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The unity and antiquity of Romanism nativity, in many diversified forms. But have, by its partisans, been often con- this discordancy, it will be found, is the trasted with the diversity and novelty of offspring of misrepresentation. The ReProtestantism. These topics supply the formers, in their doctrinal sentiments, votary of Papal superstition with fond exhibited a wonderful agreement. Their occasions of exultation, triumph and bra- unanimity, indeed, was amazing; and vado.

showed, that these distinguished theoloRomanism, according to its friends, gians, renouncing the vain commandis unchangeable as truth, and old as ments of men, and the muddy streams of Christianity. Protestantism, according tradition, had all imbibed the same spirit, to its enemies, is fluctuating as falsehood, and drunk from the same fountain. and modern as the Reformation. The The doctrinal unity of the Reformed Bishop of Meaux has detailed the pre- appears from their Confessions of Faith. tended Variations of Protestantism," These were published at the commenceand collected, with invidious industry, allment of the Reformation; and all, in difits real or imaginary alterations. The ferent phraseology, contain, in the main, religion of the Reformation, in the state- the same truths. Twelve of these public ments of this author, is characterized by expositions of belief were issued in the mutability. Protestantism, in his account, several European nations.

These were separated, in its infancy, into jarring sys- the Augsburg, Tetrapolitan, Polish, Saxtems, and appeared, in the nations of its on, Bohemian, Wittemberg, Palatine, Hel

vetian, French, Dutch, English and Scot

tish confessions. All these are printed, in A work in which the subjects noticed in this article are discussed with great ability and Latin, in Chouet's Collection; and have learning, was published in London, in 1844, been abridged and criticised by Sleidan, under the title of “The Harmony of Protestant Seckendorf, Brandt, Bossuet, Maimbourg, Confessions; Exhibiting the Faith of the Moreri and Du Pin, according to their Churches of Christ, Reformed after the Pure and Holy Doctrine of the Gospel, throughout

diversified prepossession and designs. Europe. Translated from the Latin, by Rev.

The Augsburg or Augustan Confession Peter Hall, A.M."-Editor.

is the production of Melancthon, and was Vol. 1.-21


reviewed and approved by Luther. The lish was formed in the General Synod Elector of Saxony, attended by a few of of Sendomir, in 1570, and recognized the German princes, presented it in 1530 through Poland, Lithuania and Samogi

, to the Emperor of Germany at the Diet tia. Frederic the Third, the Elector Palaof Augsburg. This confessional mani- tine, in 1576, issued a Formulary, in festo, which was read in the Augustan which he conveyed an exposition of his Congress, received its name from the

own faith. place of its presentation; and became the The Helvetian Confession was issued standard of Lutheranism, through Ger- in 1536, at Basil, in a convention of the many, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Reformed Ministry and Magistracy of The work has been criticised with the pen Switzerland, and received, with common of prejudice by Maimbourg, and abridged consent, through the cantons of the nawith 'impartiality by Seckendorf, Slei- tion. This form of belief was afterwards dan, Paolo, Moreri and Du Pin.* signed by a second assembly, held the

The Tetrapolitan, like the Augustan same year in the same city. This, enConfession, was, in 1530, presented to his larged and improved, was again published imperial majesty, at the Diet of Augs- in 1566, and extorted an unwilling eulogy burg, by a deputation from Strasbourg, even from the Bishop of Meaux. The Constance, Memmingen and Lindau. Swiss Confession, according to this auThe ambassadors, on this occasion, re- thor, excels all other compendiums of presented these four cities, and, from this the same kind which he had seen in circumstance, this public document took plainness and precision. The theologiits appellation. This compendium was ans of Basil, therefore, on this memora. compiled by Bucer and Capito, and ap- ble occasion, not only promulgated their proved by the Senate of Strasbourg. The creed, but, wonderful to tell, made even compilation has been epitomized, with Bossuet once at least in his life tell the his usual fairness, by Du Pin, from whom truth.t it extorted a flattering eulogy. This writ- The confessions of France, Holland, ing, says the Sorbonnist, is composed England and Scoiland soon followed that with much subtlety and address. Every of Switzerland. The French Formulary article is supported by Scriptural authori- was drawn up in a national synod at ty, and expressed in a manner calculated Paris in 1559. Beza, in 1561, presented to impose on the reader.t

