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"The large and valuable tusks were not carried by the slaves, they were borne along by porters or servants of the Arabs; the small tusks, so light that they could easily be carried in one hand, were carried by a few, not all, of the slaves."
"The Naigue of the Sepoys gave much the same account as Renten, but he declares to more numerous murders. In addition to the club and the noose, he saw the dagger used to despatch victims who either could not or would not move along with the caravan."
"These atrocities," says Mr. Seward, "occurred after the gang began their march: but what of the crimes that waited upon their original capture?"
We have now accompanied the "merchandize" to the coast. We may think the worst is over. Many gangs, no doubt, are taken at once to Quiloa, and there sold; but many also have to await a favourable chance for shipment, so as to elude the Zanzibar market, and be smuggled off at once to their destination; and for these poor wretches are reserved the horrors of the slave barracoon. Again we have an eye-witness to relate to us details of the sickening scene. Monsieur Menon, of the island of Eeunion, who was formerly engaged in promoting what he calls African Emigration to the French co lonies, describes the following scene on the river Lindie, on the Eastern coast:—
"An Arab chief told us he had, in the forest at some leagues' distance, a dep&t of 800 men, whom he would bring to us the next day. I asked the chief to conduct us to his depot, and at first he stubbornly refused. But when I promised him a rifle musket, which he eagerly desired to get, he consented and led us thither. After three hours' march we arrived, but could see nothing. 'Where are they lodged?' we asked; and he pointed to a palisade of bamboo, open to the sky, where they were exposed, at the worst season of the year, to a fiery sun, alternating with torrents of rain and sometimes of hail, without any roof to cover them.
"A man of tall stature, with his spear in his hand and a poignard in his belt, pulled up three posts which served for a gate to this enclosure, and we entered. There they were, naked as in the day of their birth; some of them with a long fork attached to their neck —that is, a heavy branch of a tree (une grossiere branche d'arbre) of fork-like shape—so arranged that it was impossible for them to step forward, the heavy handle of the fork, which they could not lift, effectually preventing them from advancing, because of the pressure on the throat; others were chained together in parcels (paquets) of twenty. The word which I underline is a trivial one, but it exactly expresses the idea. The keeper of this den utters a hoarse cry (pousse un rugissement); it is the order for the merchandize to stand up; but many of them do not obey. What is the matter? Our interpreter, who has gone among the groups, will tell us: listen to him. 'The chains are too short; the dead and the dying prevent the living from rising. The dead can say nothing; bat what do the dying say? They say that thoy are dying—of hunger.'
"But let us leave the consideration of this trader's picture as a .whole; and let us look at some of the details. Who is this creature who holds tightly in her arms a shapeless object covered with filthy leaves? On looking close, you see that it is a woman, lying in the mud, and holding to her dried up breast the child of which she has just been delivered. And those little girls who totter as they strive to rise, and who seem to ask for pity, on what are they leaning? On a dead body! And this man who is working with his hands a piece of mud, which he is continually placing on his eye, what is the matter with him? Our guide tells us, 'He is a troublesome fellow, who set a bad example by throwing himself at ray feet this morning, and saying with a loud voice, I am dying of hunger; and I gave him a blow which burst his eye; he is henceforth good for nothing;' and he added with a sinister look, 'He won't be hungry long.'"
To the question addressed to the Arab chief, why he dealt thus with the men, his reply was, "I do as my father did before me."
(To be concluded in our next.)
Christ and the Controversies of Christendom. By R. W. Dale, M.A., Author of Week-Day Sermons, fyc. London: Hodder and Stoughton. 1869.
It is under this title that the address delivered by Mr. Dale, from the chair of the Congregational Union of England and Wales, at their annual meeting, has been published, and we have no hesitation in expressing our opinion that it deserves, and will amply repay, a careful perusal. Mr. Dale begins his Lecture with a general survey of the existing condition of Christendom, and of the perplexing problems involved in the relations of the Church to the political organization of society. We do not think that he has at all over-rated the magnitude of the crisis in the religious life of mankind, which he represents as now impending over Christendom at large, and over our own country in particular, or that he has in any wise misrepresented the real issue of the contest, when he describes it as being reduced to the single enquiry, "Is Christendom to believe in Christ, or no?" Having briefly reviewed, in search of an answer to the question, "What are we to do?" the endless
variety, and the intricate perplexity of the various theories and controversies which are rile in the world and in the Church; having observed that life is too short for their investigation, and that even if Christian ministers generally were equal to thendiscussion, their congregations would lack both ability and disposition to listen to them, Mr. Dale continues thus:—" Again therefore, I ask, 'What are we to do?' It appears to me that our true course is plain and direct. We have one duty to discharge, which includes all others. We have no new Gospel to preach; we must preach the old Gospel still, and preach it to all men. Christ is the Prince, and Christ is the Saviour of the human race. That is just as true to day as it ever was. It is not for us to rescue either individual men or nations from the doubt, from the misery, from the confusion, or from the sin by which they are distracted and oppressed, but for Christ. I want to show that by preaching Christ, we shall best discharge our duty to this troubled and restless age." (p. 10.)
