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Council. Now let our readers ponder penalties adjudged by the canons. However, the manner in which Maur Cappellari, we warn and beseech them in our Lord to re

member the censures and spiritual punishcalling himself Gregory XVI., denounces

ments decreed by the apostolical constitutions these gentlemen in his “Brief,” addressed and general councils against those who dare to the titular Bishop of Heliopolis. We to perpetrate such things, so thai they are incite it from pp. 130, 131, of the official curred ipso facto; and as we hold on earth the Complete Catholic Directory, Almanac, place of Christ, who came to seek and to save and Registry, for the year of our Lord, than to see them detest their crime, and sin

that which was lost, we desire nothing more 1843,” published at Dublin :

cerely return to the respect and obedience due “GREGORY XVI. Pope.-Venerable Brother to you." -We have long been uneasy at all that has Here the bishop of the Latin Church been done (at Gibraltar) against the rights of the Church and injuries to your own dignity.

at Rome arroganily claims to "hold on But it is, above all, bitter to our heart to see

earth the place of Christ," and denounces some Catholics conspiring the ruin of holy audacious laymen” those who apthings, who, on account of the functions con- pealed in defence of their rights to " herefided to them, should have been foremost in

tical magistrates," and fulminates against the path of duty. Some laymen, who have no

them “ihe penalties adjudged by the other authority than that given by the bishop to the edituos of the Church, have dared to

canons." rise up against your authority and to despise The same rapacious spirit which was the decree you had published, forbidding the displayed at Gibraltar, by the titular receiving of money for the administration of Bishop of Heliopolis, has been manifestthe sacraments; and thus, against the sanctioned in the United States, where the Roof the canons, and even the will of Christ our Lord, they attempted to usurp the government mish clergy are endeavouring to take all of holy things. Having in vain solicited against the property belonging to the churches you our Congregation of the Propagation of out of the hands of the laity. This the Faith, they despised its authority, and were measure has, of course, been resisted by not ashamed to appeal to laics, and even to

the laity. In the supreme court of Louisheretical magistrates; and it was by their command, venerable brother, that you were

iana, a decision has been made adverse to thrown into prison, where you were detained

the demands of the priests. One of the until the beginning of last month. Whilst Romish congregations has likewise rethese events were passing, we, who have the fused to obey the mandate of the titular solicitude of all the Churches, and who dis- Bishop of New York. charge the highest functions of the apostleship, felt this injury, and raising our voice from the

It were not difficult to adduce additional height of the Holy See, we publicly protest instances illustrative of the real spirit of against the injury done to the sacred order and Popery; but the preceding may suffice. Catholic institution. We therefore solemnly Papists are triumphing in the anticipated declare, by our apostolic authority, that the ascendency of Popery. But they are said cedituos have violated and trampled under foot the liberty of spiritual power and its most chaunting their songs of victory before sacred rights, We declare them guilty of the the battle is gained. most manifest audacity, and full worthy of the




"And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her

sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.”—RevelaTION XVIII. 4. Ever since the fall of man, the great pent, I will put enmity between thee and controversy between light and darkness the woman, and between thy seed and has been carrying on in our world. The her seed, it shall bruise thy head and Divine testimony against the old ser- thou shalt bruise his heel, contains the



history of the world fulfilling to this day. mere enthusiasm to attend to it. The Before the flood we see it in individuals enemy of souls having felt that such and families, from Cain and Abel to the truth lays the axe at the root of all his Deluge. After the flood we see this con- falsehood, seeks in every way to throw flict commencing in its national and po- contempt upon it: he would by all means litical form, in the beginning of Nimrod's have men cast away the shield which kingdom, the building of Babel, and the God has given them; and never wield dispersion of the builders ; 'and in the this sword of the Spirit divinely prepared families of the sons of Noah, and then in for us, to enable us to resist Popery. the call of Abraham.

God preserve us from the foolish simThe unity of evil throughout the four plicity of being prevailed upon to neglect great empires of the earth, is set forth in any part of our divine armour, when fightthe remarkable prediction of the great ing with foes within or foes without the image given in the second chapter of visible Church. Daniel; where we have Babylon, Persia, We will consider-I. THE TRUE MEANGreece, and Rome, all set forth as one ING OF BABYLON IN THIS PROPHECY. II. image. The unity of the true Church Her SINS

God. III. THE also, whether Jewish or Christian, is con- PLAGUES TO COME UPON HER. IV. The tinually set forth in the word of God. Christ, we are told, hath made both one, And first and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us. Christian be- THE TRUE MEANING OF BABY. lievers are come to Mount Zion, the city