it to Charles the Ninth, in the colloquy The Bohemian, the Saxon, the Wit- of Poissy. This public document was temberg, the Polish and the Palatine, confirmed in the national council of Rosoon followed the Augustan Confession. chelle, and signed by the Queen of NaThe Bohemian or Waldensian Formulary varre, by her son Henry the Fourth, by was compiled from older record and Conde, Nassau, Coligny, and the synod, presented, in 1535, to the Emperor Ferdi- and recognized by the reformed of the nand, by the nobility of Bohemia. The French nation. Chouet has given it in Saxon, in 1551, was issued in the Synod Latin, and Laval in French. The Dutch of Wittemberg, approved by the Protest- or Belgic, written in French in 1561, and ant clergy of Saxony, Misnia, and Po- in Dutch and Latin in 1581, was conmerania, sanctioned by the Princess of firmed in a national synod in 1579. Brandenburg and Mansfelt, and present- The English was edited in the Synod of ed, the same year, to the Council of London in 1562, and printed by the auTrent. The Wittemberg, composed by thority of the queen in 1571. This form Brent, was published in 1552. The Po- of belief, published for the purpose of re

moving dissension and promoting har* Mez. 4. 566. Chouet, 3. Boss. 1. 98. Sleid. 1. 284. Secken. 152. Paolo, 1. 89. Du Pin, * Chouet, 4. 140, 201. Alex. 17. 405. Bos. 3. 207. Morery, 2. 561.

suet, 1. 410. Du Pin, 3. 659. Moreri, 2. 562. + Chouet, 215. Du Pin, 3. 207. 209. Boss. Chouet, 3, 4. Du Pin, 3. 219. 656. Boss. 1. 98. Sleid. 1. 285. Secken. 198.

1. 110. and 2. 61. Moreri, 2. 562.



mony, was approved by the dignified and were, in these concise expositions, exinferior clergy and subscribed by her plained in a clear and satisfactory manmajesty Queen Elizabeth. The Formula is faithfully abridged by Du Pin. Seve- These doctrinal compilations repreral confessions appeared in Scotland in sented the theology of a vast population. different times. Knox, in 1560, com- Protestantism pervaded Norway, Sweposed one, which was ratified by Parlia- den, Denmark, Prussia, Poland, Germent. This, however, and others, were many, Transylvania, Hungary, Switzer. only provisional and temporary, and sunk land, France, Holland, England, Ireland into neglect on the appearance of the and Scotland: and visited the continents Formulary compiled at Westminster, of Asia, Africa and America. The exwhich, in 1649 and 1690, was ratified tensive territory, in this manner, from the by the Scottish Parliament at Edinburgh, Atlantic to the Euxine, and from the Icy and afterwards avowed by the people." Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, wit

The approbation of each confession nessed the light of the Reformation, was not limited to the nation, for which, which, propagated at succeeding times in a particular manner, it was intended. by missionary zeal, reached the African The reformed of the several European and Asian continents, and, crossing the kingdoms evinced their mutual concord interposing ocean, illuminated the transand communion, by a reciprocal subscrip- atlantic shores in a world unknown to tion to these forms of faith. The Saxon the ancients, ereed was approved by the reformed of The harmony of these declarations of Strasbourg and Poland: and the Bohe. belief is truly surprising, and constitutes mjan or Waldensian by Luther, Melanc- an extraordinary event in the history of thon, Bucer; by the academy of Wittem- man. The annals of religion and phiberg, by the Lutherans, and Zuinglians, losophy supply no other example of such and indeed by all the friends of Protestant- agreement. The several nations, let it ism. The Polish was recommended by be recollected, acted, on these occasions, the Waldensians and Lutherans. The in an independent manner, without conDutch was subscribed by the French cert or collusion. The one had no National Synod of Figeac; and the power or authority to control the other. French by the reformed of the Nether. The clergy and laily, besides, were nulands. 'The Swiss, united to each other merous and scattered over a wide territory. in mind and communion, declared them. The transaction, in its whole progress, selves undivided from the reformed of manifested the finger of Heaven and the other nations of Christendom; and their overruling providence of God. confession was signed by the Protestants reformed, indeed, had the one common of Germany, Hungary, Poland, France, standard of revelation. Directed by this Belgium, England and Scotland.

