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cipally by the scenes he had witnessed none effect; for there were often secret orders, in performing the duties of his office by the contrivance of the clergy, to prevent among the galley-slaves. He published

their embarking and hinder the selling of their

substance; their debtors were absolved by his narrative in French in 1708, and an their contessors when they denied a debt; English edition of it appeared in 1712, children were forced from their fathers' and in France.* Both publications are now mothers' arms, in hopes that the tenderness of of rare occurrence.

The following q110- the parent might prevail over the zeal of the tations are made from the English edi- as in Heroďs time, but the blood of their fathers

Christian. They indeed were not massacred tion :

was mingled with their tears; for many minis“The barbarities committed in those horrid ters, who had zeal and constancy enough to machines exceeded all that can possibly be brave the severest punishments, were broken imagined; the ingenuity of the famous Sicilian alive upon wheels without mercy, whenever tyrant in inventing torinents deserves no longer surprised in discharging the duties of their to be proverbial, being far excelled in this per function. The registers and courts of justice nicious art by the modern enemies of religion where the sentences were pronounced against and liberty.” (p. 8.)

them are recorded, and the executioners of

them are lasting monuments of the bloody After having given an account of the

temper and fury of Popery. hardened wickedness and shocking blas- “ The laity were forbid, on pain of the galphemies of the worst sort of criminals on leys, 10 leave the kingdom on any pretence board the galleys, he adds

whatever; but, what posterity will scarce be

lieve, the Protestants, of all sexes, ages, and “ 'Tis certain, that how terrible and hard

conditions, used to fly through deserts and wild soever the usage of such may be in the gal- impracticable ways; committing their lives to leys, yet it is too mild for them; for, in spite the mercy of the seas, and running innumeraof all the misery they endure, they are guilty ble hazards, to avoid either idolatry or martyrof crimes too abominable to be here related; dom. Some escaped very happily, in spite of over which we shall draw a veil, and go on to

the vigilance of the dragoons and bailiffs, but the Protestants, who are there purely because

a great many fell into their hands, whereby the they chose rather to obey God than man, and prisons were filled with confessors. But the were not willing to exchange their souls for saddest spectacle of all was to see two hunthe gain of the world. It is not the least dred men at a time, chained together going to aggravating circumstance of their misery to

the galleys, and above one hundred of that be condemned to such hellish company, for number Protestants; and what was barbarous they who have so great a value for the truth and unjust to the last degree was, that they of religion, as to prefer it to their worldly in

were obliged, when there, on pain of bastinado, terest, must be sopposed to be endued with to bow before the host, and to hear mass; and too much virtue not to be in pain, and under yet that was the only crime for which they concern for the open breach of its rules, and had been condemned thither. For suppose unworthiness of its professors.

they were in the wrong, in obstinately refusing * The Protestants now in the galleys have

to change their religion, the galleys were the been condemned thither at several times; the punishment; why, then, were they required to first were put in after the revocation of the

to do that which had been the cause of their edict of Nantes. The term prefixed for the condemnation! Especially since there is a fatal choice of either abjuring their religion, or law in France that positively forbids a double leaving the kingdom, was a fortnight, and that punishment for one and the same fault

, viz., upon pain of being condemned to the galleys; (Non bis punitur in idem.) But in France, bat this liberty, by many base artifices and properly speaking, there is no law, where the unjust methods, was rendered useless and of king's commands are absolute and peremp

tory: and I have seen a general bastinado on “ Relation des Tourmens qu'on fait souf- that account, which I shall describe in its frir aux Protestans, qui sont sur les galeres de proper place. "Tis certain, that though there France. Faite par Jean Bion, c'ydevant was at first a very great number of Protestants prêtre et curé d'Ursy, ancien aumonier de la condemned to the galleys, the bastinado and galère nommée La Superbe. à Londres : chez other torments hath destroyed above three Henry Ribotteaa, Libraire François, dans le parts of four.” (pp. 43–45.) Strand, 1708.” Small 8vo.

