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Lord's Day, though he was obliged to return immediately afterwards. Such was Bishop Waldegrave; one who unswervingly maintained the doctrine of salvation by grace only through the justifying merits of the Lord Jesus Christ, having its origin in the electing love of God the Father, and applied to the sinner by faith of the operation of God the Holy Ghost; yet one who indeed manifested that these truths received into the heart, whilst they humble the sinner before God, become the source in him of all holy activity; for his labours were most abundant, and he was in all respects one "zealous of good works." The secret of his inner life was, that he was truly a man of prayer. He loved his Bible, and he prayed over it. Those who were best acquainted with him knew well that he never undertook anything without first asking the Lord's blessing, and was often looking up to Him for His continued help in his ordinary occupations. It is remarkable how his prayers were answered; what wisdom was given him in all his appointments, which were made in the most disinterested manner, and with a single eye to his Master's service, so that they have commanded very general respect and approval throughout the diocese. The principles upon which he acted, and the power by which he lived, were embodied by him within two months of his death, whilst his faculties were clear and unimpaired, in the words with which he commenced his last will and testament:—"I desire, in the first place, to testify that I die in the faith of Christ crucified, and as a sinner saved by grace alone, humbly trusting in the alone blood and righteousness of my Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and in the full assurance of that eternal and unchangeable love of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, one Triune God, which it has been my joy and delight to have been permitted to proclaim throughout my beloved diocese whenever I had opportunity; and which doctrines, as they have been my comfort in life, are now my stay and support in the prospect of death and eternity."

The Bishop experienced a severe shock in the month of December, 1867, by the unexpected death of his eldest sister, Lady Elizabeth Waldegrave, to whom he was specially and deservedly attached. They were the two members of the family to whom all the rest were accustomed to look up; and they were singularly alike in integrity, good sense, dignity of character, and diligent usefulness. Entirely coinciding with him in her views of the Truth, she was also abundant in good works, continually employing herself in seeking to do good, especially amongst the invalids who were visiting at Hastings. His expression with regard to her, and which was no less applicable to himself, was, "All her life was a service for God." But whilst deeply feeling the severity of the blow, in this as in everything else he humbly acknowledged the loving hand of his heavenly Father. His touching words of comfort, addressed to the mourning members of his family on the Sunday morning after her death, were these :— "It is as if the Lord had said to her, 'My child, you are tired—you have done enough—rest now;' and so he put her to sleep."

Up to the close of the year 1868, his labours in his diocese were incessant. He undertook a Confirmation tour in the autumn, and subsequently paid visits to many of the clergy in Westmoreland and North Lancashire, when he preached five or six sermons in the week. From these exertions he returned much fatigued at the close of the year, and a visit to relatives in Scotland failed to afford him the relief and refreshment which were hoped for from it. From this time his strength began rapidly to decay; but this was reasonably ascribed to li is assiduous labours, and the hope was entertained that a change of scene and occupation of mind by a visit to the Continent would, with God's blessing, restore him. For this purpose he left England; but after a short stay in Paris, the disease which was the canse of bia prostration manifested itself in such a manner as to lead to the determination that he should return at the close of April, and put himself under the skilful direction of the best medical advice in London. In July he went back to his beloved home at Rose Castle. The disease from which he suffered was at first somewhat obscure ia its character, but proved afterwards to be a schirrous tumour, which so affected him as to press upon the optic nerve of one of his eyes, and deprive him of the sight of that eye, causing great uneasiness, and not unfrequently much and severe pain. During the whole of his illness he was never heard to utter a murmur or complaint, but often to express thanks to his heavenly Father for any alleviation through the use of remedies and the watchful tender care of his beloved partner. He would not even allow his friends to speak of the dispensation as mysterious, lest the expression might seem in any way to impugn the wisdom and love of his heavenly Father in sending it. Often, when his mind was weak on other subjects, he poured out a beautiful prayer both for himself and those around him; thus personifying, in his last prolonged illness of many months, the words of the Apostle, "Patient in tribulation, rejoicing in hope, continuing instant in prayer."