criterion, the early patrons of ProtestantThese confessional systems comprised ism formed their faith, which, except on all the topics of theology. Faith and one point, to evidence human weakness, morality were discussed with precision exhibited a perfect unanimiiy. The and perspicuity. God, the Trinity, pre- Zuinglian and Lutheran consessions, says destination, creation, providence, sin, Paolo, differed, in reality, only on the duty, redemption, regeneration, justifica- sacrament.* All these comprehensive tion, adoption, sanctification, baptism, abridgments showed, in varied diction, communion, death, resurrection, and im- an astonishing unity, in the main, on all mortality, all these subjects and many doctrinal questions, though they might others were comprehended in these pub. differ on discipline and ceremony. lications. The truth and duty of religion

The absurdity of consubstantiation,

indeed, for some time, deformed LutherChouet, 4. 99. 125. Laval, 1. 117. Du anism. This opinion the Saxon reformPin, 3. 656.661. Aymon, 1. 145. 300.98—111. Thuan, 2. 54. Moreri, 2. 562.

er, during his whole life, retained with | Alex. 17. 406. Chouet, 3, 4. 12. Du Pin, 3. 253. Boss. 1. XV. Aymon, 1. 145. 157. 300. * Paolo, 1. 81.



obstinacy. His pertinacity, on this sub- judgment, and subscribed with the utject, kindled the sacramentarian contro- most harmony by Luther, Zuinglius and versy, which awakened a series of noisy, the other theologians. useless disputations. These discussions The Zuinglian communion never acafforded Bossuet a subject of empty tri- counted the Lutheran peculiarity a suffiumph. Had it not been for this topic, cient reason for schism or disaffection. on which he has rung every possible This they professed on many occasions. change, and which constitutes a great The French Reformed, in the National part of his "variations," the good bishop Synod of Charenton, acknowledged, in would often have been at a wosul loss.

express terms, the purity of the Lutheran Luther's hostility to Zuinglianism, faith and worship. This assembly, in however, has been often much overra- 1631, declared, says Aymon, the Lutheted. This appears from the conference ran communion sound in the fundamenbetween the Lutherans and Zuinglians tals of religion, and free from superstiat Marpurg in 1529. Luther appeared, tion and idolatry. A meeting of the two on this occasion, accompanied by Melanc- denominations, in 1661, at Cassel, profesthon, Jonas, Osiander, Brent and Ag- sed their reciprocal esteem; and, though ricola; and Zuinglius by Bucer, Oeco- a forinal union was not constituted, exlompadius and Hædio.

Many other pressed their mutual willingness for copersons of merit and erudition attended. operation and cordiality. The Lutherans The Lutherans and Zuinglians both and Calvinists of Hungary, 'Transylvania agreed in the belief of a real presence in and Poland, in 1570, in the Synod of Senthe sacrament; but differed whether this domir, acknowledged the orthodoxy of presence was corporeal or spiritual. Mu- each other's faith, and formed a treaty of tual good will and friendly feeling, how. friendship and unity.* ever, prevailed, especially on ille part of The mutual friendship entertained by the Zuinglians. This is admitted by the reformed of Germany, France and Maimbourg, Du Pin, Paolo and Luther. Switzerland, terminated among those of The Zuinglians, according to Maimbourg, Hungary, Transylvania and Poland, in Du Pin, Sleidan and Seckendorf, begged, a formal ecclesiastical union. This was with the most earnest entreaty, that a gloriously effected at Sendomir in 1570. schism should not be continued on ac- A synod of Hungarian, Transylvanian count of one question. The Zuinglians, and Polish Calvinists and Lutherans met according to Luther, were mild and con- at that city, acknowledged the conformity ciliating even beyond expectation. An of their mutual faith to truth and revelaaccommodation, said the reformer, is not tion, formed themselves into one body, hopeless; and though a fraternal and for- and resolved on reciprocal co-operation mal union is not effected, there exists a against the partizans of Romanism and peaceful and amiable concord. All sectarianism. Agreed in doctrine, the agreed to exercise Christian charity, till synod, in the genuine spirit of religious God should supply additional light on liberty, left each church to the enjoyment the subject of disputation and direct to

of its own discipline and forms. This the means of establishing unanimity. noble and happy compact was confirmed The conference, besides, were unani- in the synod of Posen held in the same mous on all other points of divinity. All, year; and in those of Cracow, Petrocow say Du Pin and Paolo, were agreed on all and Breslaw in 1573, 1578, and 1583, topics but the communion.t A confes. Two branches of the reformed, who had sion was issued on the subjects of the differed in one non-essential, concurred, Trinity, the incarnation, faith, baptism, in this manner, to form one ecclesiastical justification, sanctification, tradition, ori- .communion, and to bury in eternal obliginal sin, vicarious righteousness, good vion, all the conflicting elements of facworks, the civil magistracy, and future tion and animosity.t

