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21, 5.

Blue ribbon, the insignia of the Order of the Garter.
Peace to be secured through reconciliation.

22, 3. Grasp of the subject may be determined by frequent tests

of the pupils' understanding of the points made. say on Population?

What does Burke What relation has the subject to the argu


22, 30. Trifles.

23, 11. Richard Glover, 1712-1785, a poet and scholar, whose work, highly esteemed in his own day, was without lasting merit. He was M.P. for Weymouth in 1761, and was reëlected a number of times. Wharton ranks him as "one of the best Greek scholars of his time."

23, 17. It was the age of Dr. Johnson, Goldsmith, Percy, Boswell, Gibbon, Adam Smith, and Sheridan. Burke's ranking of Glover with such a galaxy of genius was, perhaps, not an error in judgment, but an attempt to add weight to the authority quoted.

23, 29. 24, 2. Charles Davenant, 1656–1714, son of the dramatic poet, Sir William Davenant, achieved his political reputation by writing on finance and political economy. In 1703 he became Inspector General of exports and imports.

Commerce; see note on Population on page 22.

24, 6. The slave trade began in the colonies in 1619; twenty negroes were brought by a Dutch ship to the James River and sold to the planters. The enormous revenue in the traffic caused English merchants to develop the trade enormously, while the colonists themselves looked on it with great favor, at least in the South.

In 1750 the negroes numbered about 220,000, being brought into the country probably at the rate of 10,000 a year. See "Formation of the Colonies," Hart.

"British avarice planted slavery in America; British legislation sanctioned and maintained it; British statesmen sustained and guarded it." See "Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America," Henry Wilson.

25, 28. Mark ix. 5.

26, 2. Lord Bathurst lived to the great age of ninety-one; he had some eminence in literature, and was the friend of Pope, Swift, and Addison. He died during the year of Burke's speech on Conciliation.

26, 5. Classic quotation and allusion is still prevalent in the House of Commons. It would be regarded as pedantic in the House of Representatives.

26, 13. Scotland was united by the Treaty of Union in 1707. Ireland was subjugated by Cromwell in 1610, but it is doubtful if this country has ever been "made Great Britain."

27, 4. Notice in this paragraph, beginning page 25, line 27, that the argument from the commerce of the colonies is repeated for strength. Analyze the last paragraph for the secret of its force.

27, 31.

Agriculture. See note on Population, page 22.

28, 6. There is a Latin tradition of a Roman, imprisoned and condemned to die of starvation, nourished from the breasts of his own daughter, who had gained admission to his cell.

28, 8. The impassioned voice of the orator is not necessary to make burning eloquence here. The words have the ring of patriotic poetry. 28, 23.

A constellation of the southern hemisphere.

29, 15. What are Burke's objections to force ? What is the relation of this argument to the proposition, Peace by Reconciliation? 31, 32. Pym, Hampton, Vane, Eliot, Coke, Littleton.

32. Let the student show his grasp of the thought by a written outline of the subject, Causes of the Growth of Freedom, showing subsequently (orally) comprehension of the purpose of this presentation, with relation to the advancement of the original proposition, Peace through Reconciliation.

33, 9.

"The enforced toleration of all sects but papists was a constant source of wrath (Hosmer). This was especially true among the fervid Puritans of New England, and may be reckoned as one of the many inciting causes of the war of independence.


34, 32. 34, 32. Frederick the Great, with Russia and Austria, effected the first partition of Poland in 1772, seizing 82,000 square miles of territory. By the second partition, 1793, Russia and Prussia divided 118,000 square miles; and in 1795 the remainder of the kingdom was apportioned by these three nations. King Stanislas, who had vainly petitioned the powers of Europe for intervention, abandoned his crown and died despondent in 1798.

35, 19. It was contrary to the law for town meetings to be called, but they met under the evasion of an "adjournment."

35, 25. Edward Thurlow, 1732-1806; Attorney General in 1771. "He contrived to persuade mankind that he was a great judge, a great orator, and a great statesman, although I am afraid that in all these capacities he was considerably overrated and that he owed his temporary reputation very much to his high pretensions and his

awe-inspiring manners."


35, 31.

XV. 83.

36, 17.

38, 9.

38, 20.

Campbell's "Lives of the Lord Chan

"Character is influenced by studies." Ovid, "Heroides,"

Job xxxviii.

Latin, operosus, full of work, laborious.

Governor of Virginia, 1771.

40, 8.
suggested for drill in argumentation.

With this statement excellent smaller units of work are
How does Burke handle each of

these propositions?

Is his argument fair, logical, complete? is it

refutable? Of what service are his conclusions ?

40, 24. The first of the three propositions stated.

