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and Latin Languages into his College for Orphans, and much less to that sapient committee which objected to aid, solicited on behalf of Academies and Colleges, on the ground that they were aristocratic institutions! It is probable that the maintenance of classical literature in our seminaries will continue to encounter opponents, not merely indifferent, but hostile altogether to the tuition of the ancient languages, and who deem the time bestowed upon their acquisition as little better than absolutely wasted.

We disclaim any partisanship on this subject; we repudiate all extreme views; but while we freely concede the inexpediency of an exclusive devotion, or the same attention to the Greek and Latin that was necessary when they were the only avenues to science, we nevertheless hold that there cannot be any substitute or equivalent for these languag. es, and that they cannot be superseded without irreparable injury to the cause of education and of mind.

Without falling into the error of supposing that the immature minds of the very young cannot reason at all, we would equally avoid the mistake (unfortunately too much carried into practice) of imagining that they are capable of extended processes of mathematica!, philosophical, or metaphysical reasoning, or the just apprehension of abstract propositions. The mind begins very early to form judgments, but then its reasonings are limited by its means of comparison, which are neces. sarily simple, being furnished, for the most part, by the immediate impressions of external objects. Though active, its excursions are short; though it reasons frequently, yet the links in the chains of its deduction are few and plain. The power of generalization is still wanting ; hence its inaptitude to comprehend abstract definitions. It requires exercises suited to its feebleness in order to develop its faculties : such exercises, it should be the object of a proper course of instruction to supply. The best education is that which provides the best means for this purpose.

During the tender years, say from nine to fourteen, whilst the mind as well as the body is incapable of the severe and protracted exertions adapted to the maturity of manhood; whilst its powers are still feeble, and its faculties unfolded, I more than doubt whether those studies, which are considered as intimately related to the business of life, can be usefully or judiciously inculcated. The rules of arithmetic and alge. bra, the problems of geometry, mensuration and surveying, may, like any other abstractions, be conned over and committed to memory-all to little purpose. Being imperfectly comprehended at so early an age, the knowledge thus acquired, vanishes with the recollection of the words in which it was conveyed : haud inexpertus loquor. No course of studies has ever been suggested or devised, which is so well suited to this period of youth, as that of the Latin and Greek languages. The daily routine of the exercises gives such wholesome employment to the faculties, as by tasking them not overmuch, is best adapted to their growth and development. The memory is regularly and constantly exerted in a manner very effectually to improve what Quintillian calls its two-fold virtue-facile percipere et fideliters continere-its easy or ready reception and faithful retention. By the analysis of words and sentences in ascertaining their proper construction, suitable exercise is furnished to this faculty, as well as to the judgment and reason, every application of a grammatical rule employed for that purpose, being a true and simple deduction of logic which the young mind with moderate diligence can easily comprehend; whilst the selection from many and various definitions, of that which is best adapted to render the meaning of the author, involves a consideration of the subject matter and the context, well calculated to sharpen the sagacity and increase the vigor of the intellect. Add to this, the imagination in the study of the classics is excited and gratified by the most pleasing and splended imagery, and the moral sense is exercised in the contemplation of examples of filial piety, heroic fortitude, devoted patriotism, and God-like justice, which have crowned humanity with the brightest lustre. The understanding and affections being thus nourished" with food convenient for them,” are gradually expanded with the natural growth of the body, and with it attain a sound maturity, more likely to produce good fruit, tban if forced to premature luxur ance by any hot-bed process of modern invention. The fact, that in the most powerful and civilized nations, these two languages have, for many centuries, been adopted in their highest seminaries, as an essential part of the instruction of youth, is only to be accounted for by the intrinsic excellence of the discipline itself.