His genuine humility was manifested by many expressions during his last illness. Frequently, when he heard that friends had spoken of him as a faithful servant, he would urge, "Do not let them call me a faithful servant. I am an unprofitable one—less than the least—the chief of sinners." At another time he dwelt on the power with which the words in Isaiah xliv. 22 had been applied to him,—" I have blotted out as a thick cloud thy transgressions, and as a cloud thy sins;" adding, "I can never tell what that word thick has been to me." His extreme tenderness of conscience wa.s well known to all who came in contact with him, and was also signally exemplified during the course of his illness. Once, when allusion was made in his presence to some tale of sin, he shuddered, and begged that nothing more might be said on the subject, and added emphatically, " Remember always it is written, Whatsoevec things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report, if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things."

That the feelings of the Pastor's heart were still warm, and his anxiety for the flock continued to the last, is testified to by one of his attached Chaplains, who, when preaching a funeral sermon, records these words of his in one of his later days,—" I can leave my wife, I can leave my children; but oh, my people, my people, my people!"

He sank into his rest on Friday, October the 1st; the last articulate words he was heard to utter were the prayer of his Saviour, "Father, glorify Thy name! Gracious, loving Father!" His funeral took place on Friday the 8th, in the presence of numbers of every class, who assembled to show their respect for his memory. By permission of the Secretary of State, his mortal remains were deposited within the precincts of the Cathedral in which his voice had so often been heard proclaiming the glad tidings of his Saviour's love, and where for the last time on the preceding New Year's Day he had preached from the text Daniel vii. 18, "But the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom even for ever and ever." We believe that these particulars of the life and labours of one whose faithfulness and devotedness were justly appreciated by all who delight in the pure Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ, will be read by them with warm interest j and we think they ought to be recorded, because the career of Bishop Waldegrave proves beyond doubt that the best friends of the Church are they who, having received the word of salvation in its power in their own hearts, are ready to maintain the authority of God's Word written as the work of His inspiration; and love our Protestant Church, because they are fully persuaded that the doctrines vindicated by our Reformers are most strictly in accordance with the teaching of the Bible, and that in these truths, maintained in their purity, is to be found all that belongs to the reality of the soul's life.


To ihe Editor of the Christian Observer.

Sib,—I regret to learn from my friend Mr. Biley, that in the brief sketch which I too hurriedly made, when passing through London last July, from his voluminous MS. on Armageddon, and which was inserted in your Number for August, there were admitted two serious errors; of which, in his name, I will ask you now kindly to insert the correction.

1. At p. 635, 1. 5 from bottom, instead of the following words, "Against this Mr. Biley objects that the Hebrew word for mountain is generally "fin, with the S and the aspirate," read (as in Mr. Biley's MS.), "Against this Mr. Biley objects that mount S*\T\ is always Hor, with the aspirate."

2. At p. 636, 1. 30, suppress entirely the words, "if written with the aspirate, Harmageddon, the city of the prince."

So my friend Mr. Biley: and I must take blame to myself for admitting such errors. The necessary hurry in which I wrote the abstract—being desirous that my friend should not be disappointed

Vol. 69.—No. 383. 6 T

any longer of seeing the main purport of his explanation in print in the Observer—is but a very insufficient excuse for me to plead.

Since receiving his communication, I have received also from another valued friend, well skilled in Hebrew, one or two further critical notices on the Paper, which I shall be obliged by your inserting.

1. My friend demurs to the propriety of Vitringa's explanation of the word Armageddon as the mountain of destruction, noted by me near the bottom of your page 635. He says that T13, whence the

derivative mageddon or megiddo, must properly be explained as meaning to collect together in crowds; or, metaphorically, to determine or decide; and that the use of the verb in the sense of to wound oneself, in one of its conjugations, does not seem to him to justify the alternative meaning to destroy, assigned in my Paper to it, whence Vitringa's above-mentioned explanation of Armageddon as the mountain of destruction.

