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any idea further than that of a bare sound : and and surely the man who says nert summer, has why may not those who read his works be af- no images of such a succession, and such an fected in the same manner that he was; with exclusion. In short it is not only of those ideas as little of any real ideas of the things de- which are commonly called abstract, and of scribed? The second instance is of Mr. Saun- which no image at all can be forned, but even derson, professor of mathematics in the univer- of particular real beings, that we converse sity of Cambridge. This learned man had without having any idea of them excited in the acquired great knowledge in natural philoso- imagination; as will certainly appear on a phy, in astronomy, and whatever sciences de diligent examination of our own minds. Indeed, pend upon mathematical skill. What was the so little does poetry depend for its effect on the most extraordinary and the most to my pur- power of raising sensible images, that I am pose, he gave excellent lectures upon light and convinced it would lose a very considerable colours; and this man taught others the theory part of its energy if this were the necessary of those ideas which they had, and which he result of all description. Because that union himself undoubtedly had not. But it is proba- of affecting words, which is the most powerful ble that the words red, blue, green, answered of all poetical instruments, would frequently to him as well as the ideas of the colours them- lose its force along with its propriety and conselves; for the ideas of greater or lesser de sistency, if the sensible images were always grees of refrangibility being applied to these excited. There is not perhaps in the whole words, and the blind man being instructed in Eneid a more grand and laboured passage than what other respects they were found to agree the description of Vulcan's cavern in Etna, or to disagree, it was as easy for him to reason and the works that are there carried on. Virgil upon the words, as if he had been fully master dwells particularly on the formation of the thunof the ideas. Indeed it must be owned he der, which he describes unfinished under the could make no new discoveries in the way of hammers of the Cyclops. But what are the experiment. He did nothing but what we do principles of this extraordinary composition ? every day in common discourse. When I wrote this last sentence, and used the words
Tres imbris torti radios, tres nubis aquosa
Addiderant ; rutili tres ignis et alitia austri: every day and common discourse, I had no
Fulgores nunc terrificos, sonitumque, metumque images in my mind of any succession of time; Miscebant operi, flammisque sequacibus iras. nor of men in conference with each other; nor do I imagine that the reader will have any such This seems to me admirably sublime ; yet if ideas on reading it. Neither when I spoke of we attend coolly to the kind of sensible images red, or blue and green, as well as refrangibility, which a combination of ideas of this sort must had I these several colours, or the rays of light form, the chimeras of madmen cannot appear passing into a different medium, and there di- more wild and absurd than such a picture, verted from their course, painted before me in “Three rays of twisted showers, three of watery the way of images. I know very well that the clouds, three of fire, and three of the winged mind possesses a faculty of raising such images south wind; then mired they in the work terrific at pleasure ; but then an act of the will is neces- lightnings, and sound and fear, and anger,
with sary to this; and in ordinary conversation or pursuing flames.” This strange composition reading it is very rarely that any image at all is formed into a gross body; it is hammered is excited in the mind. If I say "I shall go to by the Cyclops, it is in part polished, and Italy next summer,". I am well understood. partly continues rough. The truth is, if poetry Yet I believe nobody has by this painted in his gives us a noble assemblage of words correimagination the exact figure of the speaker sponding to many noble ideas, which are conpassing by land or by water, or both; some- nected by circumstances of time or place, or times on horseback, sometimes in a carriage; related to each other as cause and effect, or with all the particulars of the journey. Still associated in any natural way, they may be less has he any idea of Italy the country to moulded together in any form, and perfectly which I proposed to go; or of the greenness of answer their end. The picturesque connec the fields, the ripening of the fruits, and the tion is not demanded; because no real picwarmth of the air, with the change to this from ture is formed ; nor is the effect of the dea different season, which are the ideas for scription at all the less upon this account. which the word summer is substituted; but What is said of Helen by Priam and the old least of all has he any image from the word men of his council, is generally thought to next; for this word stands for the idea of many give us the highest possible idea of that fatal summers, with the exclusion of all but one: beauty.
HOW WORDS INFLUENCE THE PASSIONS.
