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nephew, and the Powers which had taken up arms to check the spread of revolutionary flames, were now entering themselves on a similar course of violence. “Come what may,”— these words of the rash French General became likewise the watchword of Germany and France, and consequently, of European policy.

BOOK V.

COMMENCEMENT OF THE WAR BETWEEN ENGLAND

AND FRANCE.

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THE MIDDLE AGES AND MODERN TIMES CONTRASTED.-CHARACTERISTICS OF

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. — COINCIDENCE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
WITH THE AGRESSIVE POLICY OF RUSSIA.'

We have carried our history of the revolutionary period down to the time when the Communist democracy unfolded its victorious banner for the first time in France; and after a temporary check, prepared itself for the last decisive struggle. We have at the same time traced the effects of the Revolution on the Continental States of Central Europe. Germany has been forced into a defensive war; Belgium, Switzerland and Italy, are threatened with dangerous invasions. At the same time the example of the French lust of conquest begins to find imitators in Vienna and Berlin, and the first symptoms appeared of the approaching extension of the movement, beyond its previous sphere, to Eastern Europe and the Ocean. In every direction, therefore, the call to freedom, raised in 1789, appeared like the signal for despotism and military violence. The history of the world can scarcely shew a turn of affairs so tragical—so terrible a fall after such .vigorous efforts, such a grand developement, and such enthusiastic hopes. It is a moment well suited to ask ourselves the question, whether those hopes bore within them the seeds of decay, whether that developement was, from the very first, necessarily unfruitful.

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