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III., at the close of the twelfth century, and limited the cruelties of this antiwhen the horrible Inquisition was estab- christian power. lished. The crusade then against the

5. BABYLON IS A POWER DISTINCT Albigenses destroyed thousands upon FROM THE ROMAN EMPIRE. There is a thousands, who were taken to be here. power in the capital that is distinct from tics, even if a New Testament in the ihe power of the empire at large, and govulgar tongue was found about them. In verns that empire. Babylon is the power 1215, the Council of Lateran decreed of Rome, holding the children of God in that all heretics should be delivered over bondage, and upholding idolatrous worto the civil power to be burned. From ship. It is higher, in assumed and prothat time Popery has been exerting its fessed rank and authority, than the beast, power to destroy pure Christianity under which is the secular Roman empire ; it The fiction of heresy; and with the Church is the rider on the beast, claiming a of Rome every Protestant is a heretic. superior authority. The nature is of a Bohemia, Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, different character. The harlot has a Holland, France, Spain, and Poriugal, human nature, one different from and have suffered the loss of innumerable pre- superior to the bestial nature. Thus the cious lives, sacrificed at the requirement city of Rome itself was worshipped as of Popery. In the forty-three years of a goddess.* The Pontifex Maximus was the administration of the first four inqui- united to the imperial dignity, and each sitors-general which closed the year 1524, citizen had peculiar privileges beyond they committed in Spain 18,000 human what the empire at large had. Papal beings to the flames, and inflicted inferior Rome, gradually assumed the same aupunishments on 200,000 persons more thority over the Roman empire—the with various degrees of severity.* in Pope Lecame the Pontifex Summus, and 1641, above 40,000 Protestants were continues so to this day, and the Church massacred in Ireland by the Papists, who of Rome asserts the dominion over all practised upon them dreadful cruelties other churches. The language of Beland barbarities. In England, the faithful larmine is, that the pontiff, as pontiff, has professors of the Gospel have, during the not directly and immediately any tempotime the Church of Rome obtained power, ral power, but only spiritual, but, by reasuffered through its means. The Lol. son of the spiritual, he has at least indilards, before ihe Reformation, endured rectly some power, and that supreme, in cruel persecution for the truth of Christ. temporal matters. This Church, thus The fiery trials of Mary's reign are no- seated at Rome, also claims all its authotorious. Four, five, six, and, in one in- rity from God alone; pretends divine stance, thirteen human beings, were seen sanction for its most wicked acts, and, burning together in one fire. Lord Bur- while it draws men to the most shameleigh reckons that in that short reign 290 less idolatry, it pretends all the time only were burned alive, and above 100 suf- to be giving honour to the true God. fered death in prison and from famine. What a mystery of iniquity is here! The Five bishops,twenty-one clergymen, eight Holy Ghost, seeing the whole unity of gentlemen, eighty-four tradesmen, and this evil, uses the strongest language in one hundred husbandmen, servants, and describing its abominations : A woman labourers, fifty-five women, and four chil. drunken with the blood of the saints and dren, suffered thus martyrdom for Christ of the martyrs of Jesus, and upon her from the persecuting Babylon of the New forehead a name written, Mystery, BaTestament. Wherever ihere has been bylon the Great, the mother of harlots, power the same spirit has continued since and abominations of the earth.

These ihe Reformation; and it is only the Di- abominations have been fulfilled in the vine judgments connected with the French whole history of Rome. The pretenRevolution that have effectually crippled

See Livy, book xliii. ch. 6. Tacitus, book • Sir J. Mackintosh's “History of Eng. iv. ch. 37. land,” vol. ii. p. 349.

| See De Summo Pontifice, lib. v. ch. 1.

sions of the Church of Rome to be the We come then irresistibly to the conChurch universal, show how great she clusionis ; the mother of harlots, corresponds 7. BABYLON IS THE ROMAN CHURCH. to her claim to be the holy Mother And in this description is included all Church; and abominations of the earth, who have yielded themselves to the see corresponds to that image and saint of Rome and received her mark on their worship which she everywhere through foreheads. Other nations and people have the earth establishes.* We have the greviously fallen; the corruptions of the same distinction in the thirteenth chapter false Church have also infected many a of Revelation, between the ten-horned Church not actually united with her, for beast from the sea, which corresponds to she is the mother of harlots; but that the secular Roman empire, and the two- which distinguishes Babylon from all horned beast, which had the horns of a others is its connection with Rome, and lamb, from the earth.