Ου νεμεσις Τρωας και ευκνημιδας Αχαιους, lingua. There it is strictly imitation; and all
descriptive poetry operates chiefly by substitz
tion; by means of sounds, which by custom
imitation further than as it resembles some
POPE. sort of resemblance to the ideas for which they
and that we are easily affected and brought into Humana ante oculos læde cum vita jaceret,
sympathy by any tokens which are shewn of In terris, oppressa gravi sub religione, them; and there are no tokens which can exQuæ caput e cæli regionibus ostendebat
press all the circumstances of most passions so Horribili super aspectu mortalibus instans; Primus Graius homo mortales tollere contra
fully as words; so that if a person speaks upon Est oculos ausus.
any subject, he can not only convey the subject What idea do you derive from so excellent a
to you, but likewise the manner in which he picture ? none at all, most certainly; neither is himself affected by it. Certain it is, that has the poet said a single word which might in the influence of most things on our passions is the least serve to mark a single limb or feature
not so much from the things themselves, as of the phantom, which he intended to represent from our opinions
concerning them; and these in all the horrours imagination can conceive. again depend very much on the opinions of In reality poetry and rhetoric do not succeed in other men, conveyable for the most part by exact description so well as painting does; of a very affecting nature, which can seldom
words only. Secondly, there are many things their business is, to affect rather by sympathy occur in the reality, but the words which reprethan imitation; to display rather the, effect of things on the mind of the speaker, or of
sent them often do; and thus they have an others, than to present a clear idea of the opportunity of making a deep impression and things themselves. This is their most exten- taking root in the mind, whilst the idea of the sive province, and that in which they succeed reality was transient ; and to some perhaps the best.
never really occurred in any shape, to whom it is notwithstanding very affecting, as war,
death, famine, &c. Besides many ideas have SECTION VI.
never been at all presented to the senses of any men but by words, as God, angels, devils,
heaven, and hell, all of which have however a POETRY NOT STRICTLY AN IMITATIVE ART.
great influence over the passions. Thirdly, by HENCE we may observe that poetry, taken words we have it in our power to make such in its most general sense, cannot with strict combinations as we cannot possibly do otherpropriety be called an art of imitation. It is wise. By this power of combining we are indeed an imitation so far as it describes the able, by the addition of well chosen circummanners and passions of men which their words stances, to give a new life and force to the simcan express ; where animi motus effert interprete ple object. In painting we may represent any fine figure we please; but we never can give it words, which being peculiarly devoted to pasthose enlivening touches which it may receive sionate subjects, and always used by those from words. To represent an angel in a pic- who are under the influence of any passion, ture, you can only draw a beautiful young man
touch and move us more than those which far winged: but what painting can furnish out any more clearly and distinctly express the subject thing so grand as the addition of one word,“ the matter. We yield to sympathy what we refuse angel of the Lord?" It is true, I have here to description. The truth is, all verbal descrip no clear idea ; but these words affect the mind tion, merely as naked description, though never more than the sensible image did; which is all 80 exact, conveys só poor and insufficient an I contend for. A picture of Priam dragged to idea of the thing described, that it could the altar's foot, and there murdered, if it were scarcely have the smallest effect, if the speaker well executed, would undoubtedly be very did not call in to his aid those modes of speech moving; but there are very aggravating cir- that mark a strong and lively feeling in himcumstances, which it could never represent: self. Then, by the contagion of our passions, Sanguine fædantem quos ipse sacraderat ignes. we catch a fire already kindled in another, As a further instance, let us consider those lines which probably might never have been struck of Milton, where he describes the travels of the ly conveying the passions, by those means
out by the object described. Words, by strongfallen angels through their dismal habitation
which we have already mentioned, fully com -O'er many a dark and dreary vale
pensate for their weakness in other respects. They pass’d, and many a region dolorous; O'er many a frozen, many a fiery Alp;
It may be observed, that very polished lanRocks, caves, lakes, sens, bogs, dens, and guages, and such as are praised for their supeshades of death,
riour clearness and perspicuity, are generally A universe of death.
deficient in strength. The French language Here is displayed the force of union in has that perfection and that defect. Whereas Rocks, caves, lakes, dens, bogs, fens,and shades; the oriental tongues, and in general the lan
guages of most unpolished people, have a great which yet would lose the greatest part of their force and energy of expression; and this is but effect, if they were not the
natural. Uncultivated people are but ordinary Rocks, caves, lakes, dens, bogs, fens, and observers of things, and not critical in distinshades
guishing them; but, for that reason, they admire of Death.