Academical instruction must of necessity be elementary. The notion that youth can be qualified, either in primary schools or colleges, to assume at once the practice of any of the professions or callings of active life, surprises by its extreme simplicity! The real business of men, being made up of practical and minute details, can only be learned by daily familiarity with them, by frequent manipulation-by seeing and bandling-in short, by constant experience in business itself. This proposition is so clear that it would seem to require no illustration ; but, in truth, the idea to which we have adverted, has influenced very considerably the opinion of those who condemn the study of the ancient languages. Hear, for instance, the speculation of the ingenious and philosophical George Combe, Esquire, of Edinburg. “A young lady," says be, "who can draw a very handsome cottage, could not rear a fabric corresponding to it. She is not an architect ; and the difference between her and an architect consists in this, that she is defective in all the practical knowledge, skill and experience which are indispensable to render her design an actual house. A scholar in Greek and Latin, is not a man of business, for a similar reason. He is not instructed in that knowiedge of affairs and things that exist-the knowledge of which constitutes practical business.” Hence, this author most illogically infers, that those languages ought not to form a part of the course of instruction in seminaries of learning. Why not by the same reasoning and pursuing bis own argument, exclude geometry, mathematics and the science of architecture, since the young lady or any one else who has acquired a proficiency therein, would still be unable to rear a fabric, without first obtaining the indispensable practical knowledge, skill, and experience ? Unquestionably all that education in institutions of learning ever proposed to teach-all that they can teach, are the rudiments of that knowledge and the principles of those sciences which are con

nected with the duties of life and the affairs of the world ; and it is no ohjection to say, that a student, however well accomplished in these rodiments and principles, is unable to build a house, construct a bridge, or a steam engine, write a sermon, plead a cause, or heal the diseases " that flesh is heir to." It is enough, if by means of such culture, be can learn to perform all these things, both much sooner and much better than he could possibly do without it; which as the legitimate result of education, candor must ever concede.

But the utility of these studies is not confined to their adaptation to the youthful mind and its healthy development. They are eminently beneficial in assisting us to the attainment of an accurate knowledge of our own language ; for it may be truly affirmed, that the easiest and readiest way of thoroughly learning the Euglish, is by acquiring the Greek and Latin tongues. The structure of those languages is so regular and systematic—the connections and analogies are so marker and conspicuous—as to present the best illustration of the general principles of philology common to all languages, and with which the student in mastering these, necessarily makes himself familiar. The advantages of a knowledge of the modern European languages, especially the French, Spanish, Italian and German, are indisputable. The three former being offsprings of the Latin, half the labor of their acquisition is saved to the student who is acquainted with the parent language; and the same babits of study which have conquered the difficulties of the ancient languages, will have smoothed the path to the acquisition of the latter.

Most of the sciences which have grown up in modern times, have their nomenclatures framed from the Greek and Latin. Botany, for instance, derives its terminology from the Latin, and chemistry its terminology from the Greek. Law and medicine are much indebted to the same sources, for most of their technical terms. Without contending that a knowledge of the ancient languages is indespensable to one who would make himself master of any of these sciences, it were vain to deny that such knowledge would greatly facilitate his progress and impart superior accuracy to his acquirements.

With respect to those professions which depend chiefly upon the cultivation of the intellect, education in these languages affords to the student, not only much auxiliary knowledge, but the mental discipline which is equivalent to dexterity in the mechanic arts; so that like the musician who applies himself to some new instrument, he finds in all his previous acquirements and skill, invaluable facilities for his new undertaking

From the mutual relation and dependence of the arts and sciences, he who begins the study of the former, with a knowledge of the principles upon which they are founded, and which it is the business of the latter to inculcate, has already mastered the principal difficulty. He has the same advantage over one who enters upon his task without such knowledge that the mariner, acquainted with navigation, and having a compass, has over another, who with no knowledge of the principles of navigation, attempts his voyage without either chart or compass to direct his course. This may, indeed, be considered as answering the objection as if it were urged against education in general. And is not that the character of the objection ? For where can the business of life be taught, except where it is transmitted-in the office, the workshop, the counting-house, or the field ?

