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PREFACE BY LORD BACON.

J ULIUS CAESAR did write a collection of apophthegms, as appears in an epistle of Cicero; so did Macrobius a consular man. I need say no more for the worth of a writing of that nature. It is pity Caesar's book is lost: for I imagine they were collected with judgment and choice; whereas that of Plutarch and Stobaeus, and much more the modern ones, draw much of the dregs. Certainly they are of excellent use. They are mucrones verborum, pointed speeches: “The words of the wise are as goads,” saith Solomon. Cicero prettily calleth them salinas, salt-pits, that you may extract salt out of, and sprinkle it where you will. They serve to be interlaced in continued speech. They serve to be recited upon occasion of themselves. They serve if you take out the kernel of them, and make them your own. I have for my recreation among more serious studies, collected some few of them : * therein fanning the old, not omitting any, because they are vulgar, (for many vulgar ones are excellent good;) nor for the meanness of the person, but because they are dull and flat; and adding many new, that otherwise would have died.

* This collection his lordship made out of his memory, without turning to any book.

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. Page APOPHTHEGMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ornamenta Rationalia: or, Elegant Sentences ...... 76 Short Notes for Civil Conversation... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Letter to Lord Mountjoye, on the Colours of Good and Evil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . 90 A Fragment of the Colours of Good and Evil........ 92 Table of the Colours, or Appearances of Good and Evil, and their Degrees, as Places of Persuasion and Dissuasion, and their several Fallacies and the Elenches of them. . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . 94 New Atlantis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Letter to Sir Henry Savile . . . . . . . . .............. 182 Helps for the Intellectual Powers.................. 186 Helps of the Intellectual Powers .................. 190 Filum Labyrinthi, sive Formula Inquisitionis ...... 194 SequelaChartarum; sive, Inquisitio Legitima de Calore et Frigore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 The Characters of a Believing Christian, in Paradoxes, and seeming Contradictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Prayer made and used by the Lord Chancellor Bacon 232 An Essay on Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

Letter to the Marquis Fiat, relating to the Essays.... 245

To the Earl of Arundel and Surrey : just before his death, being the last Letter he ever wrote . . . . . . . . 246

The last Will of Francis Bacon Viscount St. Alban... 247

APOPHTHEGMS.

1. QUEEN Elizabeth, the morrow of her coromation, (it being the custom to release prisoners, at the inauguration of a prince), went to the chapel; and in the great chamber, one of her courtiers, who was well known to her, either out of his own motion, or by the instigation of a wiser man, presented her with a petition; and before a great number of courtiers, besought her with a loud voice, that now this good time, there might be four or five principal prisoners more released : those were the four evangelists and the apostle St. Paul, who had been long shut up in an unknown tongue, as it were in prison; so as they could not converse with the common people. The Queen answered very gravely, that it was best first to enquire of them, whether they would be released or no.

2. Queen Ann Bullen, at the time when she was led to be beheaded in the Tower, called one

of the king's privy chamber to her, and said unto him, commend me to the king, and tell him, that he hath ever been constant in his course of advancing me; from a private gentlewoman he made me a marchioness; and from a marchioness a queen; and now, that he hath left no higher degree of earthly honour, he intends to crown my innocency with the glory of martyrdom. 3. His majesty James the first, king of Great Britain, having made unto his parliament an excellent and large declaration, concluded thus; I have now given you a clear mirror of my mind; use it therefore like a mirror, and take heed how you let it fall, or how you soil it with your breath. 4. A great officer in France was in danger to have lost his place; but his wife, by her suit and means making, made his peace; whereupon a pleasant fellow said, that he had been crush'd, but that he saved himself upon his horns. 5. His majesty said to his parliament at another time, finding there were some causeless jealousies sown amongst them; that the king and his people, (whereof the parliament is the representative body,) were as husband and wife; and therefore, that of all other things, jealousy was between them most pernicious. 6. His majesty, when he thought his council

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