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Now the answer to this enquiry seems to us to lie upon the surface of the narrative.

To go no further back than the 14th chapter, we find Job expressing a passionate longing that he might be hidden in the grave (ver. 13). Again, in the 17th chapter, we find him speaking thus (ver. 18, 14):—"If I wait, the grave is mine house: I have made my bed in the darkness. I have said to corruption, Thou art my father: to the worm, Thou art my mother and sister." And once more, in the 10th verse of the chapter in which the words under our review occur, "He hath destroyed me on every side, and I am gone: and mine hope hath He removed like a tree."

The inference which we draw from these and similar expressions, is that Job was not looking for any temporal restitution, and therefore that it is more reasonable, a priori, to interpret any hope which he expresses in reference to a future condition than to the world which now is.

Moreover, the alleged inconsistency of the whole scope and tenour of this book, with the interpretation which we assign to chap. xix. 23—27, is, in our judgment, based upon misapprehension of other passages, more especially of chap, xiv.; in which remarkable chapter, Job's firm assurance of a "change" similar to that which he had witnessed in the cut-down tree (ver. 7), and of a future life to which he should receive a "call," seems to us to be clearly expressed.

The a priori probability of a reference in chap. xix. 23—27, to the future, is confirmed, in our judgment, by the very remarkable manner in which the declaration of Job's faith in his " Goel," or Redeemer, is ushered in; the incongruity in the supposition that it was his expectation of a temporal restitution which he desired should be recorded in imperishable words, being, as it seems to us, manifest and insuperable.

The substance of that expectation may be thus expressed. "And as for me, I know that my Goel lives, and at the last (or, in the latter day) He shall rise up (or, shall continue) upon the earth (literally, the dust). And after, as to my skin (or flesh) they have cut down (or shattered, or destroyed) this, even without (or out of) my flesh, I shall see God: That, as for me, I shall see for myself, even mine eyes have seen, (the future of certainty) and not a stranger; my reins are consumed in my bosom."

We have endeavoured in this rugged version to represent as faithfully as may be (without assuming a meaning and connexion which might well be assigned to certain words) this confessedly difficult passage, of which every explanation which restricts its reference to the present world seems to us fraught with insuperable difficulty.

The words "I know that my Goel," i.e. my Kinsman, Avenger, and Deliverer, "lives," about the translation of which there can be little or no controversy, are of themselves conclusive (as it appears to us) of tho reference of this passage to a future life, and (whatever translation or interpretation be adopted of the words which follow) a complete justification of the use made of it by the compilers of our Burial Service in conjunction with those words which contain its full exposition, "I am the Resurrection and the Life."

We are content to adopt Rosenmiiller's explanation of the rem arkable and deeply significant word " Goel" here employed. "The word Goel (says Rosenmiiller) properly denotes the man who, by reason of consanguinity, was under the obligation of avenging any one's murder, and after the death of his next of kin to take the entire management of his affairs, and to assert and defend his rights."* If, bearing in mind this definition of the word Goel, we compare the language of Job with the promise contained in Hosea xiii. 14,—" I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them (literally, I will be, or act the part of their Goel) from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; 0 grave, I will be thy destruction,"—it seotns impossible to admit any interpretation of the former passage which must be felt and confessed as inadmissible in the case of the latter.

Whether the word " day " ought to be understood as to be supplied after "latter" or " last," or whether, as in two passages in Isaiah (viz. xliv. 6, and xlviii. 12), (in both of which the word " Goel" occurs in closer or more remote connexion with this word, as applied to Israel's Redeemer), the word should be understood as used in the sense of the "last Adam," or the Omega (as well as the Alpha), affects but very indirectly the question which we are now considering. In like manner, whether we read "in my flesh," as in the Authorised Version, or, as the Hebrew seems to us to denote more strictly, "out of, or apart from, my flesh ,"f the reference to the Resurrection seems equally clear.* In the one case, tbe word must be under* stood as denoting the fact that body and soul shall be reunited; in the other, the truth, as certainly affirmed by St. Paul, that "flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption." (1 Cor. xv. 50.)