LON IN THIS PROPHECY. of the living God, the heavenly Jerusa

It is peculiarly important that this be lem. Here are the two opposing powers clearly ascertained, as the whole scope of light and darkness, truth and error, of the prophecy, and the whole course of Christ and Belial. These two powers our practical conduct is affected by it. It are still more plainly contrasted in the

is a part of the Divine wisdom and goodNew Testament. Satan is called the god ness, that he has here left sufficient dark. of this world, and boasts that the king ness to stumble those willing to remain doms of this world and all the glory of in error, and given sufficient light to those them are given to him. But all power really desiring the truth. He has given in heaven and earth is really given to us marks and evidences that cannot easily our Lord Christ, and he must reign till be mistaken by candid, truth-loving he has put all enemies under his feet. minds, really in ihis matter, searching to There are also the followers of each, the know, that they may do, his will. children of darkness and the children of

1. BABYLON IS A POWER WHOSE SEAT light, the children of the wicked one, and

AND CENTRE IS ROME. There are three the children of God; the world lying in clear marks of this. The seven heads of wickedness, and those chosen out of the the Beast are interpreted as seven mounworld, whose conversation is in heaven. tains on which the woman sitleth. (Rev.

The controversy is still continued—the xvii. 9.) The common title of Rome is war is still waging. The true Church is

the “seven-hilled city, the Queen and marked by Divine faith realizing things Lady of the world.” It was not better unseen and hoped for, by union to an invisible head, Christ, our Saviour. The of its own name, than by these appella

known,” says Cressener, “ by the letters false Church is marked by reposing on tions."* Babylon is farther described as man's traditions, by looking to a visible the great city which reigneth over the head, and by worldly tyranny and fraud. kings of the earth. This description In these things we may discern on the

comes from the angel, for the express one hand the mystic Jerusalem, and on the other hand the mystic Babylon.

* See the testimonies he gives from Varro, There is an infidel feeling among pro- Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, Martial, Lufessing Christians, which scoffs at the

can, in his “ Demonstration of the Apocahighest part of Divine truth, as if it were lypse," p. 9.

purpose of telling St. John the mystery the Beast in the Revelation, and from its of the woman and of the beast which allusion to the ten horned beast in Daniel, carrieth her. He speaks in the present that this whole beast is nothing but the tense, and no other city had this charac- Roman empire." Bellarmine says, “ John ter in that day but Rome, which reigned every wliere calls Rome Babylon. Neither over east, west, south, and some parts of was there any other city in St. John's the north, to the end of the then civilized time that reigned over the kings of the world.* What but being misled could be earth; and it was everywhere known that the fruit of such an explanation, if Rome Rome was built on seven hills." At a were not intended! This fixes its appli- later period, Bossuet maintains the same cation. Farther, the unity of the great sentiment, stating that the city of Rome image, Babylon in its head, Persia in its is manifestly designed by the mark of silver breast and arms, Greece in its belly the seven hills. So far then Protestants and thighs of brass, and Rome in its feet and Roinanists are generally agreed.* of iron, and the toes part of iron and part of clay, leads us to the same conclusion. * Those who would see farther how fully We see one combination of evil seek- the Romanists prove that Babylon is Rome, ing to preserve that, which, as being de

may consult Cornelius A. Lapide on the 17th structive of man's holy happiness, God chapter of the Revelations. He endeavours

to escape the Protestant application of it to has determined to bring to nought. The Rome Papal by distinguishing between Heavoice of prophecy is here so clear, that then Rome and Christian Rome. He says, the Romanist maintains this truth equally “Heathen Rome, under the emperors to the with us Protestants, only applying the

time of Constantine, was Babylon; under Con

stantine it became Christian and pious, and prediction, some to Pagan Rome, and cea

ceased to be Babylon, and became the faithful some to an Antichrist at Rome yet to city, the Zion beloved of God. At the end of come. Alcazar, a learned Spanish Jesuit, the world, forsaking faith, piety, Christ, and who studied the Apocalypse much, says,

his chief Bishop, it is again made Babylon. ** that it is plain from the characters of And this the Lord permits that we may discern 2. BABYLON IS A POWER YET TO BE added, Alleluia, for the Lord God OmDESTROYED. The various predictions of nipotent reigneth: let us be glad and

