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be general, in a manner, upon all the ministers of an estate, then the Envy (though hidden) is truly upon the state itself. And so much of public Envy or Discontentment, and the difference thereof from private Envy, which was handled in the first place. We will add this in general, touching the affection of Envy; that, of all other affections, it is the most importune and continual. For of other affections there is occasion given but now and then. And therefore it was well said, “Envy never keeps holiday,” i. e. is never at rest. For it is ever working upon some or other. And it is also noted, that Love and Envy do make a man pine, which other affections do not; because they are not so continual. It is also the vilest affection, and the most depraved: for which cause it is the proper attribute of the Devil, who is called, “ The envious man, that soweth tares amongst the wheat by night:” as it always cometh to pass, that Envy worketh subtilly, and in the dark, and to the prejudice of good things, such as is the wheat.

of love.

THE stage is more beholding to Love than the life of man. For, as to the stage, Love is ever matter of comedies, and now and then of tragedies: but in life it doth much mischief; sometimes like a syren, sometimes like a fury. You may observe, that, amongst all the great and worthy persons (whereof the memory remaineth, either ancient or recent) there is not one that hath been transported to the mad degree of Love: which shows, that great spirits, and great business, do keep out this weak passion, You must except, nevertheless, Marcus Antonius, the half partner of the Empire of Rome; and Appius Claudius the Decemvir, the lawgiver; whereof the former was indeed a voluptuous man, and inordinate; but the latter was an austere and wise man. And therefore it seems, (though rarely) that Love can find entrance, not only into an open heart, but also into a heart well fortified, if watch be not well kept. It is a poor saying of Epicurus : “We are to one another a sufficiently large theatre;” i.e. “we need not attempt to look beyond this world.” As if man, made for the contemplation of Heaven, and all noble objects, should do nothing but kneel before a little idol, and make himself a subject, though not of the mouth, (as beasts are) yet of the eye, which was given him for higher purposes. It is a strange thing to note the excess of this passion; and how it braves the nature and value of things by this, that the speaking in a perpetual hyperbole is comely in nothing but in Love. Neither is it merely in the phrase: for, whereas it hath been well said, that the Archflatterer, with whom all the petty flatterers have intelligence, is a man's self; certainly, the Love is more. For there was never a proud man thought so absurdly well of himself, as the Lover doth of the person loved: and therefore it was well said, that “it is impossible to love, and to be wise.” Neither doth this weakness appear to others outy, and not to the party loved : but to the loved roost of all; except the Love be reciprogue: for it is a true rule, that Love is ever rewarded, either with the reciprogue, or with an inward and secret contempt. By how much the more ought men to be aware of this passion, which loseth not only other things, but itself. As for the other losses, the poet's relation doth well figure them; that he that preferreth Helena, quitteth the gifts of Juno and Pallas. For whosoever esteemeth too much of amorous affection, quitteth both riches and wisdom. This passion hath his floods in the very times of weakness; which are great prosperity, and great adversity; though this latter hath been less observed. Both which times kindle Love, and make it more frequent, and therefore show it to be the child of Folly. They do best, who, if they cannot but admit Love, yet make it keep quarter, and sever it wholly from their serious affairs and ac

tions of life: for if it check once with business, it

troubleth men's fortunes, and maketh men that they can no ways be true to their own ends. I know not how, but martial men are given to Love; I think it is but as they are given to wine; for perils commonly ask to be paid in pleasures. There is in a man's nature, a secret inclination and motion towards Love of others; which if it be not spent upon some one, or a few, doth naturally spread itself towards many, and maketh men become humane and charitable; as it is seen sometime in Friars. Nuptial Love maketh mankind; friendly Love perfecteth it; but wanton Love corrupteth and embaseth it.

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MEN in Great Place are thrice servants: servants of the Sovereign or State; servants of fame; and servants of business. So as they have no freedom either in their persons, nor in their actions, nor in their times. It is a strange desire to seek power, and to lose liberty; or to seek power over others, and to lose power over a man's self. The rising unto Place is laborious; and by pains men come to greater pains: and it is sometimes base; and by indignities men come to dignities. The standing is slippery, and the regress is either a downfall, or at least an eclipse, which is a melancholy thing. “Since you are not what you would be, there is no reason why you should wish to live.” Nay, retire men cannot when they would ; neither will they, when it was reason; but are impatient of privateness, even in age and sickness, which require the shadow : like old townsmen, that will be still sitting at their street door, though thereby they offer age to scorn. Certainly great persons had need to borrow other men's opinions, to think themselves happy; for if they judge by their own feeling, they cannot find it: but if they think with themselves what other men think of them, and that other men would fain be as they are, then they are happy, as it were, by report; when perhaps they find the contrary within. For they are the first that find their own griefs; though they be the last that find their own faults. Certainly, men in great fortunes are strangers to themselves, and while they are in the puzzle of business they have no time to tend their health, either of body or mind. “Death presses heavy on that man, who, too conspicuously known to others, dies unknown to himself: (i. e. without having studied and known his own character.”) In place, there is licence to do good and evil, whereof the latter is a curse; for in evil, the best condition is not to will, the second not to can: but power to do good, is the true and awful end of aspiring: for good thoughts (though God accept them) yet towards men are E.

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