more, and are more affected with what they see, This idea or this affection caused by a word, and therefore express themselves in a warmer which nothing but a word could annex to the and more passionate manner. I the affection others, raises a very great degree of the sub- be well conveyed, it will work its effect without lime; and this sublime is raised yet higher by any clear idea; often without any idea at all of what follows, a "universe of Death." Here the thing which has originally given rise to it. are again two ideas not presentable but by lan- It might be expected from the fertility of the guage; and an union of them great and ama- subject, that I should consider poetry as it zing beyond conception; if they may properly regards the sublime and beautiful, more at be called ideas which present no distinct image large; but it must be observed that in this to the mind :—but still it will be difficult to light it has been often and well handled already conceive how words can move the passions It was not my design to enter into the criticism which belong to real objects, without represent- of the sublime and beautiful in any art, but to ing these objects clearly. This is difficult to attempt to lay down such principles as may us, because we do not sufficiently distinguish, tend to ascertain, to distinguish, and to form a in our observations upon language, between a sort of standard for them; which purposes I clear expression, and a strong expression. thought might be best effected by an inquiry These are frequently confounded with each into the properties of such things in nature, as other, though they are in reality extremely dif- raise love and astonishment in us; and by feront. The former regards the understanding; shewing in what manner they operated to prothe latter belongs to the passions. The one duce these passions. Words were only so far describes a thing as it is; the latter describes to be considered, as to shew upon what princiit as it is felt. Now, as there is a moving ple they were capable of being the representatone of voice, an impassioned countenance, an tives of these natural things, and by what agitated gesture, which affect independently of powers they were able to affect us often as the things about which they are exerted, so strongly as the things they represent, and there are words, and certain dispositions of
sometimes much more strongly.
A SHORT ACCOUNT
OF A LATE SHORT ADMINISTRATION.
The late administration came into employ- posed and encouraged public meetings and freo ment, under the mediation of the Duke of consultations of merchants from all parts of the Cumberland, on the tenth day of July 1765; and kingdom; by which means the truest lights was removed, upon a plan settled by the Earl have been received; great benefits have been of Chatham, on the thirtieth day of July 1766, already derived to manufactures and comhaving lasted just one year and twenty days. merce; and the most extensive prospects are In that space of time
opened for further improvement. The distractions of the British empire were Under them, the interests of our northern composed, by the repeal of the American stamp and southern colonies, before that time jarring act;
and dissonant, were understood, compared, But the constitutional superiority of Great adjusted, and perfectly reconciled. The pasBritain was preserved, by the act for securing sions and animosities of the colonies, by judithe dependence of the colonies.
cious and lenient measures, were allayed and Private houses were relieved from the juris- composed, and the foundation laid for a lasting diction of the excise, by the repeal of the cyder- agreement among them.
Whilst that administration provided for the The personal liberty of the subject was con- liberty and commerce of their country, as the firmed, by the resolution against general warrants. true basis of its power, they consulted its inte
The lawful secrets of business and friend- rests, they asserted its honour abroad, with ship were rendered inviolable, by the resolution temper and with firmness; by making an for condemning the seizure of papers. advantageous treaty of commerce with Russia;
The trade of America was set free from by obtaining a liquidation of the Canada bills, injudicious and ruinous impositions—its reve- to the satisfaction of the proprietors; by revinue was improved, and settled upon a rational ving and raising from its ashes the negotiation foundation-its commerce extended with fo. for the Manilla ransom, which had been extinreign countries; while all the advantages were guished and abandoned by their predecessors. secured to Great Britain, by the act for repeal- They treated their sovereign with decency; ing certain duties, and encouraging, regulating, with reverence. They discountenanced, and, and securing the trade of this kingdom, and the it is hoped, for ever abolished, the dangerous British dominions in America,
and unconstitutional practice of removing miliMaterials were provided and insured to our tary officers for their votes in parliament. They manufactures-the sale of these manufactures firmly adhered to those friends of liberty, who was increased—the African trade preserved had run all hazards in its cause, and provided and extended-the principles of the act of for them in preference to every other claim. navigation pursued, and the plan improved With the Earl of Bute they had no personal and the trade for bullion rendered free, secure, connection; no correspondence of councils. and permanent, by the act for opening certain They neither courted him nor persecuted him. ports in Dominica and Jamaica.
They practised no corruption; nor were they That administration was the first which pro- even suspected of it. They sold no offices,
They obtained no reversions or pensions, either ing, nor heightened by the colouring of elocoming in or going out, for themselves, their quence. They are the services of a single year. families, or their dependents.
The removal of that administration from In the prosecution of their measures they power, is not to them premature; since they were traversed by an opposition of a new and were in office long enough to accomplish many singular character; an opposition of place- plans of public utility; and, by their persemen and pensioners. They were supported verance and resolution, rendered the way by the confidence of the nation. And having smooth and easy to their successors; having held their offices under many difficulties and left their king and their country in a much discouragements, they left them at the express better condition than they found them. By command, as they had accepted them at the the temper they manifest, they seem to have earnest request, of their royal master. now no other wish, than that their successors
These are plain facts; of a clear and public may do the public as real and as faithful sernature ; neither extended by elaborate reason- vice as they have done.