“ An Account of the Torments which the M. Bion then describes the cruel labour French Protestants endure aboard the Gal- at the oar, to which the unhappy Proleys. By John Bion, sometime priest and curate of the parish of Ursy, in the province of unfitted for hard labour by the habits of

testants were condemned, many of them Burgundy, and chaplain to the Superbe galley, in the French service. London: printed for life attendant on their previous rank and J. Downing, in Bartholomew-close, 1712.” 8vo. fortune, some by those of the clerical

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profession, all by the weak and exhausted answers and greatness of their courage: "The state of their bodies, arising from mental king (say they) is indeed master of our bodies, suffering, and from the most barbarous dreadful day being come, the comite narrowly

but not of our consciences.' But at last the privations and indignities to which they observed them to see the fruit of my labours were exposed. He also gives an account there were only two out of twenty that bowed of the dark and noisome dungeon on board their knee to Baal-the rest generously refused the galley assigned to the sick as their it, and were accordingly, by the captain's comhospital, into which the light of heaven mand, served in the manner following. never entered, while filth the most dis

“In order to the execution, every man's gusting and sickening was left to accu- chains were taken off, and they were put into mulate there, and the sick galley-slave the hands of four Turks, who stripped them was laid near his dying, and sometimes stark naked, and stretching them upon the dead companion. These and other pain- coursier* there they are so held that they canful details we omit, that we may present is a horrid silence throughout the whole gal

not so much as stir, during which time there to our readers M. Bion's account of a

ley; and it is so cruel a scene, that the most “general bastinado,” at which he was profligate, obdurate wretches cannot bear the present, as it was not the least instrument sight, but are forced to turn away their eyes. of his conversion; and to which punish- The victim thus prepared, the Turk pitched ment Protestants on board the galleys, upon to be the executioner, with a tough both ministers and laymen, were sub cudgel or knotty rope's-end, unmercifully beats

the poor wretch, and that too the more willjected, because they would not worship ingly, because he thinks that it is acceptable a wafer-god—the host:

to his prophet Mahomet. But the most bar

barous of all is, that after the skin is fead off “In the year 1703, several Protestants out of Languedoc and the Cevennes were put

their bones, the only balsam they apply to on board our galley. They were narrowly After this they are thrown into the hospital

their wounds is a mixture of vinegar and salt. watched and observed, and I was mightily already described. I went thither after the surprised on Sunday morning, after saying mass on the bancasse, a table so placed that all

execution, and could not refrain from tears

at the sight of so much barbarity. They the galley may see the priest when he elevates the host, to hear the comites say, he was going to speak through pain and weakness, they

quickly perceived it, and though scarce able to give the Huguenots the bastinado because they did not kneel nor show any respect to the

thanked me for the compassion I expressed,

and the kindness I had already shown them. mysteries of the mass, and that he was going

I went with a design to administer some comto acquaint the captain therewith. The very

fort, but I was glad to find them less moved name of bastinado terrified me; and though I

than I was myself. It was wonderful to see had never seen this dreadfal execution, I begged the comite to forbear till the next Sun

with what true Christian patience and conday, that in the meantime I would endeavour

stancy they bore their torments; in the exto convince them of what I then thought their

tremity of their pain never expressing any

thing like rage, but calling upon Almighty duty and mine own. Accordingly I used all the means I could possibly think of to that

God and imploring his assistance. I visited

them day by day, and as often as I did, my effect, sometimes making use of fair means,

conscience upbraided me for persisting so giving them victuals and doing them other

long in a religion whose capital errors I long good offices; sometimes using threats, and re

before perceived, and, above all, that inspired presenting the torments that were designed them, and often urging the king's command,

so much cruelty-a temper directly opposite and quoting the passage of St. Paul, that he

to the spirit of Christianity. At last their who resists the higher power, resists God. I wounds, like so many mouths preaching to

me, made me sensible of my error, and exhad not at that time any design to oblige them to do any thing against their consciences; I perimentally taught me the excellency of the

