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we would refer our readers more particularly to his remarks on the alleged supremacy of St. Peter—to the argument fairly deducible from the silence of St. Paul against the groundless figment of the Romanists, that that apostle was the first Bishop of Rome,—and to the very interesting sketch, which is drawn in this volume, of the early history of the British Church, and its entire independence of the Roman yoke.

We venture to suggest to Mr. Trelawny that a reference to the chronological Pauline Chart of Canon Cook, or the Rev. E. B. Elliott, would save him from the repetition, in his next edition, of some trifling inaccuracies which we have observed in his allusions to the probably apostolical origin of the British Church; and further, that a reference to Dean Hook's Church Dictionary, or any similar manual, would suffice to guard him from some trifling inaccuracies on a subject, (with which, alas, many of the clergy of the English Church have, in late years, become too experimentally familiar,) the arrangements of Romish Churches, and the meaning and use of the various adjuncts of their corrupt worship.

The Early Years of Christianity. By E. de Pressensi, D.D. London: ILodder S{ Stoughton. 1869. — This volnme forms the second of a series which, commencing with the "Life, Work, and Times of Jesus Christ," is to conclude with two more, one to be entitled "The Martyrs and CoDfessors," the last to contain "the entire history of Christian thought and doctrine " during that period of the great conflict of the Church with Paganism. We cannot unreservedly commend it, although there is much which is important and ably stated. Indeed, our impression is, that it is not calculated to edify or to inform the believing Christian who is familiar with, and rests upon, the Word of God. It deals with the history of the period comprised in it, much as Conjbeare and Howson have detailed it, but with more attempt at philosophical explanation and reference to hostile criticism. The principal use of the book is, we think, to be found in the insight which it gives into how theological questions are viewed " extraEcclesiam Anglicanam," by an able and intelligent writer who is familiar with different schools of modern thought, who glories in not having "laid fetters on his freedom of examination," and has, nevertheless come to the conclusion that "his faith in the divinity of Christianity is deep and absolute." We cannot say that "the smell of fire has not passed upon him" from the furnace in which he has been toiling, for we think it is clearly perceptible in many ill-advised statements and erroneous conclusions; but he has uniformly written in a reverent and becoming spirit, and contrasts very favourably with many of the "free handlers " of God's word and doctrine, of whom M. de Pressense most truly says that "all that does not coincide with their system is prejudged and rejected," while "the most speculative theories are readily admitted as axioms by which other hypotheses may be established." He means his book to be an rmtidote against such writers as Strauss and Renan; and where such poison has been imbibed, and Christianity is treated as a ".cunningly devised fable," we think his statements will be found serviceable, and calculated to resolve perplexities.

(1) Parochial and Plain Sermons. By John Henry Newman, B.D. New Edition. London, Oxford, and Cambridge: Bivingtons. 1868.— (2) Female Characters of Holy Scripture. Sermons by Isaao Williams, B.D. New Edition. London, Oxford, and Cambridge: Bivingtons. 1869.—Specimen volumes have reached us of what appears to he a continuous reprint of the works of the authors above named. We do not marvel that there should be a demand for them in the school of which, in their day, they were the foremost leaders. It would not be easy for an intellectual and devout mind to content itself with the husks now provided by the doctors from Spanish and American Universities, who have succeeded to the places which they have left vacant by secession and death. The early writers in the Tractarian movement wrote on topics which might reasonably occupy the intelligence of thoughtful men; they wrote, too, as scholars, and so gained a hearing for the questionable statements which they advanced. We cannot commend writings which, notwithstanding the ability displayed in them, contain the germ of deadly error, but regret that we must refrain when we would gladly call attention to what is true and beautiful in them. One passage, however, we extract from a Sermon by Isaac Williams on "The Shunamite," because some might be disposed to listen to an utterance from him, which they would disregard if it proceeded from any other quarter. It is a remarkable and valuable testimony to some of the dangers attending auricular confession, and we are glad to give it circulation.