its claiin to supreme dominion.* 6. BABYLON IS THE CONTRAST OF THE We know how offensive, how insultTRUE CHURCH. We see in the Revela- ing, how hateful this application is to the tion two women brought before us; one Romanists. What! with all their aposwoman dwelling in heaven, clothed with tolical descent, antiquity, treasures of the sun, and the moon under her feet, learning, holy men who have adorned and upon her head a crown of twelve Christianity by godly lives, researches stars, and she sojourns in the wilderness into the Scriptures, deep expositions of for a limited season. We see another Divine truth, missions to the heathen, woman also distinctly described in con- enlarged diffusion of Christianity among trast. She dwells in the wilderness, she the nations, to be as a body nothing better is seated on a scarlet-coloured beast, full than Babylon in God's sight! We deny of names of blasphemy. The heavenly not that all these good things were to be woman is the true bride, the Lamb's wife, found in Rome. There would be no and is persecuted by the powers of this mystery of iniquity, no wonderful deworld. The earthly woman is the mother ceivableness of unrighteousness, if much of harlots, and abominations of the earth, that is true as well as plausible could not and is confederate with the powers of this be urged in her favour. We would ever world. One is clothed with pure and maintain the saving piety of many of her heavenly light, and the other with scarlet, members. But our hopes are grounded pointing out at once luxury and blood on their being inconsistent members of shed. One passes through travail and this Church; the truly pious are not those suffering to her fruitfulness and blessed- in favour at Rome. The Jansenists of ness; the other from age to age, in worldly the Roman Church are the condemned of pomp and power, says in her heart, I sit that Church. Even in this year, for the as a Queen and am no widow, and shall Lent of 1840, the Cardinal Bishop of see no sorrow. Papal Rome claims to Arras, in France, has addressed a circular, this day, as in the days of Paganism, the title of the Eternal City," and glories in The testimony of all ages of the Church one of those very marks which identifies regarding this truth has been noticed by many it with the prophecy.

Protestants. See Bishop Jewell, and Dr. Bernard's “Remarks on Usher's Discourses."

That the Church of Rome was Babylon There is a striking series of extracts re- was the general testimony of the Reformed specting the Pope taken out of his own de. Churches, so that it has been observed, howcrees, decretals, extravagants and pontificals, ever they differed in other matters, yet in this and given by Foxe. (See vol. iii. pp. 1450 there was a wonderful unity. Dr. Bernard 164, ihe new edition by Seeley.) But if the gives a list of the Fathers and iheir successors, reader wishes for the view given by a Roman- who have in various degrees concurred in this. ist, he will find abundance of these false Of earlier English writers he gives the testiclaims in the « Third General Controversy of mony of Bishops Jewell, Abbott, Whitgift, Bellarmine, De Summo Pontifice,” including Andrews, Usher, Bilson, Hall, Downham, the vain attempts to throw all the prophecies Davenant, and Prideaux. He adds the veneraof Antichrist exclusively to a future Anti- ble name of Hooker, who applies Babylon to christ, and in Barrow's “Treatise on the Su- the Church of Rome. premacy of the Pope.”


in which he views the party of Jansenius the New Testament. Scripture marks, as the party of a man rebelling against the and evidence fix it on the Church of Church, and positively and absolutely Rome. forbids the reading of the translation of the Bible by De Sacy, attached to the Jan- THE SINS OF ROME BEFORE

GOD. senists, as not exempt from reproach. In short, her very name is Mystery. The It is no grateful subject to dwell on the ruling power, with its avowed creed, on sins of our fellow men. We have need, its becoming corrupt, while pretending to too, remembering our own sinfulness in be the Church of Rome, and assuming to the sight of God, and his awful judgments be the only true and Catholic Church, is against those that sin, especially to take NO CHURCH AT ALL, BUT ANTICHRIST; heed, to judge not, that we be not judged. yet THE PEOPLE OF CHRIST, IN CAPTIVITY Our severest indignation, if it be like our UNDER IT, groaning under the corruptions Saviour's, will be joined to deep grief. they witness, and longing for deliverance Yet open sin is to meet with open rebuke. from her sins, ARE A TRUE CHURCH, We dare not call evil good, and good though in Rome, but defiled and weak- evil, and put darkness for light, and ened, and greatly endangered by their light for darkness. (Isa. v. 20.) As contact with Rome, for indeed, not only we are charged not to be partakers of her they, but all nations have drunk of the sins, it becomes needful to separate the wine of the wrath of her fornications. precious from the vile (Jer. xv. 19), and (Rev. xviii. 3.)

to point out the special sins of the Roman The constituent principle of the true Church. There are but some leading Church is, union with Christ by faith; heads that we can enumerate. the constituent principle of the Roman HER SINS DIRECTLY AGAINST GOD ARE Church is, union with the See of Rome