Mr. Dale proceeds to observe that it is in dealing with this one absorbing theme, and with this only, that Christ's ministers need entertain no fear of wearying those whom they address. The world, he writes, "wearies of everything else, but it never wearies of Christ;" and he ascribes to this cause, more than to all the force of genius, and beauty, and originality, which are displayed in them, the wondrous success of those two publications—diiferent, as they are, in all besides the identity of their subject—the " Life of Jesus," by Renan, and the "Ecce Homo." Mr. Dale proceeds to show how this one remedy for the ills and divisions of the Church needs to be applied specially, at the present day, to the prevailing errors of scepticism and of Romanism. With reference to the latter of these two forms of error, he writes thus :—"And the Romish theory of the priesthood, and the Sacraments will be destroyed, not by argument, but by Christ. If logic could have destroyed it, it would have perished centuries ago. It has its roots in a region of our nature into which logic cannot penetrate. Give men the alternative of obtaining forgiveness by believing in a creed, or by confessing to a priest, and there are vast numbers who, without hesitation, will turn to the priest. The priest stands before them as the personal representative of Christ; it is far more natural to trust in the priest than to trust in a set of theological propositions. Give them the alternative of securing salvation through a doctrine or through a sacrament, and they will clingto the sacrament. In the Eucharist, they are assured that Christ is personally present; they feel far more certain of securing eternal life by receiving Christ Himself, than by receiving a doctrine about Him." (pp. 25, 26.) And again, with reference to the real strength of the theory of TransubVol. 68.—No. 382. . 6 I
stantiation, Mr. Dale writes thus:—" No logic can master the craving of the soul for Christ. We must satisfy the craving, or the error will not be renounced. We mast preach Christ—the living Christ—till men shall feel that He is so near to them that the intervention of the priest is an impertinence and an affront." (p. 27.)
Thus far we find ourselves altogether in accord with this able and eloquent writer. We can no longer follow him when he proceeds to expose the fundamental errors and inconsistencies which he believes to be involved in the principle of Establishments; and when he predicts the universal triumph of the spirit and principles of Congregationalism.
We entirely acquit Mr. Dale of any intentional misrepresentation of the views of his opponents, when he represents the advocates of Established Churches as thinking it better to "remit all questions concerning the doctrine of the pastors of the Church" to men who, though untaught of God, "are familiar with human laws;" and as thinking it "safer to consult Pilate or to appeal to Caesar," rather than to his brethren, for the determination of the question "whether Judas shall continue an Apostle." Such representations can but provoke a smile from those whose strongholds are thought to be thus assailed, not unaccompanied by a feeling of surprise and regret, that a man of such acknowledged ability as Mr. Dale, should not have taken the time and trouble to make himself better acquainted with the opinions which are held by his opponents.
We are more anxious, however, to bring into prominence the points on which we are at one with Mr. Dale, than those on which we differ. It is on this ground, much more than from any desire to expose the inconsistency with his professed principles, which we think the writer vainly endeavours to remove, that we quote the following passage, in which Mr. Dale seeks to reconcile with the principles of Congregationalism the desire, in which we altogether concur, that the authority and power of the State should be so far invoked, that by means of it the thousands and tens of thousands of children who are now growing up in ignorance and vice, may receive that education which "the Will of Christ requires to be given to them." "We deny" (Mr. Dale writes, p. 45) "that the will of the State should control the Church of Christ; but that the Will of Christ Himself should control the laws, the institutions, the policy of the State—this is our incessant and agonizing prayer. To deny that our national life and legislation are to be governed by the Will of Christ, is a heresy that would destroy the hopes of the human race. It is blank atheism. If the State is to be rescued from the darkest dangers which threaten it, we must preach CHRIST—Christ, not merely as the supreme revelation of God—Christ, not merely aa the sacrifice for human sin—Christ, not merely as the Head of the Church, but Christ as the Kuler of all men, the Regenerator of nations, the Saviour of Society."
In this conclusion, we are altogether of one mind with Mr. Dale. This is that national recognition, and (pace Mr. Dale) national establishment of Christianity, at which we aim; and we cannot but believe that if our dissenting brethren, instead of being reminded (as we regret to find, even in this able and admirable Address) of the duty which may again devolve upon them of "plunging into the strong excitement of fiercelycontested elections," were led by the words and example of their teachers to strive and to pray for such a consummation as that which Mr. Dale has so well portrayed, there would be found but little time or disposition, either on their side or on ours, for the too eager discussion of points of minor importance, and an increasing desire on the part of both that "all who confess Christ's holy name may agree in the truth of His holy Word, and live in unity and godly love."
NOTICES OF BOOKS.
. The Administration of the Holy Spirit in the Body of Ohrist. Eight Lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year 1868, on the Foundation of the late Rev. John Bampton, H.A. By George Moberly, D.C.L., Fellow of Winchester College; Rector of Brighstone, Isle of Wight. Oxford and London: James Parker and Go. 1868.—Oar readers will not anticipate that we should endorse all the opinions expressed on this important snbject by the very able and thoughtful author of " The Sayings of the great Forty Days." The following extracts, however, to which additional interest is attached in consequence of the writer's recent appointment to one of the highest posts in the Church of England, will convey a fair impression of Dr. Moberly's style, and cannot, we think, fail of suggesting many valuable hints on a practical subject of daily increasing importance, We refer to the influence which the Laity ought to exercise in the administration of Church affairs.
Our first extract shall be on the subject of tho part of the laypeoplo in respect of Ordination:—
"It is quite clear that in the primitive ages the voice of the laypeople in the choice, and their 'acclamation and assent in the ordination of clergy, whether bishops or priests, were by no means disregarded. Their testimony and their approbation were distinctly asked