Protestant religion. must confess that what I did at that time chiefly

“But it is high time to conclude, and draw proceeded from a motive of pity and tender

a curtain over this horrid scene, which preness. This was the cause of my zeal, which had been more fatal to them had not God en

sents us with none but ghastly sights, and

transactions full of barbarity and injustice, but dued them with resolution and virtue sufficient

which all show how false it is, what they preto bear up against my arguments, and the ter

tend in France for detaining the Protestants rible execution they had in view. I could not

in the galleys-viz., that they do not suffer but admire at once both the modesty of their

An officer similar to the boatswain of a • A large gun so called, carrying a thirtyship.-E.

six pound ball.- Ed.

there upon a religious but a civil account, be- immortalize his administration by renewing ing condemned for rebellion and disobedience, the severities of Louis XIV.; a new persecuThe punishment inflicted on them when they tion was in consequence commenced by an refuse to adore the host, the rewards and absurd and odious edict, more cruel than that advantages offered them on their compliance of revocation. Children were torn from their in that particular, are a sufficient argument parents to be educated in the Romish religion; against them, there being no such offers made death was again decreed against pastors, conto such as are condemned for crimes. It shows fiscation against relapsed converts, and every the world also the almost incredible barbarity kind of oppression endured in the late reign used against the French Protestants, and at was renewed; and this disgraceful measure the same time sets off in a most glorious man- has been styled a masterpiece of Christian ner their virtue, constancy, and zeal for their policy. holy religion.” (Ibid., pp. 49–52.)

“There was some abatement of the horrors While the Protestant victims of Popish of persecution while Cardinal Fleury was cruelty were thus barbarously treated, prime minister; yet the system did not termi. tranquillity was not entirely established in writings of more than one prelate, an unabated

nate for many years; and, to judge from the France, notwithstanding the adulatory desire existed to be freed from the presence of addresses of the Romish clergy who con heretics. A memorial from the clergy in April, gratulated Louis on the extirpation of 1745, declared there was no hope of their conheresy. Although emigrations and forced version, and that there was rising up a gene

ration of Protestants more obstinate and headconversions had thinned the numbers of strong than their fathers. They may protest the Protestants, yet they were numerous fidelity, and publish that the spirit which perin the provinces between the rivers Rhone vades their assemblies is free from revoltand and Garonne; and the mountains of the insurrection; but they will be good subjects

no farther than fear constrains them.' Cevennes afforded them an intrenchment,

“Monclus, bishop of Alais, in reply to an behind which they maintained, with va- intendant who was a friend to tolerance, thus rious success, an arduous conflict with the writes: The magistrates have relaxed the military force of France, known in history severity of the ordinances, and thus caused as “ the war of the Camisards.” Of this all the evils of which the state has to comwar Mr. Browning has given the most the same time published a letter, in which he

plain.' Chabannes, bishop of Agen, about compact narrative we have ever read, and laments the incurable obstinacy of the herewhich will abundantly repay the trouble tics, and recommends that the state should be of perusal. At the end of twenty years, freed from them by permitting their departure. the ministers of Louis were compelled to

"The bishop had heard indirectly that the enter into negotiations with the Cami- edict of Nantes was to be re-enacted: this hor

rified his intolerant soul, and he composed a sards; which, however, did not entirely tract which is no credit to the Romish party. re-establish tranquillity. In 1715, Louis He commences by praising the piety of Louis XIV. departed this life, to give an account XIV., who made the greatest sacrifices at the of the wholesale murders which had been peace of Ryswick, rather than listen to any perpetrated under the sanction of his au- proposal in favour of the Protestants. He

renounced the fruit of his victories, purchased thority. As his successor, Louis XV., with so much blood and toil; he even acknowwas a mere child, the Duke of Orleans ledged the usurper of England, notwithstandwas appointed regent. During his ad- ing the ties which bound him to the dispos. ministration a different policy was fol- sessed king-he granted all, he yielded all; lowed. His reputation for impiety was

he surrendered every thing except the return

of the heretics.' The bishop then argues, that an earnest that persecutions on account what Louis XIV. refused, being in the greatest of heterodox opinions would cease; but difficulty, his successor cannot yield in the whatever may have been his real opinion midst of prosperity, in their favour, he did nothing to improve

• This correspondence arose out of the intheir condition.

convenience perpetually springing up respecte

ing marriage and baptism among the Protest" Yet (says Mr. Browning), by comparison, anis-a subject which renders it necessary they were in a happy state : emigration in to revert to an earlier period. Ever since the consequence ceased, and although no positive edict of revocation the jurisprudence had asfavour could be expected, they were free from sumed that there were no Protestants in apprehensions of fresh persecution.

