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and fallow deer; of deer when on the grass and scarcely visible, the foiling; the print of a fox, the footing of all vermin, the track of the hare, and when she bounds about doubling, pranking when her footsteps are seen on the highway, and tracing when in the snow. The tail of the fox is the brush, of the deer tribe the single, of the hare and rabbit the pads; of the horns of deer, the stag has the bur, the pearls (which are little knots on it), the beams with the gutters, the ant ler, surantler, surroyal, royal, and the top are the croches. A buck has bur, beam, brow' antler, palm, and shellens. If the croches grow in form of a hand, it is called a palm head. We say a litter of cubs, a nest of rabbits. Of dogs in groups: Two are a brace of greyhounds, and three a leash ; of hounds, two are a couple, three a couple and a half; greyhounds are slipped, hounds are cast off; greyhounds wear collars ; a hound couples. Of stags or foxhounds we keep a kennel ; of beagles or harriers, a pack. Here we must remark that in our days, the word pack is applied to foxhounds. When hounds are cast off and find the scent of their game, they begin to open and cry, which is termed challenging ; when they are too noisy about an uncertain scent, they are said to babble; when they run merrily and orderly, they are in full cry; when they run without giving tongue, they are said to run mute. When staghouuds run at a whole herd of deer without singling out one, they are said to run riot.

As the titleunder which we write, “Here's Sport Indeed,"gives a large margin, we will here offer a few remarks upon otters and otter hunting.

The otter, that foe to fishermen, has been classed by the naturalists of the old school as an amphibious animal, but this is an error. He is not formed for continuing in the water, for like other terrestrial creatures, he required the aid of respiration; and if, in the pursuit of his prey, he perchance has the misfortune to entangle himself in a net, and cannot extricate himself in a certain time, he is drowned. The ravages committed by the otter in destroying the finny tribe in the rivers are equal to those of the fox in the farm-yard, and both may

be considered to belong to the “ artful dodger" tribe.

The otter will lurk at the bottom of a river, watching for his unsuspecting prey, and, from the peculiar construction of the visual organ, can immediately distinguish any object above him. The fish, of course, cannot discern anything beneath them, and they thus become easy victims to their voracious enemy. The otter seizes them by the belly, and feasts himself very much after the fashion of an aldermanic gourmand, by selecting such dainty bits as most tickle his fastidious palate.

Nature has most singularly assisted this destructive poacher in his predatory propensities, by affording him every facility in the formation of the feet, which are webbed at the toes, and act as fins; and the rapidity with which he swims in pursuit of scaly food is inconceivable : although the good old days of otter hunting are gone by, and the breed of otter hounds comparatively neglected, we occasionally meet with a good pack, which, when spring commences, and winter out-door amusements are terminated, furnish good sport.

The otter hound, in the days of our forefathers, was bred from the dwarf fox-hound, crossed in the first instance with the large waterspaniel ; this produce, was then crossed with the large rough, wirehaired terrier ; the introduction of a dash of bull breed was oftentimes resorted to, with a view of giving ferocity and hardihood.

The best time for hunting the otter is early in the morning, as he is then more easily tracked to his couch. It frequently happens on the approach of the pack, that he will leave his couch, dive under the water, make head up the stream, and steal away a mile in advance. In such cases the seal must be carefully looked for, and the waters narrowly watched, to observe his ventings. In rising to the surface for the purpose of respiring, his muzzle only will appear, but his track may

be observed in brooks by the mud he stirs up, and in rivers by the bubbles of air he throws out.

Great patience is required in otter hunting, for from his “ dodging" propensities already alluded to, he will frequently, by diving and other little maneuvres, give the dogs the go-by. The hide of the otter is so impenetrably tough, that the dogs make but little impression on it, but their pertinacious courage in sticking to their game will worry him to death. They often suffer severely in the conflict, for there is generally a long list of wounded at the end of the day : occasionally a valuable dog appears among the killed. The otter hunter should be armed with a spear, in the management of which, dexterity as well as coolness is required, and the party that partake in the amusement should be sufficiently strong, numerically speaking, to ensure the presence of one or piore spearmen at every probable spot of egress from the water, so as to secure the prize, or rescue the dogs from peril. In former times this sport formed a favourite variety of the chase, and in the true spirit of the age was observed with due formality : in our day it is like angels visits, few and far between,” and under such circumstances we should not regret to see the race of otters exterminated ; a sentiment which will, we feel assured, be reciprocated by all lovers of angling.