The worship of the Host by by blind submission as needful to salva- the priest and people, we believe to be tion.* The form of sound doctrine is idolatrous. They pray to saints, teaching indeed retained in the great essentials of that it is a good and useful thing supChristianity, but in the Roman system, pliantly to invoke them. Thus there is this is only the show that obscures and a special office to the Virgin, with many covers over the corrupt human doctrines blasphemous addresses to her ;* and, in which have been added to the Word by their ordinary worship, they intermingle the Creed of Pius IV. The profession devotions between God, the Virgin, and of these Articles by every Popish priest the saints. On the election of the Pope is required to be made in these words :“This true Catholic faith, out of which none can be saved, which I now freely had proved in former days.

quotations to that which James and Comber profess and truly hold, I promise, vow,

* See last number of this Review. and swear most confidently to hold and + The words of the Roman Missal are, profess the same whole and entire, with “ After pronouncing the words of consecration God's assistance, to the end of my life, kneeling, the priest adores and elevates the and to procure, as far as lies in my power,

sacred Host;" " kneeling, he adores and ele

vates the chalice.” that the same shall be held, taught, and

Usher, in his “Answer to a Jesuit,” shows preached by all who are under me, or are that Papist writers, in reply to the question, intrusted to my care by virtue of my “Who breaks the first Commandment of God office.”+ Such, then, is the Babylon of by unreverence of God?" give this answer,-

“They that do not give due reverence to God


and his saints, or to their relics and images." On this, see Barrow's “Discourse on the Thus making God himself the author and comUnity of the Church.”

mander of Idolatry, even in the very place + This last clause is suppressed in several where he forbids it. With horrible blasphemy instances where the Creed is quoted by the in the Psalter, ascribed by many to their celeRomanists. See many instances of a similar brated Cardinal Bonaventura, the Psalms are kind in Mr. Pope's “Roman Misquotation,” turned into a book of prayers to the Virgin. This book shows that to the preseni day there This is still in use among the Romanists, for is a similar want of uprightness in Romanist it was reprinted at Rouen in 1823, and is a


there is a service at Rome, as if con- be accursed."* For refusing this idolatry trived on purpose to illustrate prophecy. our martyrs were burned in Mary's days. Though avowed, and I believe, intended Thus they break the second commandonly for respect and veneration, it is called ment, and accurse all who teach otherthe adoration of the Pope. He is placed wise. Indeed, in many of their summaon the altar of the Sixtine Chapel, and ries of the commandments the second is there receives the homage of the Cardi- wholly omitted. nals, and this ceremony is again repeated Popery is full of means of evading on the high altar of St. Peter's; fulfilling solemn oaths; the greatest skill of subtle the Apostle Paul's description, He, as lawyers has not been able to word oaths God, sitteth in the temple of God, show- so to bind them, that their casuists have ing himself that he is God. Thus is the not, by artful and wicked distinctions, first commandment broken. The Roman set them aside. The Council of ConChurch teaches also that the images of stance determined that no faith was to be Christ, of the Virgin-Mother of God, kept with heretics, and thus, notwithand of other saints, are to be had and re- standing the safe conduct granted by the tained, especially in churches; and due Emperor Sigismund, though he blushed honour and veneration rendered to them; when it was pleaded, still Huss was hence in Papal countries these images burned at the stake. But indeed nothing everywhere abound and are worshipped, is more characteristic of Popery than and Papists regularly bow before them. cursing. Her canons conclude with Whatever pretences there may be of curses ; thus to explain her false doctrine different kinds of worship, which have on justification there are thirty-three been sufficiently answered by Protestants, canons, each concluding as it regards the fact of bowing down is explicitly for- those holding opposite doctrines, let ihem Bidden in the second commandment. be accursed: Thirty-three curses on one

The idolatrous character of the Roman doctrine! Nor are they unaware of the Mass cannot be mistaken. The first meaning of anathema ; it is explained in canon on the Eucharist is, "Whosoever the Douay Bible to mean a thing devoted shall deny that in the most holy sacra- to utter destruction.t The mouth of the ment of the Eucharist there are truly, Man of Sin is full of cursing, bringing really, and substantially contained the himself under that awful prediction, he body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, clothed himself with cursing, like as together with his soul and divinity, and with a garment, and it shall come into consequently Christ entire, but shall his bowels like water, and like oil into affirm that he is present therein only in a his bones. Thus the Bull in Cenâ sign or figure, or by his power, let him Domini, published at Rome every Maun

day Thursday, has the following section: shocking specimen of this making other Gods "We do, in behalf of Almighty God, the besides the true. This book is in such esteem Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, as to have an exposition upon it. One is in and with the authority of the blessed my possession, in 4to., published in 1606, by Apostles Peter, and Paul, and with our Giovan Battista Pinello, at Genoa. The way in which different parts of Liturgical services