France; while edict rapidly followed edict, “ The Duke of Orleans was succeeded in the inflicting penalties upon Protestants and new direction of affairs by the Duke of Bourbon, converts leaving the kingdom. The Church who had the weakness to imagine he could of Rome, declaring marriage a sacrament,

VOL. I.-13

could not administer that rite to any who de- and rejected every attempt that was made nied its ecclesiastical authority ; and, in con- to seduce him from it. His sentence was, sequence, the new converts were called upon that he should be hanged at the town of to give proof of Roman Catholicism, before their marriages could be celebrated. The Die, and ihat his head should be cut off Huguenots sought their proscribed pastors in and exposed on a stake in the highway, the deserts and forests. When the benedic- before the little inn at Livron, where he tion of a minister could not be obtained, the had been apprehended. From Grenoble blessing was pronounced by aged heads of he was conducted 10 Valence, and thence families, awaiting the occasion of a pastor's arrival; and whenever it was known that a

successively to the town of Crest, and minister was in the country, multitudes has finally to Die. At Crest, Louis Rang retened to meet him, to have a religious sanc. quested permission to shave himself and tion conferred on their unions, to present their comb his hair ; because (as he said) that children for baptism, and to receive the sacra.

air of neatness seemed necessary to him, ment of communion.

“ As the assemblies in the desert consisted in order that the people might see the of many thousand persons, a fresh persecu- calmness of his countenance, and the trantion occurred for the purpose of effecting their quillity with which he underwent an unsuppression. In a report addressed to the just capital punishment. At Die, at the secretary of state the severities are not con place of execution, he repeatedly sung the cealed. In Languedoc twenty-eight persons, and in Guyenne forty-five, were condemned to following verse of the French meirical the galleys, and attached to the chain of forçats, translation of Psalm cxviii. 24 :for nothing else than attending these meetings

“ La voici l'heureuse journée for worship. In Normandy, the goods of those

Qui répond à notre désir; who had not allowed their children to be bap

Louons Dieu qui nous l'a donnée, tized by the curé were sold without any form

Faisons en tout notre plaisir." of procedure. These iniquities occurred in 1746 ; and in 1752 an attempt to re-baptize by He made several attempts to speak to the force the children of Protestants caused such resistance at Ledignan, in the diocese of Nise people, but his voice was constantly mes, that the measure was relinquished.” drowned by the beating of drums. With(Browning's History, pp. 272, 273.)

out listening to the exhortations of the

two Jesuits who attended him, his eyes The punishment of death was de- being fixed towards heaven, his countenounced and inflicted upon all ministers

nance indicated only the most resigned who fell into the power of government. and fervent piety. He knelt down at the M. Coquerel has given a list of upwards foot of the ladder, prayed, and courageof four hundred Protestant confessors ously ascended it. As soon as he was who were imprisoned in the galleys; and dead, the executioner severed his head another of twenty-five ministers who were

from his body, in order that it might be put to death between the years 1686 and

exposed on a stake at Livron. His life1762. We are tempted to present to our less remains were treated in a most outreaders notices of two or three of these

rageous and unworthy manner by the martyrdoms for the faith of the Gospel.

base populace, without any interruption Louis Rang, a young minister, who was

on the part of the commandant of the disonly twenty-six years of age, was arresto trict or of the grand vicar of the bishop, ed at Livron in the Diois (the country of both of whom were present! Finally, Die, forming the present department of the remains of this martyr were interred La Drôme), and thrown into prison at Va

by the generous and Christian care of a lence, where he was treated with great respectable lady of the Romish commuseverity. On being examined at Greno

nion.* ble by M. Chais, sub-delegate or deputy Nine months after the death of Louis of the intendant, he acknowledged that he Rang (in December, 1745), Matthew Dewas a minister, and discharged the duties subas, a young preacher, was arrested, of his office. He was condemned to death and conducted by a body of soldiers to at Grenoble, March 2, 1745. In vain Vernoux, in the Vivarais. Some of his was his life offered to him, on condition of changing his religion. He replied,