• "* Goel' proprio earn notat, qui the body,' or * out of my body.' Each

consanguinitatis jure alicujua caedem rendering is equally tenable on gram

vindicare tonebatur et omnino post matical grounds; but the specification

proximi mortem rerum snarnm curam of the time and the place requires a

gerero, et jura vindicare atque tueri." personal manifestation of God, and a

(In loc.) — The following remark of personal recognition on the part of

Dathe (in loc.) is very striking as Job. Complete personality, in the

showing how insuperable is the diffi- mind of the ancients, implies a living

culty which his interpretation in- body." — Smith's Dictionary of the

volves:—" Vocabulum 'Goel' dicitur Bible, Article "Job," by Canon Cook,

hoc loco improprie de Deo, cum alias, to which we refer our readers for

quod satis constat, proprie de homine some valuable remarks on this and

usurpetur, qui ex jure sive potius of- other passages in the book of Job,

ficio cognationis nloisci debebat cajdem having reference to the same subject,

aut gravem injuriam in alium egusdem viz., Job's confident expectation of "a

cognationis admissam." future and perfect manifestation of the

f "'From my flesh'may mean'in divine juatioe."

Our present limits will not admit of any further investigation of the phraseology here employed. That there is considerable difficulty in the interpretation of this passage, as in that of almost the whole of this remarkable book, we do not for a moment deny. Our position is this, that, admitting, to the very utmost of all that has been alleged, the existence of obscurity and antiquity in these words, their reference to a future state appears to us indisputable; and that, whilst every attempt to interpret them as having reference to Job's expectation of temporal restitution is involved in insuperable difficulties, the words " Because I live, ye shall live also," afford the key-note to the unravelling of their deepest meaning, and the explanation of their otherwise incomprehensible allusions.


Realities of Irish Life. By W. Steuart Trench, Land Agent in Ireland to the Marquis of Lansdowne, Marquis of Bath, and Lord Digby. With Illustrations by his Son, J. Townsend Trench. Third Edition. London : Longmans, Oteen, 8c Co. 1869.

Mr. Steuart Trench's book, "Realities of Irish Life," is, beyond all doubt, one of the most remarkable publications which have for some time appeared, and may well bo termed "the Book of the Season." It has been reviewed in all the chief periodicals and newspapers of the day—in the Quarterly and Edinburgh, in the Times, Saturday Review, Spectator, &c. &c.; while it has been read in Clubs and Colleges, by politicians and Parliamentary men, and by persons concerned generally for the welfare of Ireland, not to mention the large numbers who desire sensation and excitement; in fact, by a host of readers throughout the three kingdoms, as they may have been able to obtain and peruse this large and somewhat costly

* It is worthy of observation that translation by observing that the preRosenmuHer translates" the word which fix employed in the Hebrew is comthe Authorized Version renders'and in monly used to denote the want or demy flesh,' 'et absque carne mea,' i.e. 'and ficiency of something. without nil/ flesh,' and vindicates this

Vol. 68.—No. 378. 3 K

volume. Besides this, it has been quoted in public debates, and turned to account as bearing on some of the most important questions by which Ireland has been agitated for many years past, and alas! is agitated still to the most serious extent.

The outward mien and appearance of the volume may, in some degree, have arrested attention for its singular contents. On the outside binding is a representation, stamped in gold, of one among the very extraordinary interviews between the author and those with whom he had to do in the course of his life and profession as an agent for Irish estates. On one side of a small rough table stands a tall, powerful figure in shirtsleeves, with folded arms, and head thrown fiercely back; while on the other stands a gentleman, smaller in size, and bareheaded like the other figure, but with a pistol in each hand, and one of them directly pointed in the face of his opponent. And this design is only preparative for several other designs of an equally strange and exciting character, contributed by the author's son, of which more will be said in the course of these observations.