To show how much havoc these voracious animals commit in a wellstocked river, I have only to state as a well authenticated fact, that one single otter has been known to destroy nearly a ton of fish annually. Their sagacity and cunning are truly marvellous ; they will even hunt in couples, for it is upon record, that two otters in concert have chased a salmon, and by a systematic method succeeded in killing this active and powerful fish.

The head of the otter hound is broad at the temples, large, and thick ; his ears are long and pendulous, his hair is rather long, and very wiry, and his voice is, considering his terrier blood, sufficiently harmonious; his tail is very bushy, and is carried high; the colour of the otter hound varies, but yellow or sand colour are the most esteemed. The otter hound closely resembles the Russian terrier, a dog often mistaken for him, and which, being almost equally efficient in otter hunting, is occasionally, now-a-days, employed instead of him. A pack of otter hounds generally consists of from three to six couple, and hunt along the banks of the water-course or river, sometimes taking the water like spaniels. Somervile thus describes them :

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Now on firm land they range, then in the flood
They plunge tumultuous; or through reedy pools
Rustling they work their way: no holt escapes
Their curious search."

The jaws of the otter, like those of the badger, are so constructed, that when once closed, they are opened with great difficulty, even after the animal is dead.

THE WEALTH IN EQUINE RESOURCES POSSESSED BY

FRANCE IN HER ALGERIAN PROVINCES.

BY R. P.

(Continued.) We have frequently heard it said that the horse of our African possessions, for whose rare qualities we have endeavoured to establish a just appreciation, was very inferior to the Arabian horse. Notwithstanding a conviction founded upon a long experience and serious studies, we considered it a duty to give attention to, and to discuss an opinion that presented itself with a seeming authority. We resolved to take for arbiter on this question a man whose intelligence, habits, and whose whole life render him pre-eminently competent in equine matters—the Emir Abd-el-Kader. To that homme de cheval par excellence,' we addressed a letter in which we frankly expressed the objections that each of our assertions had met with. It is the reply to that letter we now publish. From that curious document it will be seen that the Emir does not restrict himself to the confirmation of what we have advanced, but gives a greater development to all our opinions either by his reflections, or by facts.

According to him the Berber-horse far from being a degenerescence of the Arabian horse, is on the contrary superior to him. The Ber. bers, it appears, formerly occupied Palestine : it was there they reared that horse, which has become the model for war-horses. Brought by the vicissitudes of their adventurous life to emigrate to Africa, they there carefully preserved the guest of their tents, the instrument of their love of the chase, the companion of their battles. Their horses there also retained their qualities in so eminent a degree that an Asiatic sovereign, engaged in a perilous war, sent to the Berbers for a supply of their fleet coursers.

The reader will appreciate the value of this historic dissertation, which, judged in whatsoever way it may be, is nevertheless of incontestible interest. What is certain, however, is that the Barbary horse owes to the climate under which his qualities develope themselves—to the education that he receives—to the food that is given to him, and to the frequent protracted fatigue and privation with which he is made familiar, a vigour that enables him to equal if not to surpass the most boasted horses of Persia and Syria.

Supported in our judgment by the letter which we make public, we think we are justified in repeating now, that the horses of Africa

and Asia may be designated under one collective denomination. We oppose to the European horse, one horse only, the horse of the East, wbich, thanks to the conquest of Algeria, we believe destined to render daily to our country yet more effective and better appreciated services.

Here is the letter of the Emir Abd-el-Kader--it was written to me from Broussa :

“ Praise be to the only God! his reign alone is eternal !

May the most complete well-being, and the Divine! benevolence the most perfect, be extended over the person of M. le General Daumas,

of him who with ardour seeks the solution of the most obscure difficulties! May God guide him and protect him!

“ And afterwards, you have asked us for our opinion upon the horses of Barbary, their qualities and their origin. To please you, I have anew occupied myself with those questions, and now I can do nothing better than to send you some citations borrowed from the poems of the famous Aâmrou-el-Kaïs, who lived a short time before the coming of the prophet.