the city from the Church, and Rome from the

chair of Peter.” There is, doubtless, a mea* The remarks of Mede, on the 17th chapter sure of truth in this statement, but it has been of Revelation, are very weighty: “This vision exactly met in the prophecies of the Revelaconcerning the great whore and the Beast tion. The progress of the seals marks the bearing her, is opened to John and us by the growing corruption of the Church. As long angel (which he is not used to do) hy a most as the visible Church was pure, it is repreplain interpretation, without doubt to the end sented by the white horse, then it became red that by the benefit of the interpretation thereof, or fire-coloured; then black, and lastly pallid, as being the chief vision of all the rest, the or livid and deadly. (See Woodhouse and other mysteries contained in the Revelation Cuninghame on the Apocalypse.) While the hitherto indeed shut up, but with wonderful visible Church of Rome was the means of contrivance depending upon it, might be re- protecting and extending the true faith, though vealed. Here, therefore, be attentive, and lest with more and more corruption, it was reprethe angel shall have taken this pains in vain, sented by the four horses of the first four seals. as far as it concerns thee; remember this well, When it ceased almost altogether as a system that the interpretation of the allegory or para- to diffuse Christian truth, and became itself ble (such as this of the angel) is not a new the persecutor of the true Church, then the allegory or parable-therefore do not thou look cry of the martyrs under the 5th seal is heard after, I know not what ages of the world, or against it, and the Church of Rome appears such like feigned things—it is thy part to ap. nexi, not as a warlike horse, but as a horrible ply the interpretation already given it to the beast. (Rev. xiii. 11-18.) The name Babythings themselves." Mede has also observed, lon is not given to her in the course of the "The Roman empire was believed to be the prophecy, till this second beast from the earth, fourth kingdom of Daniel by the Church of with two horns like a lamb, and speaking as a Israel, both before and in our Saviour's time; dragon, had appeared; nor till after the first received by the disciples of the apostles and angel message of the Reformation had exhorted the whole Christian Church, for the firsi 400 men to fear God and worship him. (Rev. xiv. years, without any known contradiction. And, 6-8.) 'Í'hen first we have announced this I confess, having so good ground in Scripture, complete character of the apostacy, as well as it is with me little less than an article of faith." its fall, under the name Babylon. This may -Mede's Works, p. 736. He establishes this account for what has stumbled some Protest.

p at length, pp. 711-716.

ants, that any should have been living under

. the following chapters, connected as they rejoice, and give honour to him ; for each are with Old Testament prophecies, the marriage of the Lamb is come, and abundantly show this. There have never his wife hath made herself ready. On been any judgments on Rome, Pagan or this immediately follows the appearance Christian, at all corresponding to the judg- of Christ under the glorious title, the ments here predicted, which repeatedly Word of God, and his open triumph over testily a complete and eternal overthrow, his remaining enemies. Babylon is then so that it shall be found no more at all. yet to be destroyed, and with her destrucAnd it is remarkable that those overthrows tion is connected the full triumph of by enemies which have visited Rome, Christ and his glorious kingdom.* In took place not under its Pagan emperors, but under its Christian emperors; after it * THE WASTING OF THE TURKISH EMPIRE had become avowedly Christian, it was PRECEDES THE FALL OF ROME. The drying up Alaric and Genseric, with their Goths of the Euphrates in the typical history of the and Vandals, who took and plundered destruction of Babylon of old, preceded its Rome. Its burning, in the reign of Nero, fall, and the drying up of the mystical Eu

phrates, it is clear from the chronological was before the Apocalypse was written.

course of the Apocalyptic prophecy, precedes The things directly connected with the

the fall of the mystical Babylon. The river predicted overthrow of this city are, as Euphrates was one great means of defending we see in the following chapter, the tri- Babylon. It is used in the Old Testament as umph of the whole Church, Jew and Gen

the figure of the people, power, and glory of

the kingdoms in which it is situated. Thus, tile, and the marriage of the Lamb to his

Isaiah viii. 7, 8, predicts. Behold, the Lord bride fully prepared for him. I heard a bringeth up upon them the waters of the river great voice in heaven saying, Halleli- string and many, even the king of Assyria and jah, (the only part of the New Testa- all his glory, and he shall come up over his chanment in which this word occurs is in this nels, and go over all his banks. Thus, accordchapter, and it brings in by implication, ing to the general consent of Protestant inter

preters, the river Euphrates, which is men. in a prophecy where no word is used iioned both in the 6th trumpet and in the 6th without its deep meaning, the restored vial, reiers now to the Turkish empire, the 6th Jewish branch as well as the Christian trumpet pointing out its commencement, and

the hih vial its overthrow. It may also have Church,) Hallelujah; salvation, and

a larger reference to the national defences and glory, and honour, and power unto the glory which support the Babylonian empire, Lord our God: for true and righteous and which are now drying up. Great Babylon, are his judgments, for he hath judged it is predicted, came in remembrance before God the great whore which did corrupt the

under the 7th vial. Under the 6th vial poured earth with her fornications. Upon the

out on the great Euphrates, or the Turkish em.

pire, the waters thereof are dried up. The sym. Hallelujahs of all the servants of God are

bol of waters, is, by the Angel referring to

those waters on which Babylon the Great sits, Babylon and not know it. It is not till the explained to mean peoples, and multitudes, and second angel announces it that Babylon is nations, and tongues. We behold this visibly thus called.