To the vious and practical uses of the learned languages, as a part of a liberal education, may be added other and yet higher recommendations. Among ancient nations, the Greeks and Romans are those who have left the most enduring monuments of their wisdom and virtue. Many of the arts which are allowed by all to do the greatest honor to human genius, were carried by them to a height of excellence which has never been surpassed. The remains of their architecture and sculpture, have been sought as invaluable treasures; and the most ambitious efforts of succeeding generations, have hardly aimed beyond a successful imitation of those incomparable models. The Greek literature contains the most perfect poems, dramas, orations, philosophical treatises and histories; and the language itself, is, according to the universal opinion of the learned, the most copious, flexible, regularly constructed and sonorous, that has ever graced the tongue or the pen. In Greece was first attained a knowledge of the principles of human freedom: there the problem of the capacity of large communities to govern themselves without tyrants, kings, or masters under any other nanie, was originally demonstrated. It was to the spirit of enlightened freedom that their wonderful achievment in arts and arms may be ascribed. It was this that produced that illustrious race of statesmen, poets, generals, philosophers, statuaries and architects, who have shed an imperishable lustre upon her name, and made her the instructress of Europe and the world. It was the instinct of ber well informed democracy, to assign the first places in the State to men of the greatest renown for talents and worth, conscious that by such means only, their title to self-government could be vi:dicated. They knew that their prosperity depended upon the ability and integrity with which their affairs were administered ; and conceding to rulers the homage due to the chosen depositories of the national authority, they willingly yielded to their mandates the obedience required by the laws. Such was Greece in the brief and brilliant period of her highest glory, when Attica gave light and guaranteed liberty to her sister States, and her citizens were regarded as princes in other lands. The result was seen in the matchless energy with which a people, small in numbers, inbabiting a territory of limited extent, overcame the most powerful mouarchies and dispersed the largest armies that were ever arrayed upon the field of battle.

Nor is the argument deducible from the history and literature of Rome of inferior validity. The Roman history is even more important, in some respects, than the Grecian. The events are better ascertained, and the naratives more authentic. We have a nearer view of the Romans, who were the last link of the ancient world, with which the moderns immediately connect; and the rise, progress, and decay of their Empire, afford the most striking illustration of the advantages resulting from the practice of fortitude, justice, patriotism, industry and temperance, and the misery and degradation which ensue upon the neglect of these manly virtues. Another important lesson is furnished by this history; it is the instability of empire founded upon conquest. "The spirit of conquest was the soul of the Roman policy. Amidst all their internal changes and convulsions, they preserved and persevered in a constant determination to acquire universal dominion. They elected their kings-they expelled them ; they chose consuls, elected decemvirs, substituted tribunes, and finally they surrendered their liberty to the Cesars. A contest for privileges between the patricians and plebeians, was long carried on with various success. Dictators seized the government and deluged the streets of Rome with the blood of her citizens. But under every condition of prosperous or adverse fortune, this warlike people looked forward to the subjugation of foreign States. They had organized conquest; and from an inconsiderable tribe collected upon the banks of the Tiber, where they founded their great city, having grown into a mighty nation, they extended their arms far and wide, so that in seren hundred years their eagles had penetrated every known region, and Rome became the undisputed mistress of the world. Mark what followed. The wealth of plundered nations, accumulated in Rome and Italy, corrupted the citizens, who sold their freedom; and those legions, whose disciplined valor had subdued every enemy, next turned their arms upon their own country, seized the government and exposed it at auction to the highest bidder. When they, in their turn, sank under the enervating influence of luxury, they fell an easy prey to the bardy barbarians of the north, who ravaged Italy with fire and sword; and in far less time, than that in which the Romans had reared their mighty Empire, the entire fabric was tumbled into ruins by the rude shock of their Gothic invaders. But arme cedant toge, concedat laurea linguæ. The stern conquerors of Rome, though they annihilated her power, succumbed to her wisdom. Her jurisprudence was adopted to regulate their civil administrations, and to this day it continues to be the foundation of the civil codes over all the continent of Europe.

A most essential advantage derivable from the cultivation of this ancient literature, its adaptation to the forming of sound intellectual habits and a correct taste. The works put into the students' hands are the productions of those who were considered by their cotemporaries as the most gifted, prudent and virtuous of men; and that judgment bas been confirmed by every succeeding age. The perusal of an author in a foreign language, exacts a more minute survey of his sentiments, than the reading of the same ideas expressed in our own. It is not possible to be conversant for years with such minds, without becoming familiar with their modes of thinking and imbued with their thoughts. The ancient wisdom, in the process of study, is thus transfused in various degrees into the minds of ingenious students, and by a species of intellectual amalgamation is made their own. Those works which have stood the test of time and chance, and change, and have always been regarded as the true standards of style have, by furnishing the best exemplars of composition in the various fields of literature, imparted all that rhetoric can teach for enabling us to give a just expression to our conceptions. As in building, the Grecian and Roman orders are deemed to have left nothing to be desired, and are constantly appealed to for determining the propriety of architectural proportions, so in criticism, any new production is estimated according to those immortal compositions which universal consent for more than ten centuries has established as the true classical staudards of taste and fine writing. The benefits resulting

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