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mended should be made at least two hundred thousand. The two former rivals and contestants sat in earnest consultation, Mr. Lincoln listening with gratified and eager interest to the advice which Mr. Douglas, from his intimate acquaintance with the leaders in his great conspiracy prepared him well to give. They parted, and with the President's call, the next morning, went the cheering intelligence that Lincoln and Douglas were standing side by side and shoulder to shoulder in the support of the Government. This was almost the last, and was the most honorable act, of Mr. Douglas's life. Within a few weeks he returned on a visit to his home in Illinois, where he became sick and died.

With the answering thousands to Mr. Lincoln's proclamation came cares and duties to his office more arduous and wearing than had ever crowded upon any former Chief Magistrate. Where hundreds were expected, thousands flew to the rescue of the imperiled Government. These raw volunteers had to be armed, clothed, organized, and led. The civil officers, to a great extent, were filled with traitors; these had to be removed and true men appointed. The vast army rising quickly, almost as a vision, must be



officered; and for the vacancies in these two departments came thousands of applicants, who beset Mr. Lincoln by night and by day, and he gave audience and a word to all who could crowd into his presence. The rebels were powerful in numbers, and led by men of surpassing ability. The Democratic party of the North was suspicious of their late political antagonists, and had to be managed with caution and profound statesmanship. The governments of Europe, with the single exception of the Emperor of Russia, were delighted at the prospective downfall of free government, and sought opportunity and pretext to take part in its destruction and share in its spoils. A navy had to be built, arms provided, and, in fact, every thing necessary to convert a peaceable, unarmed nation into a vast military power was to be done, and done quickly. To accomplish all this, a sum of money was to be provided and expended, in comparison with which the revenues and wealth of King Solomon were but a pittance. Such was the task which fell upon Mr. Lincoln, and ipon men laboring under his authority. He ca, ried with him into his labors not only a hopeful heart, but a constitution of iron strength and endurance. Both were needed, and both were taxed to the utmost by these diversified and urgent cares.

The first battles of the war resulted disastrously to the Union armies. After vast preparations, and with confident hopes of victory, the first battle was fought at Bull Run, resulting in a most disgraceful defeat and rout of the Union troops, who fled frantically back upon Washington. Under this and the great disasters which afterward occurred, Mr. Lincoln bore up with unfailing faith in his cause and confidence in its success. When the tide turned, and victory followed victory in resplendent succession, he did not suffer himself to be unduly exalted or jubilant. Hopeful in disaster, humble in triumph, laborious at all times, he worked out the mission appointed for him of God.





URING the first year and a half of the war, the policy of the Government was

to conciliate the pro-slavery element both North and South. Mr. Lincoln was careful to show that he respected the rights guaranteed to slavery by the Constitution. Pro-slavery generals were placed in command. McDowell, Patterson, McClellan, Buell, and others announced that they would not only respect property in slaves, but assist in putting down an insurrection of slaves against the rebels ! Rebels' horses and corn were to be confiscated, while they were to be aided in retaining their bond men. Slaveholders impudently entered the Union armies to search for their lost human chattels. The Hutchinson Family of minstrels volunteered to cheer the soldiers in the Army of the Potomac with their heart-easing songs. One of these, by the patriot poet Whittier, was as follows:

What gives the wheat-fields blades of steel?

What points the rebel cannon ?
What sets the roaring rabble's heel
On the old Star-Spangled pennon n?

What breaks the oath
Of the men o' tho South ?
What whets the knife

For the Union's life?
Hark to the answer: SLAVERY!

Then waste no blows on lesser foes

In strife unworthy freemen;
God lists the veil to-day and shows
The features of the demon!

0, North and South,
Its victims both,
Can ye not cry,

Let slavery die,
And Union find in freedom ?

What though the cast-out spirit tear

The nation in his going ?
We who have shared his guilt must share

pangs of his o'erthrowing
Whate'er the loss,
Whate'er the cross,
Shall they complain

Of present pain
Who trust in God's hereafter ?

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