in the wasting of the Turkish empire, and the We may see God's design of love even in same thing is also manifest spiritually in the the long-suffering with which he endured this wasting of the defences of Popery and her corruption. It was a part of that infinite wis. national glories. The European powers at dom and goodness which intends ultimately this moment deeply feel that ihe preservation that his truth should pervade and bless the of Turkey is necessary to the prolonged peace whole earth. He allows his most precious and safety of the European kingdoms, and all gifts to be abused by human corruption before their policies are directed to this end. The he redeems them from the evil of that abuse, fall of Turkey then opens the way for the fall that he may bring to pass in the end the largest of the European kingdoms, adhering to the and fullest blessings. The chaff shall remain 'Papacy. The drying up of the waters of the while it covers and protects the wheat, and Euphrates, not only prepares the way of the shall only be removed when it is worthless. kings of the East, but from the going forth of Joab shall be spared as long as he assists the unclean spirits noticed under the same David, but shall be cut off when he rebels vial, the kings of the earth and of the whole against Solomon.

world are gathered together to the battle of the


this also we have the concurrence of lead- generally the governing power, and the ing Romanists. Cornelius A. Lapide, avowed system, have in the whole past answering those who referred it to the history of Rome been antichristian and fall of the Jewish commonwealth, says, idolatrous, and judgments on Popery, " that this of a prophecy makes the Apo- more and more open the way for the calypse a history, for the Jewish state escape of God's faithful people. - Yet was put down before writing these as Babylon wastes, both the Church of things ;” and Ribera says, “ He is blind Christ and open infidelity gather strength. that does not see that the judging of the In Popery there are conjoined together head (ch. xi. 18) cannot be fulfilled be- both truth and error. In infidelity there are fore the time of the last judgment.” So avowed enmity and opposition to God's Malvenda on ch. xix. says, “ It is mani. truth. Babylon contains then an interfest that this denotes the burning of Ba- mingling of the people of God and his bylon, that is of Rome in the end of the enemies; while the beast, the kings of world.” Ribera says, that “ Rome shall the earth, and the false prophet, in the be utterly burned, not only for its former last stages make open war with the sins, but also for those which it shall Lamb, and then are for ever put down commit in the last times, is so manifestly and cast into the lake of fire. to be known from these words of the 4. BABYLON IS ONE IN CHARACTER AND Apocalypse (chap. xiv. 10), that the sil- CRIME with Pagan Rome. As the woliest man in the world cannot deny it."* man is that great city which reigneth Thus far then Protestants and Romanists over the kings of the earth, so both Paare agreed.

gan and Papal Rome have been the great 3. In Babylon THERE IS AN INTER- persecutors of the Church of Christ. For MINGLING OF God's FAITHFUL SERVANTS the first three centuries, in ten general WITH HIS ENEMIES. "The people of God, persecutions, the power of Pagan Rome who had been led captive and detained in and its vast authority were employed to

Babylon, are charged, when the fall of suppress and destroy true Christianity; * Babylon is announced, to come out of in her was found the blood of the pro

her. There was this intermingling in phets, and of saints, and of all that were Babylon of old. The faithful Daniel was slain upon the earth. When the empire even in chief authority under its king Ne- became Christian, for a season its power buchadnezzar, who was himself convert- was exerted in favour of the Church of ed to God, and truly honoured him. After Christ, as marked in the triumphs of the this, when Belshazzar returned to idola. heavenly host. (Rev. xii. 10, 11.) Nor try, and his kingdom was overthrown, in this was it unlike its type Babylon of Ezra and his companions, and afterwards old. The same Nebuchadnezzar, king Nehemiah, returned from the captivity. of Babylon, who had required all to worIn all we say against the Church of Rome ship the golden image, afterwards reas a system, let us never be understood quired all to honour the true God, and as denying the season of purity and ex- was himself, in the end, truly humbled cellence of that Church, nor the existence and converted ; and yet his successor of faithful servants of Christ now amongst Belshazzar returned 10 idolatry, and the them. God honoured Christian empe- kingdom was overthrown. We need not rors, and while his servants and the fole here enter into those steps, of the return lowers of Babylon remain intermingled of Rome to idolatry, which are so clearly together, Papal kingdoms are spared; but marked in the Book of Revelation. It is

sufficient to say that the Church of Rome, great day of God Almighty. We gain then by degrees becoming Papal, at length behere another mark of the connexion of Baby- came again idolatrous, similar in characlon and Rome, and the true character of boih ter and crime to Pagan Rome, and justly as detaining in bondage and captivity, one the literal, and the other the spiritual Sion, to be acquired its proper New Testament dedelivered on its overthrow.

signation of Babylon. Popery, gradually See these quotations in Cressener's “De growing in strength from the time of Jusmonstration," page 26.

tinian, reached its height under Innocent


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