Coquerel, “Hist. des Eglises du Désert," that he was inviolably attached to his faith, tom. ii, pp. 333–335.

flock, on learning his apprehension, as- rescue him from captivity. As soon as sembled on the road, unarmed, to implore their sentence was announced to them in his liberation. A discharge of musketry prison, four of the principal curates of the was the reply to their supplications, iown presented themselves, and urged the when six persons were killed and four captives to embrace the Romish faith, made prisoners. At Vernoux crowds ar. Their efforts were useless. M. Rochette, rived to intercede for their beloved pas- while he thanked them for their zeal, betor's life. They also were fired upon : sought them to let him die in peace. He thirty-six were killed, and two hundred afterwards exhorted his companions in were wounded, the greater part mortally suffering. About the middle of the day The feelings excited by this wanton mas- the curés lest the courageous martyrs for sacre might have produced serious con- a short time; who employed the interval sequences, as the majority of the popula- in prayer, in praising God, and exhorttion was Protestant, and the escort not ing each other io constancy. Their meek very strong; but the pastors exerted them- yet firm demeanour excited the sympaselves in persuading the people to abstain ihy and the tears of the jailor and the from violence. Desubas was conveyed guards. At one o'clock in the afternoon to Montpelier, where he was condemned ihe ecclesiastics returned to the charge. to death,* and suffered on the 1st of Feb. Again did Rochette and his companions ruary, 1746. The execution of his sen- in tribulation entreat them to withdraw. tence was attended with inhumanity. One of the curates exclaimed—“But it is Piercing as the cold was, the martyr was for your salvation that we are here.” “If condemned to walk to the place of execu- you were at Geneva (replied the youngtion, having his legs naked, only socks est Grenier), at the point of death upon on his feet, and a thin linen waistcoat your bed (for there they put no one to without sleeves. All his papers and books death on account of religion), would you were burnt before him at the foot of the like four ministers to come and persecute gallows. The incessant rolling of drums, you to the very last breath, under the according to the barbarous custom of pretext of zeal? Then do not do to France at that time, prevented the spec- others what you would not wish them to tators from hearing a word which he ut- do to yourself.” This striking remark, tered. Just before he was executed, a however, did not prevent the ecclesiastics crucifix was offered to him to kiss, but from continuing to pester them with their he meekly turned it aside, and expired exhortations, and from presenting the with his eyes directed heavenward. His crucifix to them. This conduct drew conversation with those who visited him from the eldest of the brothers the followin prison, and his calm deportment at the ing severe words—"Speak to us of Him time of his martyrdom, excited much com- who died for our sins and rose again for miseration, even among the Papists.t our justification, and we are ready to lis

The last Protestant pastor who suffered ten; but do not introduce your superstideath on account of his religion was tions.” At two o'clock the funeral proFrancis Rochette; he was executed at cession advanced towards St. Stephen's Toulouse, in 1762, with three brothers Gate: a numerous guard escorted the named Grenier, who had endeavoured 10 chariot in which were the three brothers

and their minister, still attended by the · His deportment made such an impres- four ecclesiastics. On arriving in front sion upon the intendant himself, that when he of the cathedral, M. Rochette suspected condemned him to be hanged, he could not refrain from tears, and said that he was grieved

that they would force them to enter it to pronounce sentence of death against a man

and sign an abjuration. He therefore of so much merit; but that he was forced to

refused to alight, but they compelled it by the king's declarations.' To which gra- him. Then the priests and the royal cious speech M. Desubas returned a proper commissioner told him, that it was to answer.” (Popery always the Same, p. 50.) † Coquerel, “ Hist. des Eglises du Désert,"

make an amende honourable, and to ask tom. i., pp. 377-386, Popery always the pardon of God, of the king, and of justice, Same," pp. 48–51.

for having disobeyed the edicts. Rochette

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