“The poet says on addressing himself to the Cæsar-Emperor of Constantinople, in a long piece of verse :

“And I pledge thee my word, if I succeed in re-establishing myself King, we will make an incursion in which thou shalt see the horseman incline himself forward on the saddle to increase the swiftness of his horse.

“ An incursion over a space trampled down on every side, where no other eminences are to be seen to direct travellers, than the hump of an old Nabathean camel, bent down by the load of years and uttering plaintive lowings.

"We shall be borne, I tell thee, upon a horse used to nocturnal expeditions, a horse of the Berber race.

6. With flanks slender as a wolf of Gada; a horse that urges onward his rapid course, whose flanks are seen bathed with sweat.

“When loosening the bridle, he is yet more excited by striking him with the reins on each side, he precipitates his rapid pace, throwing back his head and champing his bit.

And when I say: 'Let us rest awhile, the horseman stops as if by enchantment, and begins to sing still keeping his saddle, on that vigorous horse, the muscles of whose thighs are distended and his tendons dry and well separated.'

Aâmrou-el-Kaïs is one of the ancient Arab Kings, who to contend against his enemies, exerted himself to procure Berber horses; he was doubtful of success, if compelled to rely on the qualities of Arabian horses.

“ To my mind, it is not possible to give a more invincible proof of the superiority of Barb horses; after such a testimony, for him who would contest it, there remains no allegation of any worth to present.

“ The Berbers are, according to El-Massoudi, descendants of the Beni-Ghassan and other Arabian tribes; certain authors affirm that they sprang from the Beni-Lekhm and from the Djouzam. Their first country was Palestine, from which they were driven by a King of Persia ; they emigrated to Egypt, but the sovereign of that country interdicted them to take up their abode there; they then crossed the Nile and spread themselves over the countries which are to the west and beyond that river.

“ Malek-ben-el-Merahel has said that the Berbers form a very numerous population, composed of Hymiars, of Modhers, of Coptes, of Amalkas, and of Kaneans, who had united in the province of Scham (Syria), and had taken the denomination of Berbers. Their emigration into the Maghreb, according to that historian, as also according to El-Massoudi, El-Souheïli, and El-Zabari, was induced by Ifrikeck who took them with him to the conquest of the African Peninsula.

“Ibn-el-Kelbi asserts that opinions are divided respecting the real name of the chief under whose orders the Berbers emigrated from Syria towards the Maghreb. According to that author, some will have that it was the prophet David, others Youscha-ben-Enoun, others Ifrikeck, and others certain kings of the Zobors.

“El-Massoudi adds that they did not emigrate till after the death of Goliath, that they established themselves in the province of BarkaYfrikia, and in the Maghreb, after having vanquished the Frendj (Francs); that from there they invaded Sicily, Sardinia, the Balearic Islands, and Spain, for it was agreed between them and the Frendj that the latter should occupy the towns, and that for themselves they would establish themselves in the deserts which extended from Alexandria to the ocean, Tangiers, and the country of Sousse.

“ Ibn-Abd-el-Berr says that the establishment of the Berbers extended from the extremity of Egypt, that is from the countries situated behind Barka 'as far as the

Green sea; and from the sea of Andalousia to the end of the deserts which border on the Soudan.

“At that limit a people are still found, situated between the Habeuchs (Abyssinians) and the Zendy (Zanguebar), which are known by the name of Berbers. The author of the Kamous' makes mention of them, but it is a population worthy of very little notice, whose insignificant and obscure history contains no fact of importance.

“The essential point here, is the citation from the poet Aâmrou-elKaïs, on the subject of the Berber horses. As for the Berbers themselves tradition and history both prove that they are known from time immemorial, and that they came from the east and fixed themselves in the Maghreb, where we still find them in the present day.

“And my salutation be upon you, at the end as at the beginning of this letter, from your friend Abd-el-Kader-Ben-Mahhydin. Whom God cover with his protection !

"Broussa, the 1st of Safer, 1269"-1854.

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“If we may be permitted (says General Daumas*) to express our personal opinion in regard of the native horse of our African possessions we will say, that many persons are disposed to draw a line of demarcation much too sharp between the Barb horse and the Arabian horse. There is a more general name that we think ought to be applied to both, which is that of 'eastern race. They constitute one and the same great family, derived from one and the same origin, which in extending itself

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* In his observations at a later period, indicating the advantages to be derived from a judicious utilization of the indigenous horse of the Algerian provinces,

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