On which poW, however, let me here observe, that not Vitringa alone thus explains the word, hut also that eminent Hebraist, Dr. Lightfoot, as cited by Wordsworth on the Apocalypse, p. 450 : "The word Armageddon signifies a mountain of men cut to pieces. (Lightfoot, Harmony N.T. on Rev. xvi. Works, vol. hi. p. 357.)" To the same effect, further observes Dr. Wordsworth, are the more ancient explanations of the Greek expositors, Andreas, Arethas, and CEcumenius.

2. For the following, at p. 636, 1. 26, "This word is used in 1 Kings i. 35, and Dan. ix. 25, to signify a prince," read, "A derivative from this word, viz., 103." So too, instead of "UJ, at p. 637,1. 8.

My friend further adds that Fuerst, in his Hebrew Lexicon, regards ftJB (Megiddo) as a development of "TJ3 from TT3- So that

it is unnecessary to reject the second d, as suggested in my former letter.

Whether in a compound word like Armageddon, on Mr. Biley's hypothesis of its verbal constituents, coapled with the recognized fact of the frequent interchange of D and J, a reference to TJJ, a prince, is precluded, remains a question for Hebraists.

In such case, my friend's suggestion that the word Armageddon may be meant to signify the prince's city, (Compare Ps. xlviii. 2, "Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth is Mount Zion, the city of the great King;" or if referred to *W and 13D, the city of

glorious things, i.e., "of which glorious things are spoken," Ps. lxxxvii.,) viz. Jerusalem, remains as a solution admissible, I conceive, and interesting.*—Yours, dear Sir, faithfully,

E. B. Elliott.

* The misprints in your August Number, of ^ for "}, at p. 635,1. 38, and p. 636,1. 19, of D for the final □, will be obvious.


Perranzabuloe. The Lost Church Found; or, The Church of England not a New Church, but ancient, apostolical, and independent, and a protesting Church nine hundred years before the Reformation. By the Rev. C. T. Collins Trelawny, M.A., late Rector of Timsbury, Somerset; and formerly Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. Rivingtons. 1868.—We heartily welcome the appearance of the sixth edition of this very valuable and interesting work. The object of Mr. Trelawny may be briefly described as being to supply an answer to the empty taunt of the Romanist, "Where was your religion before Luther?" Mr. Trelawny has replied to this enquiry, as regards the English Church, by tracing its antiquity up to apostolical times, and by showing that the Reformation did not create a new Church, but reformed a corrupt one. It is true, indeed, that, so far from deeming the manifold corruptions of the ages which preceded the Reformation an argument against the claims of the English Church to be a branch of the true Church of Christ, we trace, on the contrary, in those corruptions, the fulfilment of the predictions of our Lord and His Apostles; we recognize in the wilderness-state of the true Church the antitype of the true Israel in the days of Elijah, and in the cries which are even now ascending from the blood of those who resisted Rome's sorceries and idolatries to the death, we trace, as was predicted, the continued utterances of the voices of those who were yet to be "slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held," saying, "How long, 0 Lord, holy and true, doest Thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?"

These considerations, however, do not, in any degree, render us insensible to the value of such evidence as that which was afforded by the uncovering, after seven centuries of concealment, of the sand-immured Church of Perranzabuloe, and of the discovery made on entering the interior, that it "contained none of the modern accompaniments of a Roman Catholic place of worship."* "Strange," Mr. Trelawny observes, "that this ancient church should so belie the Papist's constant appeal to antiquityto the faith of their forefathers —to the old religion! Strange that it should, on the contrary, so closely harmonize with that novelty which Cranmer and the Reformers introduced into the doctrine and ritual of the Church of England." (p. 24.)

Amongst the many points to which Mr. Trelawny refers in this volume, as affording indications that the creed and ritual of the Romish Church were not those which existed "from the beginning,"

* It is an interesting fact, as bearing South angles of the "West end, thus

upon the position of the minister reducing the original breadth of 2 ft.

whilst celebrating the Holy Com- 3 in. so greatly, that the supposition

munion, that the old altar-tomb of that the minister stood with his back

the church stands East and West, not to the people during the celebration

North and South; and that square of the service, becomes altogether un

pieces are cut out from the North and tenable.

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