoveries ; for scarce a day in this busy period elapses, without bringing something to light that was not known before.
New Discoveries in Germany respecting Metals. GERMANY has been long known to abound in metals; and the philosophers of that country have taken the lead as preceptors in the metallurgic arts. Long, however, was their operations confined to the art of purifying the metals that were already known. But of late, stimulated by the
iscoveries of Bergman, Scheele and others, they have turned their attention to the chemical analysis of many other mineral substances ; some time ago, several substances that had been before classed as earths, were found to be metallic ores, which had not been hitherto recognized as such ; and there seems now reason to believe that the whole of the substances that have been hitherto reckoned earths, will be at last found to be only metals in disguise. We are not yet acquainted with the full extent of these recent disco. veries, nor with the qualities of the metallic fubstances produced ; but some idea of thein is given in the following letter :
Vienna, August 27. 5 You have probably heard of the wonderful discoveries es made by a Neapolitan in Hungary. Born shewed me " the regulus of the barytes, of the pure magnesian earth, " and the calcareous earth ; also molybdena, manganese and “ platina, obtained without difficulty by the simple addi“ tion of an inflammable substance. The reguli are dif" tinguished by their specific gravities, and other qualities, “ from each other. The filicious earth is now the only 66 primitive earth, the argillaceous being only a modifica« tion of this. The other earths are merely metallic cal66 ces over-oxygenated.
« To obtain the regulus, the earths were rendered as fine ll as possible, formed into a paste with powdered charcoal 66 by means of oil, and put into a crucible with more char• coal, covered with silicious earth, to prevent the approach e of the external air ; one or more of these crucibles were " then put into a larger, and surrounded with charcoal, “' the heat given strong for five hours, and then the ope66 ration found so complete, that the platina is malleable, " and the manganese no longer attracts the loadstone.