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his mother, a devout, believing christian, and often thanked his mother, both for the christianity, to which she led him when a child, and for the liberal culture which she afterwards procured for him in the school of Libanius.

Have all christian mothers such courage, such firm trust in the vital power of christianity? There are many pious people who would fain seclude their children from all connection with the world, that they may not be led astray by it. We have no desire to express a judgment upon their course, for not all sous of christian parents are like Chrysostom, and youth of weak character, who have never experienced to any great extent the power of religion, ought certainly to be guarded. Yet the bold action of Authusa, surely testifies of a high mind, of deep and broad views. Libanius himself, though a stranger to the mother's faith, evinced his great respect for her when, to a friend, in allusion to her, he used the words already quoted : “What wives these christians have !"

Chrysostom knew that it was the spirit of faith infused into his heart by means of his mother's piety, that preserved him against all comtami. nations, during his studies. It was the image of his mother that horered before his mind, when he afterwards praised the christian spirit of woman, in these words : “Let us be ashamed, that, while in a worldiy point of view we fall behind women in nothing, in spiritual conflicts, they pass us in triumph and attain to higher victories. In the time of the Old Testament there were many noble women, but yet they always fall behind the men. Now the matter is reversed. Behold what the coming of Christ has wrought in the earth! Women ontstrip us in exalted virtues, in christian ardor and piety, in love to Christ. How he has removed the curse from the female sex !"

His mother horers before him, when he impressively exhorts women to labor as christians in family life. · The man, who is active in marts and courts, is erer tossed to and fro by an outward and restless life. The woman, on the other hand, who sits in her house as in a school of wisdom, is always able to collect her thoughts, to employ herself in prayer and the reading of holy scriptore; and like the monks in the desert, who are not disturbed by any one, she may be quiet at home, and enjoy peace. She can receive ber husband, often disturbed in his spirit, and cultivate him, tame the wild outbreaks of bis spirit, and so send him back into the world again, purified of the evil which he brought with him from the forum, and carrying with him the good wbich he has learned in the bosom of the family; for nothing is able, so well as a pious and sensible woman, to cultivate and rule the spirit of a man. I can name to you many hard and violent men, who have in this way been softened."

ilis mother hovers before him when he speaks so strongly in favor of early religious nurture. Regard it not superfluous that your son should learn to know the holy scriptures. From it he will first learn: Honor thy father and thy mother! Thus it will be your own advantage so to instruct them in God's word. Say not that this is a duty to be performed toward a monk. Not a monk, but a christian you must make your son. Is it not strange that we send our chil. dren to mechanics and into the schools, and do everything else for them, but are so slow to bring them up in the nurture and admo


nition of the Lord. Let us give our children a true idea of life by training them from their earliest years to read the holy scriptures.

In return for her kind care over him, Chrysostom bung to his mother with the tenderest love, yielding his fondest wishes to her comfort. Thos, when the Bishop Miletius bad baptized him, and he had determined to devote himself to the service of the church, he had a desire to withdraw himself into convent retirement, in order to prepare himself for this service. But when his mother expressed her desire that, at least, as long as she lived, he might not leave her, he manifested his willingness at once; and only after his mother's death, did he retire to the mountains of Antioch, that he might again come forth from them. to bring to the church that light and example to which we look up with wonder, and at which the latest generations will warm their faith and holy courage.

WOTE.-Jo this article we have not strictly adhered to Hessenmuller, but have introduced important facts from Perthe's Life of John Chrysostom.--EDITOR.


Two neighbors, whose names were Self and Will, attempted to cross a stream from opposite sides upon a foot bridge 60 narrow as to allow of bat a single footman at the same time. They met about midway of the stream, where each insisted that the other must turn back and give the right of way. Each claimed to be the first on the bridge, and maintained bis ground as a prior right. Each conteuded for this right as a matter of principle, which would allow of no concession. Each pleadded argent and important business. Will felt himself morally bound to maintain his rights. Self could not in conscience make concession without sacrificing his honest convictions.

Arguments resulted in angry words, and from hard words they soon came to blows, and in the struggle to maintain enchi his own rights, both fell together in the stream. Each, with much difficulty gained the shore, exhausted and shivering from a cold bath Each consoled himself with the idea of "personal suffering for righteousness' sake," and both became bitter enemies for life.

While they were muttering revenge upon each other, two other neighbors, named Love and Kindness, met in like circumstances upon the same bridge. It was a meeting of glad surprise. They exchanged cheerful and happy greetings, and each insisted on yielding the right of way to his brother. Each desired to be first in the concession, and to. carry out each other's principles, both twice crossed the bridge together.

After a friendly chat they parted company, finding in their experience a practical reason for the injunction : "Let each esteem the other better than himself."


Rickety, old and crazy,

Shingleless, lacking some doors; Bad in the upper story.

Wanting boards in the floors ; Beams strong thick with cobwebs,

Ridge pole yellow and gray,
Hanging in helpless impotence

Over the mows of hay.
How the winds tarn around it-

Winds of a stormy day-
Scattering the fragrant hay-sced,

Whisking the straws away ; Streaming in at the crannies,

Spreading the clover smell,
Changing the dark old granary

Into a flowery dell
Oh, how I loved the shadows

That clung to the silent roof,
Day-dreams wove with the quiet,

Many a glittering woof;
I climbed to the highest raster,

Watched the swallows at play,
Admired the knots in the boarding,

And rolled in billows of hay! Palace of King couldo't match it!

