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than others, of opinion that time will prove that these roofs of white cedar have been an injury to the town. For since they are so very light, some have been led to make the walls of their houses quite thin; but as this kind of wood is already much cut down, and these roofs will in the course of years require to be renewed, it will be necessary to replace them with heavier material, which their thin walls will not sustain. Hence it will be necessary to support the new roof with posts, or even perhaps to make new walls Hence, of late years, some have already commenced covering their houses with tiles.

Further, Philadelphia has good clear water. For although there are no springs in town out of which the water flows of itself, still nearly every yard has its well, and there are also some along the street, from which excellent water is procured, as well for cooking and drinking, as also for washing. It is generally necessary to dig from thirty to forty feet deep before water is reached. The water of the Delaware itself is not bad for use.

So far Kalm, for the present. Not to make our article too long, we must reserve his description of churches and other public buildings to a future number.


THE London Eraminer says that the Japanese are not intolerant, for they have three different religions divided into upward of thirty sects, the votaries of all of which live peaceably together. The persecutions of the Christians in the sixteenth century was a political and not a Theological one. Before it commenced, the bonzes, or priests of Buddhism, a form of religion introduced from India, were the most importunate in their complaints against the Christians. They petitioned the emperor against them, who demanded how many forms of religion existed in the empire, and the reply was thirty-five. "Well," replied his majesty, "where thirty-five can be tolerated, we can easily have thirty-six. Leave the strangers in peace."


AGAINST that fool must all true thinkers laugh,

Who, counting o'er his friends, thinks most of number;

It is as if who wants a single staff

Should with a bunch of reeds his hand encumber.


THE idols which our Saxon ancestors worshipped, and from which the days of the week derive their names, were various; and were the princi pal objects of their adoration.

THE IDOL OF THE SUN.-This idol, which represented the glorious luminary of the day, was the chief object of their worship. It is described like the bust of a man set upon a pillar, holding, with outstretched arms, a burning wheel before his breast. The first day of the week was especially dedicated to its adoration, which they termed the Sun's Daeg; hence is derived the word Sunday.

THE IDOL OF THE MOON.-The next was the Idol of the Moon, which they worshipped on the second day of the week, called by them Moon's Daeg; and since by us Monday. The form of this idol is intended to represent a woman, habited in a short coat and hood, and two long ears, · holding the Moon in her hand.

THE IDOL OF TUISCO.-Tuisco was at first defined as the father and ruler of the Teutonic race, but in course of time he was worshipped as the son of earth. From this came the Saxon words, Tuisco's Daeg; which we call Tuesday. He is represented standing on a pedestal, as an old, venerable sage, clothed in the skin of an animal, and holding a sceptre in his right hand.

THE IDOL WODEN, OR ODIN.-Woden, or Odin, was the supreme divinity of the Northern nations. This hero is supposed to have emigrated from the east; but from what country, or at what timeis not known. His exploits form the greatest part of the mythological creed of the Northern nations, and his achievements are magnificent beyond all credibility. The name of the fourth day of the week, called by the Saxons Woden's Daeg, and by us Wednesday, is derived from this personage. Woden is represented in a bold and martial attitude, with a broadsword uplifted in his right hand.

THE IDOL OF THOR.-Thor, the oldest and bravest of the sons of Woden and Friga, was, after his parents, considered as the greatest among the Saxons and Danes. To him the fifth day of the week, called by them Thor's Daeg, and by us Thursday, was consecrated. Thor is represented as sitting on a throne with a crown of gold upon his head, adorned with a circle in front, wherein were set twelve bright burnished gold stars, and with a regal scepter in his right hand.

THE IDOL OF FRIGA, OR FREA.-Friga, or Frea, was the wife of Woden or Odiu; and next to him the most revered divinity among the heathen Saxons, Danes and other Northern nations. In the most ancient times, Friga, or Frea, was the same with the goddess Hertha or Earth. To her the sixth day of the week was consecrated, which by the Saxons was written Friga's Daeg; corresponding with our Friday. Friga is represented with a drawn sword in her right hand, and a how in her left.

THE IDOL SEATER.-The Idol Seater is represented on a pedestal, whereon is placed a perch, on the sharp prickled back of which he

stood. In his left hand he held up a wheel, and in his right hand was a pail of water, wherein were flowers and fruits; and his dress consisted of a long coat girded with linen. The appellation given to the day of his celebration is still retained. The Saxons named it Seater's Daeg, which we call Saturday.

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Gray hairs are here and there upon him, yet he knoweth not.-HOSEA VII: 9.