"After all, there must be numberless cases in which God alone can be the Guide and Comforter, the Confessor and Absolver, by the conscience within; under very many circumstances it must be so, and to a great degree in all. He has not only laid up such great gifts in the ministry of His Church, bnt He has likewise made us all priests unto His Father; He has poured upon all the spirit of grace and supplication; He has fulfilled the desire of Moses, and made all His people prophets; He has set within the heart His own witness; He has placed His own Judge on His throne within, that must second every sentence, and sanction every appeal. For who can be to any one a guide altogether like his own soul, or a substitute for it? Who, after all, can toll him what is right and wrong so correctly as that Divine Monitor within, if his voice be attended to in the fear of God? Who can know all his own inmost workings, his obliquities, and fostered temptations, and the like, to the same degree as the spirit within him? Who can be to a man as his own self? To seek a spiritual guide is sometimes—alas for our frail nature! must it be said ?—is sometimes to seek a tempter, one that will palliate and excuse, not willingly, but from partiality and want of sufficient knowledge, that on which the mind secretly misgives, and will sanction and embolden a wish that had bettor have been suppressed.

"Great are the assistances in the way of holiness which God has provided for us in His Church; yet, after all, as the Apostle says, 'Let every man prove his own work; . . . for every man shall bear his own burden.' 'So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.'" (pp. 188, 189.)

The Bomish Index, and its late Proceedings. A Second Letter to Archbishop Manning. By E. S. Ffoulkes, Author of'1 The Church's Greed, or the Crown's Creed." London: J. T. Hayes. New York: Pott and Amery. 1869.—We would most earnestly entreat all our readers to make themselves acquainted with the contents of this pamphlet. We have our own share of difficulties and anxieties in the Church of England, but a man must have a head which the produce of three Anticyras would not heal, if he were, after the perusal of Mr. Ffoulkes' statements, to care to exchange them for those which he will meet with in the Church of Rome. The subject matter of the controversy between Mr. Ffoulkes on the one side, and Dr. Manning and the Romish Court on the other, is in itself trivial and ephemeral; but the principles at stake are of eternal interest, and the course of conduct which has been pursued towards him, discloses an amount of tortuous obliquity and arbitrary action from which the soul recoils. Nor does he seem to be the only sufferer. We quote a passage, the significance of which will be patent to all.

"Whether Your Grace knows anything of the remaining intrigue to which I shall allude, it is not competent for me to say: the intrigue, or series of intrigues, namely, that has for so long doomed to comparative retirement and inaction one of the master-minds of his age; when for the genius with which God has blessed him, and the influence which he wields over countless multitudes in all communions—above all, for the crisis through which we are passing—he ought to have been raised aloft on a pedestal as the S. Bernard of Europe. Characters that it takes ages to produce, wo should make the most of while we can: therefore, when they are condemned to unmerited obloquy year after year of their mature prime, it becomes a national, if not a world-wide calamity. Now I have seen and read a pamphlet written by one scarcely his inferior in ability, and full his equal in honesty, detailing this intrigue from beginning to end, and disclosing such conduct in some cases—in one case comparable with the behaviour of Lady Nottingham to Lord Essex—as would have made all concerned in it, however exalted their positions, colour crimson had it been made public. The noble nature that had been assailed stepped in between this pamphlet and the world, just as it was ready for circulation: a presentation copy gave him the first tidings of what was contemplated, and he replied by- telegraph begging that it might be suppressed. Should your Grace desire that its contents should be made public after my pointed allusions, its author may possibly be iuduced to defer to your wishes."

PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

The topic of most interest during the last month in public affairs at home, is the appointment of Bishops to the sees vacant by resignation or death. To some of these appointments objections have been raised, that they are not men of sufficient power or influence for the exigencies of the Church of England in its present critical circumstances. But against the appointment of Dr. Temple to the See of Exeter a far more weighty and tangible ground of objection has been raised. A few years ago, he, with six other writers of the notorious "Essays and Reviews," was condemned by the almost unanimous voice of the Church as well as by the Convocation of the Province of Canterbury. Yet without any renunciation, on Dr. Temple's part, of complicity with the general character of the work in question, or any retractation of the positions in his own Essay, which have been objected to, Dr. Temple has been nominated by the Prime Minister to the See of Exeter. It is scarcely possible to conceive a case of the appointment of a Bishop more in defiance of the expressed mind of the Church as to his fitness for the office, unless his clerical character be purged from this stigma. If the Prime Minister has obtained from competent authority any such purgation, he is bound to state it. While the matter remains in its present position, it is a deep injury inflicted upon the Church. Yet we fear that there is no remedy. The election by the Chapter is merely a ministerial act enjoined upon them by Parliament. Their refusal would be simply a violation of the law, and the law has provided that such refusal shall not prevent the appointment. If the members of a Chapter feel themselves aggrieved by being compelled to elect, the alternative is to resign the office to which such ministerial action may be attached: as one of the Chapter of Hereford resigned his stall, an honorary one, after the election of Dr. Hampden.

We deeply regret that this event has been employed as an argument for the disestablishment of the Church; as if equally grievous injuries might not ensue, in the appointment of bishops, and in a thousand other ways, by the spoliation and disestablishment of the Church of England. A more direct and obvious remedy is, to seek by legislation, if legislation be required, the transfer of the exercise of the Queen's prerogative of nominating bishops to a more suitable party than the virtual leader of the House of Commons, or to give practical effect to the voice of the Cathedral Chapter.

In Ireland the disestablished Church has taken its first steps towards self-organisation with great wisdom and moderation. The clergy of the two Provinces have met in Synod; and the first point upon which all the bishops and clergy were unanimous, was the introduction of the laity into Church Synods and Conventions: in what numbers, and in what mode to be elected, was left to the laity to determine. A second important reform, on which there was a division, was that all the clerical members should be elected. Hitherto, since the 12th century, as in England, Deans and Archdeacons have sat in Synod ex officio. In this Synod, a Dean moved, and an Archdeacon seconded, the exclusion of ex officio members. The votes were 107 to 29; the majority of the Deans and Archdeacons voted for their own exclusion, asking only to be elected if thought worthy. It was proposed that questions of doctrine and ritual should be decided by the clergy alone. There was, we are informed, an overwhelming majority against this motion, but it was put aside as not properly brought forward. The laity assembled, at the invitation and under the presidency of the Archbishop of Dublin, to the number of more than 400, comprising the most influential peers and laymen of the country; and the two points on which they agreed were, that the number of lay representatives should be twice the number of clerical representatives, in conformity with the practice of many other Churches, and that the votes of the Synods should be taken by orders, as the best means of securing the independence of both clergy and laity. The two Archbishops of Ireland have since delivered their Charges, and we gladly close with the following encouraging words of the Archbishop of Armagh :—" I esteem it a happy circumstance that the laity, from the highest to the humblest, have taken the deepest interest in every proposal or movement for the maintenance and reorganisation of our Church. Had coldness or apathy been evinced, we might indeed have despaired; but where there is zeal and energy and love, we have sure grounds of hope."

In Spain there have been, in various places, terrible and bloody outbreaks by the partisans of a republic. They have been in every instance crushed, under martial law, by the firm and stern arm of the military under General Prim. But the republican spirit has exhibited a power and wide diffusion which creates some doubt as to the future form of government.

We record with much pleasure and interest a fresh subdivision of the diocese of Sydney. A new see, 650 miles in length and 400 in breadth, has been formed at Bathurst, about 120 miles from Sydney. The Bishop recently appointed to it is himself an Australian, a grandson of the excellent Samuel Marsden, who laboured so long and so faithfully in that land for its welfare and for the extension of Christianity to New Zealand. We therefore gladly comply with the request of the metropolitan of Australia, who, from his far distant diocese, seeks to interest the readers of the Christian Observer in the fortunes of the new bishopric. He bears the highest testimony to the "activity, earnestness, and sound judgment of the new Bishop." He commends him as one who "has no sympathy with Ritualism or Rationalism, but is a true son of the Reformed Church of England," and dwells upon the spirit of self-denial in which he enters upon his labours. Much help is needed, in addition to what has been subscribed in the colony; and we would be glad if this notice were to lead some to interest themselves in a cause so vouched for, and to extend to the new bishop and bishopric "their sympathy and their prayers."

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