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Alabama Alumina Al2O3 amount Analyses base beds belt blue bluff carried cement materials cement rock cent chalk character chert clay coal composition contains County Creek deposits described distribution district east entirely exposed exposure extensive feet formation fuel Geol Geological given Hill Hudson important industry Iron oxide kiln Lake land less Lime CaO lime carbonate limestone localities located lower Magnesia MgO Magnesium carbonate manufacture marl Measures Michigan middle miles mill mixed mixture Mountain natural obtained occur outcrops places plant portion Portland cement Portland-cement practice present probably pure quarry railroad raw materials Rept River road rock sand sandstone shale shown side Silica SiO2 slag southern stone Sulphur surface Survey thickness thin Trenton United upper usually Valley western
Page 25 - ... under existing commercial conditions. The necessity for making the mixture as cheaply as possible rules out of consideration a large number of materials which would be considered available if chemical composition was the only thing to be taken into account. Some materials otherwise suitable are too scarce; some are too difficult to pulverize. In consequence, a comparatively few combinations of raw materials are actually used in practice. In certain localities deposits of argillaceous (clayey)...
Page 58 - ... the grinding mills employed, and a consequent increase in the cost of cement. At some point in the process, therefore, the gain in strength due to fineness of grinding will be counterbalanced by the increased cost of manufacturing the more finely ground product. The increase in the required fineness has been gradual but steady during recent years. Most specifications now require at least 90 per cent to pass a 100-mesh sieve; a number require 92 per cent; while a few important specifications require...
Page 7 - May 11, 1904. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a report on the geology of the Hudson Valley between the Hoosic and the Kinderhook, by T.
Page 22 - By a Portland cement is meant the product obtained from the heating or calcining up to incipient fusion of intimate mixtures, either natural or artificial, of argillaceous with calcareous substances, the calcined product to contain at least 1.7 times as much of lime, by weight, as of the materials which give the lime its hydraulic properties, and to be finely pulverized after said calcination, and thereafter additions or...
Page 27 - Varieties of Limestone. A number of terms are in general use for the different varieties of limestone, based upon differences of origin, texture, composition, etc. The more important of these terms will be briefly defined. The marbles are limestones which, through the action of heat and pressure, have become more or less distinctly crystalline, though the term marble is often extended to cover any limestone which will take a good polish. The term marl...
Page 33 - This reestablishment in favor of the hard limestones is doubtless due, in great part, to recent improvements in grinding machinery, for the purer limestones are usually much harder than argillaceous limestones like the Lehigh district "cement rock," and it was very difficult to pulverize them finely and cheaply with the crushing appliances in use when the Portland cement industry was first started in America. A series of analyses of representative pure hard limestones, together with analyses of the...
Page 57 - The coal as usually bought is either "slack" or "run of mine." In the latter case it is necessary to crush the lumps before proceeding further with the preparation of the coal, but with slack this preliminary crushing is not necessary, and the material can go directly to the dryer.
Page 26 - States were probably deep-sea deposits formed in this way. Some of these limestones still show the fossils of which they were formed, but in others all trace of organic origin has been destroyed by the fine grinding to which the shells and corals were subjected before their deposition at the sea bottom.