40, 25. History is an almost endless story of the struggles of Englishmen for the liberty of self-government against the arbitrary power of monarchs. The conflict in England, Ireland, and America with George III. was but a continuation of the bloody strife with the Stuarts.

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41, 17.

Moguls, who overran Russia in the Middle Ages.

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42, 17.

42, 28.

Sat. VIII.


43, 6.

44, 6.

44, 10.

A bald avowal of the policy of greed.

"Arms are left to those who have been robbed." Juvenal,

Harrying by dragoons.

This was a part of the Virginia non-importation act. Angola, a Portuguese colony on the west coast of Africa, was long infamous for the extent and brutality of its slave trade. 44, 17. Perhaps from Dryden. 44, 27. 45, 9.

The second of the three propositions. See note page 40, 8. A noted jurist, Attorney General in 1603. At the trial of the great courtier, Raleigh was brutally scored with personal invective.

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The third of the three propositions. See note page 40, 8.
Serbonian bog, chronicled by Herodotus.

49, 3. Damiata, an ancient town of Lower Egypt, now of little importance. Mount Casius, between Lower Egypt and Arabia. The quotation is from "Paradise Lost," II. 592-594.

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50, 19.

Those who hoped to raise a revenue from America.

50, 30. Mr. Rice, a mediocre statesman.

51, 7. "In the first place, the Navigation Acts required that all the colonies' trade should be carried on in ships built or owned in England or the colonies. In the second place, most of the colonial products were included in the list of enumerated goods,' which could be sent abroad, even in English or colonial vessels, only to English ports. The intention was to give to English home merchants a middleman's profit in the exchange of American for foreign goods."

53, 29.


A distinguished poet

54, 14. More properly Davies, 1570-1626. and judge, who in 1603 was made Solicitor General and shortly after Attorney General. He was appointed Lord Chief Justice the year of his death. "In 1612 he published an excellent work on the political state of Ireland."

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54, 32. Ireland was in such turmoil at this time that this statement seems a bit roseate. The success of the American Revolution doubtless kept the Irish in a ferment, resulting in the rebellion of 1798.

55, 23. The nobles of the marches of Wales (and Scotland), who were possessed of royal power till the time of Henry VIII.

56, 23.

56, 31.


"Ill-husbandry of injustice," a most felicitous phrase. 57, 17. "Whose clear shining constellation as soon as it has shone forth to the sailors, the troubled surge falls down from the rocks, the winds cease, the clouds vanish, and the threatening waves subside in the sea, because it was their will." Horace, "Ode to Castor and Pollux," I. XII. 27.


57, 24. Latin palatinus, belonging to the imperial abode or Palatine hill, applied originally to persons holding office or employment in the royal palace." County Palatine, "a county distinguished by particular privileges, so called because the owner or holder had royal powers in the administration of justice as the king had in his palace" (Cent. Dict.). 58, 4. off from an inheritance" (Cent. Dict.).

Old French, desheriter, to disinherit.

"The act of cutting

59, 17. Judge Barrington, 1727–1800, a distinguished antiquary of no great repute at the bar, but who was held in esteem for his legal writings.

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60, 24. 62, 16.

"Comus," 634, 635. (Inaccurate.)

"What and how great the virtue to live on little (this is no doctrine of mine, but what Ofellus the peasant, a philosopher without rules, and of homely wit, taught me)." Horace, Lib. II., Sat. II. 2, 3.

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68, 31.

A rebate of custom dues.

69, 20. The port of Boston was closed by action of Parliament in 1774 to all trade except food and fuel brought from other parts of America. This was done as a punishment for the destruction of tea by the "Boston Tea Party."

71, 9. A tribunal for adjusting all maritime cases both civil and criminal. In the United States the federal courts have such jurisdiction.

71, 18. By the Navigation Act of 1651 all foreign vessels were prohibited to bring to England any goods other than the products of their respective countries, with the intent to wrest from the Dutch, then masters of the carrying trade of the world, the entire import commerce of Asia, Africa, and America.

"American independence, like the great rivers of the country, had many sources; but the head spring which colored all the stream was the colonial mercantile system." Bancroft.

75, 9. See note page 20.

75, 27.

Experiment upon something of little value.

77, 27. Tobacco played an important part in the early history of Virginia and the beginnings of the Revolution. It was the legal currency in 1755. In 1758 the legislature gave the people the right to pay their public dues and the charges of the clergy in money at the rate of twopence per pound of tobacco. In 1759 this staple was valued at sixpence the pound. The clergy, through the Bishop of London, opposed the law and secured its abrogation by the king. Thus, in 1763, prerogative and the right of the colonies to self-government under their charter were squarely confronted.

The case of "Parson" Maury was brought to trial on the demand of his counsel for damages. Patrick Henry's "treasonable" defense of the validity of colony law was the clarion note of subsequent revolution.

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