A few preliminary words on the family and antecedents of the writer may not be out of place.

Ho belongs to that very numerous and prosperous family which came over to Ireland on the persecution so fiercely carried on against the Protestants of France in the reign of Louis the Fourteenth; but, unlike the La Touches, the Le Fevres, the Des Vceux, and so many others, has dropped the French form and orthography of the name, and has adopted one of a more simple and vernacular kind. He is son of the late Dean of Kildare, and nephew of the late Lord Ashtown. His eldest brother, now dead, was married to a sister of the present Earl of Egmont. Many of the family have undertaken large Irish agencies—an occupation, or, it may rather be called, a profession, very ably and successfully commenced by the late William Trench, of Cangort Park, to whom the author, in the course of his book, expresses himself much indebted. It is impossible to overrate the importance and responsibility of this calling in Ireland, and to this the volume before ns affords in itself a most ample testimony. The salaries of such agents are very considerable, and the power in their hands, accompanied no doubt at times with much danger and difficulty, is of the most extensive nature.

The first three chapters of the book contain a short memoir of the author's early life and preparation for those subsequent engagements and duties from which it has originated. They tell of his early Irish travels—of his school-days, including a most curious and pertinacious "barring out," with the punishment which the boys had to meet at its termination—of party rows in the streets of Dublin—and of Dublin generally, in his college days.

"Lord Anglesea," he writes, "was then Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, aud in the midst of a hundred scenes similar to that which I have just described, levees, drawing-rooms, Castle balls, and private entertainments, in all of which I freely joined, flowed on, and people never thought of these outrages but as passing trifles, whilst the pleasures and business of life proceeded as if all was going on in the natural course of things.

"In the country parts of Ireland, the same wild ways, though in a different and more dangerous form, prevailed. The predominant idea amongst the peasantry at that time was—and still to a certain extent is—that ' a big war' was coming, and in preparation for this the ' taking up arms' was one of the most frequent outrages. Many gentlemen living in remote districts lost their lives in defence of their arms, and in not a few cases the assailants were shot down in their attempts to take them. My father's residence was in the Queen's County, about three miles from Portarlington; and I well remember how, in disturbed times, when several murders had been committed in the neighbourhood, we habitually took our arms with as into the dining-room, and ate our meals with our loaded pistols on the table beside us, and our guns leaning against the chimneypiece. It is surprising, when one gets accustomed to it, how little this affects the appetite, or weighs upon the mind. It went on with us as a matter of course, and without the least feeling of uneasiness or apprehension affecting our spirits or our daily life." (pp. 42, 43.)

"During all this time my earnest endeavours were turned towards the acquisition of knowledge, which, in addition to my classical and scientific course through College, would tend to fit me for the profession I had set my heart on to follow; and after some time I exerted myself much, without any emolument, in the improvement of the dwellings and farms of the tenants on my brother's estate. In course of time I found myself a married man, settled in tho county of Tipperary, not far from Cangort Park, the residence of a much loved and valued uncle, from whose vast experience and knowledge of country life I derived many and lasting advantages." (p. 45.)

Thus ends what may be called the introductory portion of the volume, and though perhaps the least important part of it, and one not absolutely necessary for its subsequent contents, still, as the author has deemed it right to give it, it is worthy of notice, and not without its value, as personally bearing on the strange and important calling or profession which, under such training and conditions, he has had to fulfil.

The fourth chapter is entitled "The Ribbon Code," and is prefaced by an engraving in rich green colour of the Master Ribbonman's collar, scarf, and belt, with sundry devices in white, such as the Cross, the Heart, Irish Heart, &c. &c. And here the Land Question, as it is now termed, is at once faced, and decidedly, though briefly. Mr. Trench states that the "main object of the Ribbon (Society was to prevent any landlord, under

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