THESE words are spoken of Ephraim. Ephraim, he hath mixed himself among the people; Ephraim is a cake not turned." As a cake over the fire, not turned, is burnt on one side while it remains unbaked on the other, and is thus all spoiled; so Ephraim under the disciplinary dealings of God which were bearing as a fire upon him, was hardened and burnt on the side where God approached him with His remedial chastisements, whilst on the other he remained untouched in his sinful and disobedient life, sunk in the surrounding heathenism by which he suffered himself to be ruined. "Strangers have devoured his strength, and he knoweth it not: yea, gray hairs are here and there upon him, yet he knoweth not."

In this passage Ephraim represents all Israel. He and the tribe which sprung from him had been in many respects specially and highly distinguished. He was the beloved son of Joseph; and in preference to his brother Manassah, who was the eldest, he received the right hand blessing of Jacob, his grandfather, shortly before his death. Joshua was of the tribe of Ephraim, and when he divided Canaan, he favored Ephraim with a goodly portion. The ark and the tabernacle remained a long time in this tribe, at Shiloh; and after the separation of the tentribes, the seat of the kingdom of Israel was at Ephraim. Thus Ephraim is frequently used by the prophets to signify the kingdom of Israel.

Ephraim as an individual, and Ephraim in his generations, till he became a kingdom, was favored, watched over, and defended of his heavenly father. But he became ungrateful and disobedient and this proved his ruin. His sins wasted his strength. His life began to die within him. The sure signs of premature decay were beginning to show themselves on his person. This fact God holds up before him as a last warning: “Gray hairs are here and there upon him, yet he knoweth not."

The case of Ephraim is that of every one who spends his life, and wastes his strength in sin. However strong he may be, the poison on which he feeds, will in due time bring about its results, and its marks will be seen upon him.

Gray hairs, as they indicate the passing away of this mortal life, and are blossoms for the tomb, are not in themselves sad or dishonorable. On the contrary, "The hoary head is a crown of glory, if it be found in the way of righteousness."

Nothing is more beautiful than the silvery almond blossoms on a wise and a pious head. These are the blossoms not merely of the grave, but of immortality. They are the white shining crown of a

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holy life. They are the emblems of the highest wisdom. They are the patriarchal honors, before which we all love to bow. They remind us of the bright aureole which painters make to encircle sainted heads; and in them we recognize the relation which those who wear them sustain to him in the vision of John who walked in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks, "Whose head and hairs were white, like wool, as white as snow."

How beautiful are heads so crowned in the midst of pious families, surrounded by children and children's children. How beautiful are such, as they rise to view in the community, sitting in the gates, as the judges in the land-their honored heads rise like the white snowy crown of Carmel, overlooking in calm power, and blessing the rising slopes, the fruitful plains and peaceful valleys of human life beneath and around them. How lovely is the sight of such heads in the great congregation, relieved by the dark health and vigor of middle age and the rosy bloom of youthful life. How beautiful on the pulpit, the heralds of salvation to the listening people. How beautiful at the table of the Lord, receiving in calm devotion the most comfortable sacrament of the Lord's body and blood. Beautiful everywhere, even on a deathbed and in the coffin, is the hoary head of a saint.

How different is gray hair upon the head of a hardened, careless sinner! Here it is sadly out of place. Here the sight shocks us. Here we recognize it as ripeness for destruction. Here it appears as a warning to him on whom it is found, that the harvest is nearly past and the summer well nigh ended. Here it speaks of mercies past and abused, of opportunities gone beyond recall, of highest duties neglected, of life past as a folly and a failure, of death and judgment near, and of a dark, cheerless eternity beyond.

We are shocked when we see gray hairs and impenitent lives together, because we always associate gray hairs with wisdom and piety. There has been time and opportunity for wisdom. The beautiful years of youth and middle life have been enjoyed. The wise instructions of God and of good men have been heard. Experience has read its many lessons; and at every step have been given the hints of God's providence in their alluring and chastising aspects. Yet all these years, with their love and warnings, have witnessed nothing but an impenitent and meaningless life; and now age and sin-oh, ill-matched pair!-are found together, covered, as in solemn mockery, by gray hairs.

This is no fancy picture. It is drawn from life. Not seldom do you see a gray head cover a drunken body. Not seldom are gray hairs seen in the midst of revel. Not seldom do you hear oaths and vulgar words sound forth from a wrinkled face, shadowed by frosty locks, even when these shameful sins are absent; still how often are gray hairs found as the forced patrons of a miserly, worldly, and indifferent life. Instead of crowning a thoughtful, feeling man, warned by declining years, making earnest preparation for the solemn change which has come near, you find them crowning a cold and lifeless statue, as if of marble, without the tenderness and penitence, the living aspirations of faith or the warm emotions of hope and love. Thongh nigh unto their end, and as "nigh unto cursing, they refuse the warnings which are preached to them, by the evident tokens of perdition," which they bear about with them in their own body.

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