own, excommunicate and anatheinatize are parodied, is most awfully blasphemous. all Hussites, Wickliffites, Lutherans, Thus the Benedicite is perverted, “ Benedicite Zuinglians, Calvinists, Huguenots, AnaOmnia opera Dei Mariam; confitemini laudes baptists, Trinitarians, and apostates from ejus in congregatione justorum.” The Athanasian Creed, thus,—“Quicunque vult animam other heretics by whatsoever name they

the faith of Christ, and all and sundry salvam facere, necesse est propitiam habeat Virginem.” The Magnificat, thus," Magni- may be reckoned and of whatever sect ficat anima mea, Mariam, quæ attulit vitam universo orbi." The Psalter itself applies the . The reader will find full answers to the book of Psalms, wherever it can be done with- whole proceedings of the Council of Trent, in out manifest absurdity, to the Virgin. Thus “ Chemnicii Examen Concilii Tridentini.” the first is made to begin,—"Beatus vir qui Several useful modern, works on this Council diligit nomen tuum, virgo Maria, gratia lua have also been published. ejus animam confortabit."

+ See Notes on Numbers xxi. 2. Vol. 1.-14

they may be, and those who believe in mocked, insulted, and dishonoured: this

, them, and their receivers, abettors, and, is the character of the peculiarities of generally speaking, all their defenders Roman worship. whatsoever, and those who without HER SINS AGAINST CHRIst are equally authority of us and of the Apostolic See manifest. Christ is our only, our comknowingly read, or retain, or imprint, or plete Saviour. Rome would join others in any way defend books conlaining their 10 him. All his offices she disannuls by heresy or treating of religion, let it be her traditions. Christ is the true Profrom what cause it may, publicly or pri- PHET and instructor of his Church, teachvately, under any pretence or colouring

ing us by his Word, his Spirit, and his whatsoever, as also the schismatics and ministers. The Church of Rome adds those who pertinaciously withdraw them- to the Word of God, the Apocrypha, selves or recede from obedience to us, and though it be the writing of fallible men, the Roman Pontiff for the time being.” and unwritten traditions, and forbids Thus is the third commandment broken translations of the Bible to be circuby the Church of Rome.

lated in general, as causing more evil Again, the fourth commandment is bu- than good, and limits its interpretation in ried in the festivals of the Church. In a any other manner than according “ to the catechism, printed at Rome so late as unanimous consent of the Fathers."* 1836, it is thus described, “Remember Instead of the true Prophet and his 10 keep holy the festivals,”* and it is Word, she sets up a claim of infallibility thus explained. "It commands the ob- for the Pope and his Councils, stamping servance of festivals, which consists in the seal of heaven on the foulest error. abstaining from servile works in order to According to the Council of Florence, the have time for considering the Divine Pope is the head of the whole Church, blessings, for visiting the churches, read- and the father and teacher of all Chrising spiritual books, hearing Divine ser- tians, and to him in St. Peter, was delevice and sermons, and performing other gated by our Lord Jesus Christ sull power holy and spiritual works of like nature." to feed, rule, and govern the universal The festivals come almost daily. Thus Church, Thus his prophetical office has by adding to one commandment as by been supplanted.

been supplanted. Christ is the true diminishing from another, the word of High Priest of his people. He has God is made void by their traditions. once in the end of the world appeared lo

Thé consummating sin of Rome against put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. God is the sacrilegious use of holy things We are sanctified through the offering in the Church of Rome; she repeats Bel- of the body of Jesus Christ once for all; shazzar's sin, They have brought the for by one offering he hath perfected for vessels of his house before thee, and ever them that are sanctified; thus spethou, and thy lords, thy wives and thy cially careful is the Holy Spirit, by reconcubines, have drunk wine in them; peated assertions, to show the completeand thou hast praised the gods of silver ness of the one offering of Christ. Supand gold, of brass, iron, wood, and planting these, the Church of Rome stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: teaches that a fresh sacrifice is made and the God in whose hand thy breath continually in the mass, and that power is, and whose are all thy ways, thou is given to the priesthood to consecrate

, hast not glorified. (Dan. v. 23.) Di- offer, and minister his body and blood, vine truths, and ordinances, and sacra- and also to remit and retain sins.t The ments are all perverted for the maintenance of the pomp and pleasure, ambition

* See the creed of Pius IV. for this solemn and supremacy of Rome, and God is mockery; for where is this unanimous con

sent to be found? The contradictory sentia

ments of the Papists may be abundantly seen Recordati de Sanctificari la feste. The in Bishop Hall's “ Peace of Rome," and Ed. Catechism has been reprinted by that true gar's "Variations of Popery." See also Base champion of Protestantism, the Rev. R. J. nage's “Histoire d'Eglise." M'Ghee.

See Session 23 ch. I. Trent. Thus the

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