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ber had begged of the State these infamous alms, which their weakness paid for. Others died of hunger whilst celebrating their worship in secret, for most of the churches had been closed or profaned. Nevertheless the worship of the jurors still existed constitutionally, and it was acknowledged by the law. This abnormal situation was to cease. It was necessary either to re-establish the ancient order of things, or formally to abrogate it."

In this miserable state of things, we readily grant that it was a benefit to the Constitutional Church, and to the cause of religion in general, that the pecuniary link which had hitherto bound that Church to the civil administration should be formally severed; but we certainly cannot, under the circumstances, regard the decree of formal severance, either as an important measure in itself, or as the establishment of a great principle. It was, no doubt, concurrent in point of time with the termination of the cruel and relentless persecution to which Christians who had remained faithful to their profession, whether belonging to the constitutional or the non-juring Church, or members of the Protestant communion, had alike been subjected during the Reign of Terror, and with the revival in the celebration of religious rites which took place immediately upon the mitigation of the rigours of that persecution. But for months afterwards, and in fact until its close in October 1795, the Convention oscillated between the toleration and restriction of religious worship. And such value was still attached to the civil constitution of the clergy, that in August 1796, after the lapse of nearly two years, a Bill passed the Assembly under the Directory, which provided that every priest who should not have taken the oath to that constitution, should be transported, notwithstanding his having taken the political oath in 1792, and submitted to the laws of the Republic. This Bill was passed in a legislative assembly appointed to carry out the Constitution of the year III., which declared that every man was free in the exercise of his worship, and that no one could be prevented, whilst conforming to the laws of police, from practising the form of the worship which he had chosen. The same Assembly (subsequently to the coup-d'6tat of the 18th Fructidor) voted measures for enforcing the celebration of the tenth day, and for prohibiting, under severe penalties, the closing of shops on the days set apart under the old regime as days of rest, and every other usage and practice which should derogate from the republican calendar. None of these extreme propositions ever actually became law, but that which related to the observance of the tenth day in preference to the Lord's-day, was rendered superfluous by the tyrannical action taken in the matter by the local authorities under the direction of the Minister of the Interior.

(To bt conducted in our next.)



It would be impossible for us to allow one whose principles and views of Divine truth were so entirely in accordance with those which have ever been maintained by the Christian Observer, and who occupied so prominent a position in the Church as the late beloved Bishop of Carlisle, to pass from the sphere of his labours on earth to his everlasting rest, without an affectionate record of the event, and an expression of our deep sense of the greatness of the loss which the Church of England, and especially his northern diocese, has sustained by his removal. The Honourable and Right Rev. Samuel Waldegrave, Bishop of Carlisle, was no ordinary man, either as a Christian, a scholar, or the administrator of his diocese; and those who knew him intimately can bear testimony to the rare combination of graces which marked his character in the various relations of life which he was called to fill. The late Bishop was born in the year 1817, and was the second son of Admiral the Earl of Waldegrave, C.B. His mother was a daughter of Samuel Whitbread, Esq. His eldest brother, Viscount Chewton, of the Scots Fusilier Guards, received numerous wounds when leading on his men at the battle of Alma, of which he died. The Bishop has often spoken with intense interest of his obligations to the care and training of his devoted mother, not only for the formation of his Christian character, but for that impulse and encouragement, which were given him in early life, in the pursuit of those studies which had so important a bearing upon his future course. Her portrait adorned his study, and was always regarded by him as a memorial of the greatest worth. It will be in the recollection of many, how on one occasion, when he filled the chair at a dismissal of missionaries going out for the work of the Church Missionary Society, when one of those young men spoke of his obligations to the instruction and example of a pious mother, Bishop Waldegrave, in most touching terms, bore public testimony to the debt of gratitude which he owed to his excellent mother as the instrument, under God, of spiritual blessing to him, and for the success which he had attained in life. Under her instruction and influence, blessed by the Holy Spirit, there is every reason to believe that he imbibed in early childhood those principles of distinctive gospel truth to which he adhered with unfailing steadfastness through life, and which were his support and comfort in his last illness and at the approach of death. These impressions, thus imbibed at home, were sustained and strengthened by the late excellent Dr. Mayo, of Cheam, at whose school he pursued his studies with characteristic diligence and conscientiousness, and whose favorite pupil he was. His University course was a distinguished one. He entered Balliol College, Oxford, in 1836, and took Double First Class honours in 1839, his name appearing in the first class " in Literis Humanioribus," with those of several others 'well known in their day as distinguished for their classical attainments, among whom was Dr. Goulbnrn, the present Dean of Norwich; whilst, of the candidates for mathematical honours, his name appeared alone in the first class.