The Vatican loses its charm When placed in my memory's balance

Beside of the gray old barn!
Splendor, wealth, may not cbarm us,

Association is all-
We love the love of our childhood

Better than marble-floored hall !
I sat for hours in the summer

On the threshold so gray,
And saw the cows in the pasture

Take their lazy-paced way;
The lambs, snow-white as the dais,

Frolicked from hill to tara-
Or fell asleep in the shadow

Made by the “clever" old barn, I're roamed o'er the Southern country,

Stood in mosques of the East, Galloped in the Western prairies,

Gathered in contentment at least; And I'd rather scent the clover,

Piled in the barn's roomy mows, Than sit in the breath of the higblands

Poured from Afpevine brows!

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What a mighty warfare has been waging in hamanity for nearly sixty centuries! A warfare of heart, mind and hand, grounded in the first, developed and matured in the second, and fearfully executed by the third What a strangely checkered, changeable picture human nature presents, as seen in history! What conflicting elements and crossing powers! The very first record made after the fall, was that of a difference resulting in death; a brother's hand imbrued in fraternal blood, which was the first fulfillment of God's authoritative prophecy : “I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel;" & prophecy which, as we shall presently see, was truly fulfilled and is yet fulfilling. Then follows a long catalogue of sins and sorrows, of strife and division, of separation and death ; and ever since, direful wars bave been waging between light and darkness, truth and error, between the "children of God" and the "children of men." Both are mighty powers, and the contest sometimes seems doubtful. Mach has lately been said by the secular press, of an “irrepressible conflict;" but that of which we speak is one that has more than local interest, and involves more than temporal consequences. Therefore, begging the reader's pardon for the license taken with a political phrase, we pray him follow us while tracing out the truly “irrepressible conflict,” as we may find it on the historic page.

In sacred history we see the Jews in their wanderings, sins, punishments and penitenco; in their battles, defeats and losses; in their glory and shame. Now they are weak and now strong ; again they are mild and tractable, presently "stiff-necked" and rebellious. To-day they are ruled by judges, to-morrow by kings; to-day in the wilderness, to-morrow in the goodly land. Contradictory moral elements found place in their midst; they have a faithful Elijah, and a wicked Ahab; the holy man Isaiah, and his moral antipode, Ahaz; and David is mated by a fallen Absalom. How often, very often, did they experience the sad fortunes of a conquered people. Their seventy years' bondage in Babylon, was only preparatory to cruel subjugation by the Romans.

Turning to the profane record, what a wonderful history is presented! Century after century tells the same sad tale of human vanity and folly, each at its close finding the world just where it was at the opening period. General history is the world's diary, in which its daily doings are recorded, with notes and comments by the writer. Much of it reads strangely, at this late day. In regard to nations, it may be observed that there is always some one power predominant, exerting special influence in its age; but it seldom continues bo, for any great length of time. Hence there is constant change; risings and fallings; building up and tearing down dynasties that vainly seem destined for eternity. Two great powers come into hostile contact, and one must yield; or perhaps a third intervenes, and both the others pass under the yoke. The profane history of the world may be expressed in very few words : Assyra rises prominent, and yields to Median power; Media, unable to withstand Persian arms, gives way to that people; who in their torn become subjugate to Macedonia; the whole catalogue of Oriental powers at length fall prey to Grecian ambition ; Grecian pride is finally humbled before Roman armies; and, as the closing scene of heathenism, Rome herself breaks into a thousand fragments, under the crushing influence of foreign force ; from these ruins arise the small divisions of Europe; soon America is discovered, and the star of empire illumines the gradual rising of a new prominent power in the far-off Occident. What a wide field of study and interest thus opens up! Desiring, however, to trace the irrepressible conflict a little more closely, we crave patience with more detailed history.

Tracing heathenism vo further than to the fifth century of the christian era, what great causes and effects are seen! What a long catalogue of kings, queens, nobles, peasants, masters, slaves, strifes, battles, cruelties, oppressions, vanities, vices and wonders! Wbat great minds and actions stand out prominent-noble and ignoble! Solon and Lycurgos have their antipodes in wisdom; the name of Nero may be placed in contrast with that of Cato; there is the patriot Themistocles, and the traitor Pausanias; you find learned Greeks and ambitious Romans; Vandal Northmen, and refining Eastmen. Now, what mean these conflicting elements ? What mean these great national changes? What end did the Persian wars with Greece serve? Whence came the Peloponnesian straggles, and the bloody rivalries between Athens and Sparta? Who can reconcile the course of Philip of Macedon, or calculate the devastation, widowhood and orphanago, that followed the war-chariot of Alexander the Great ?

Turning westward to Rome, the very first records tell of Remas dying by a brother's band, of the seizure of Sabine women by Roman youths, of conflict and contest, bloodshed, victory and defeat; of rapid growth, in short, by dreadful onslaught. We first find Rome under kings and patricians; under Nomas, Neros and Tarquins; with what varied fortunes, the stadent of history will readily recollect. Royalty becomes Republicanism, and there follow in quick succession the Samnite and Punic wars, several of each, lasting many years, rich in desolation, death and misfortune, public and private. Soon the historian records the frequent direful contests between patricians and plebeians, heart-rending accounts of civil wars, home insurrections, and the shedding of patriot blood on paternal soil, a series of events running through a century and a half. Then, from some unknown cause, the irrepressible conflict receives a fresh, powerful impulse in the persons of barbarous Goths, Hubs and Vandals, northern nations that pour down upon degenerate Rome in fearful numbers, and, after bloody fortunes on both sides for a hundred years, lay low the proud empire of Western Rome. Here follow, in their order, the sway of various Gotbic powers, the influence of the Lombard League, the wonderful rise of the Saracens onder Moham

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