It may be interesting to record, that, during the early part of his undergraduate course, he was visited with his first serious illness, an attack of low fever; and in this he was kindly and attentively nursed by the present Archbishop of Canterbury, who was his tutor at Balliol, and who sat up with him during the night. It is a remarkable coincidence, that the same kind and affectionate friend happened to be visiting in the neighbourhood of Rose Castle when the Bishop was drawing near his end, and drove over to make enquiries just in time to perform the solemn and interesting service of commending his soul to the care of his loving Saviour in the beautiful prayer for that purpose in the Office of the Visitation of the Sick.

Samuel Waldegrave was admitted into Holy Orders at Oxford in 1842, and was ordained to the curacy of St. Ebbe's in that city, having as his fellow-curates the distinguished men, Dr. Baring, the present Bishop of Durham, and the Rev. E. A. Litton, afterwards Vice-Principal of St. Edmund's Hall. In that curacy he laboured with characteristic energy and zeal, and formed a new district, with a church dedicated to the Holy Trinity. This being the first district church formed tinder the Peel Act, Sir Robert Peel promptly appointed him to the incumbency. In 1839, he was elected Fellow of All Souls', and was twice appointed Public Examiner in the Schools.

By four Vice-Chancellors he was named Select Preacher, and in the year 1853 was appointed Bampton Lecturer, when he chose for the subject of his course "New Testament Millenarianism." In addition to these Lectures, he published a volume containing four very faithful, useful, distinct, practical Sermons preached before the University in 1847-1848, entitled "The Way of Peace," besides two others most suitable for the occasion, entitled " Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God," and "Christ Crucified, the Christ for this and every age." In the year 1839, he was elected Fellow of All Souls, and vacated his fellowship on the occasion of his marriage with Jane Anne, eldest daughter of Francis Pym, Esq., of the Hasells, Bedfordshire, on the 23rd January, 1846. At the close of the preceding year, the college living of Barford St. Martin, in the neighbourhood of Salisbury, most unexpectedly fell to his option, it having been refused by the senior Fellows; and it was in this quiet country village that the accomplished scholar, by the simple preaching of the Gospel, by the spiritual tone of his ministry, and by the weight of his Christian character, was made an instrument of blessing to many. It was a beautiful and edifying sight to witness the interest with which several of the villagers daily waited on his ministrations at the family prayer in the kitchen of the parsonage house. In 1857, he was appointed, by the Lord Chancellor, Canon of Salisbury Ca

thedral; and in that city he found himself surrounded by many differing entirely from him in their views of Christian doctrine. Such a position, with his peculiarly sensitive frame of mind, was by no means an easy one; for he never shrank from the bold and uncompromising statement of his own principles, but did his utmost to spread throughout the city the knowledge of those truths which he believed to be essential for man's spiritual welfare. In 1859, he preached the Latin Sermon at St. Paul's to the assembled Convocation, at the request of Archbishop Sumner. This appointment was a testimony to his character as a scholar by one well capable of forming a judgment, and, together with his other distinctions, is a sufficient answer to the sneers which appeared in some of the public journals, as to the want of scholarship in those who were appointed to the Episcopacy during Lord Palmerston's Premiership.*

In 1860, he was called to preside over the Diocese of Carlisle, from which the late Bishop Villiers had been recently translated to the See of Durham. His predecessor, by his frank, out-spoken, faithful declaration of Gospel truth, had prepared many to welcome a chief pastor of Evangelical principles; but the episcopate of Bishop Villiers at Carlisle had been of so short duration, that the whole work of the Diocese remained to be done by the new Bishop. He found, as it is well known, an ill-provided and ill-paid body of clergy; and with a deep feeling of sympathy with them, and a desire to increase the number of efficient labourers, and also to deliver them from the burden of poverty by which many among them were oppressed, he threw himself with all his energy into the work of improving their condition, as well as adding to their numbers. With this view, in the year 1862 he founded a Church Building Society, the object of which was not only the building of new churches, but also to furnish endowments and to build parsonage houses. In this cause he laboured most indefatigably; and by urging the local claims of his diocese on the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and applying to Christian friends by letters and personal influence, in the short space of nine years thirty-one churches have been built or restored, thirtysix parsonages erected, and thirty-nine benefices had their endowments augmented. Thus he has left behind him a lasting memorial which will make his name to be remembered with honour and gratitude by many of the clergy and their families. But his great delight was the preaching of the Gospel of the Grace of God; and this he did as a faithful shepherd wherever he had an opportunity. He went about his diocese, preaching frequently twice, sometimes even three times on the Sunday, carefully and prayerfully prepared sermons, full of unction and clear statements of the way of salvation. In whatever sphere he was employed, he was also a cordial supporter

* Wo regret to find this charge per- that, amongst Others, Dr. Baring was a

sisted in in a late article in a public Double First Class man at Oxford, that

journal, in which it was stated that Dr. the present BiBhop of Worcester was

Waldegravewas perhaps the only case of Senior Wrangler at Cambridge, and

an elegant and accomplished scholar that Dr. Ellicott had been known as

acquiring the distinction that he did a theologian and critic on a large por

under the Paltnerstonian regime. In tjon of the New Testament before he

answer to this, it should be remembered was made Bishop of Gloucester.

both of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the Church Missionary, the Pastoral Aid, and other Evangelical Societies connected with the Church. Nor was he contented with giving them his countenance by taking the chair in his diocese; he took a deep interest in the work which they were carrying on; and, when in London, from time to time, afforded the help of his counsels in the Committee Meetings in Salisbury Square. His sermon at St. Bride's, on the Church Missionary Anniversary in 1868, is a characteristic specimen of his faithful adherence to the principles of the Word of (rod. In mentioning the public objects which specially engaged his attention, it would not be right to omit the Clergy Daughters' School at Casterton, instituted by that faithful servant of God, Mr. Cams Wilson, which owes much of its present state of efficiency and activity to his wise counsels and persevering attention.

It is not to be expected that such a man should have been without his trials, or without opposition; and he was one who felt these acutely, and was most specially jealous for his Master's honour. There was in him, however, with all his firmness and uncompromising fidelity, such real Christian courtesy, such fairness and unblameableness in his manner of dealing with others, such transparency of intention as often disarmed opposition, whilst the humblest curate was sure to find a fatherly welcome in his house, and encouragement to bring to him all his difficulties. It is right also to mention what special pains he took with reference to the candidates for holy orders, both as to their admission into the ministry and the faithful influence he exercised over them, lending them books and directing their reading before they came up for examination.

He had a great dread of the entrance of ritualistic practices or Romish doctrine into his diocese; and the manner in which he detected, and sought to repress, anything having this tendency, appears in a correspondence which he had with one of his clergy concerning a "Burial guild," which it was sought to establish under the plausible pretext of benefiting the poor, but concerning which he wrote in these wise and decided terms :—" I cannot but deprecate the institution of a society which, appealing to the susceptibilities of human affections, seizes upon the opening thu3 afforded for entering upon a course the manifest tendency of which is the setting up anew in our Church some of the worst superstitions from which we were delivered at the blessed Reformation." His Visitation Charge two years ago, in which he drew, in a clear and scholarlike manner, a contrast between the Sacerdotal character of the priesthood of the Church of Rome and the Evangelistic character of the ministry of the Church of England, bore faithful testimony to his views on this subject.

Nor were his labours confined to his diocese. On public occasions he did not withdraw from what he felt to be the path of duty. In his place in the House of Lords he spoke in support of Lord Shaftesbury's proposal to put down the use of sacrificial vestments by clergymen of the Church of England; and on one occasion took a night journey from Carlisle for the purpose of being in the House, that he might vote on the subject of the better observance of the

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