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* Seckendorf, 1. 136. 138.
† Paolo, 1. 82. Du Pin, 3. 205.-Sleidan, VI.

* Aymon, 2. 501. Du Pin, 3. 699.
* Thuận. 2. 778.


The formal junction, which bigotry presence of the true body and blood of had prevented, was, in 1817, effected Jesus in the sacrament, and their recepthrough Prussia and Germany. The tion by those who approach the comCalvinists modified the severity of pre- munion.* The same is taught in the destination, and the Lutherans renounced Reformed Confessions of Switzerland, the absurdity of consubstantiation; and France, Strasbourg, Holland and Engboth denominations, after a candid ex- land. Those of Switzerland and France planation, could see no remaining ground call the sacramental bread and wine his of schism. The two, in consequence, body and blood, which feed and strengthunited into one body. Lutheranism and en the communicant. Those of SirasCalvinism through the Prussian and Ger- bourg, Holland and England represent man dominions were amalgamated, and the consecrated elements as his true body both distinctions resolved into one. The and blood, which are present in the intwo have formed one ecclesiastical com- stitution and become our nourishment. munity, and are called Evangelical The doctrinal exposition of Pope GreChristians. The King of Prussia, on gory and the Roman council would have the occasion, showed great activity in satisfied any of the reformed denominapromoting the compilation of a liturgy, tions. All these admitted all that was calculated to gratify the community and enjoined by the Holy, Roman, Apostolic afford universal satisfaction. The pro- Synod, headed by his infallibility. Mafessors of Lutheranism and Calvinism, billon acknowledges the Berengarian in this manner, harmonized, and one creed's ambiguity and insufficiency.s burst of benevolence and liberality ex- The contemporary patrons of the corpotinguished the disassection of three hun- real presence held the same opinion as dred years.

Mabillon, and insisted on the substitution The Bishop of Meaux has taken occa- of an unequivocal and explicit confession, sion, from these mutations, to triumph and the insertion of the epithet “substanover Protestantism. But he ought to have tial.” This, accordingly, was effected known the changes of Romanism on next year.

A new creed was issued, this topic, and have feared to provoke acknowledging a substantial change in retaliation. The friends of Popery have the sacramental elements after consecraentertained diversified opinions on tran- tion.ll substantiation, which they have not ac- Pius the Fourth followed the foootsteps counted as essential in their system. A of Gregory. This pontiff, in 1560, in few instances of these fluctuations may the reign of Queen Elizabeth, offered be adduced. Gregory, Pius, Du Pin, to confirm the English Book of Comand the Sorbonne, rejected, or mon Prayer, containing the Thirty-Nine willing to modify their darling doctrine Articles and the Litany, if the British of transubstantation.

sovereign would acknowledge the ponGregory the Seventh, presiding in tifical supremacy and the British nation 1078 with all his infallibility, in a Roman join the Romish communion. I 'The synod of one hundred and filly bishops, English Articles reject transubstantiation. prescribed a form of belief on this ques. The religion of England under Elizabeth, tion, which rejected, or, at least, did not Mageoghegan would insinuate, though mention the corporeal presence. He without reason, was composed of Luallowed Berengarius 10 profess, that the theranism and Calvinism; but certainly bread of the altar, after consecration, was the true body, and the wine the true

• Seckend. 138. blood of our Lord.* 'Transubstantiation

+ Hel. Con. in Chouet, 67. Gal. Con. in and the corporeal presence are here ex- Chouet, 109, 110, cluded. Any Protestant would sign the # Argen. Con. in Chouet, 240. Aug. Con. in declaration. The Zuinglians, at the Chonei, 119, 120. Bel. Con. in Chouet, 182. conference of Marpurg, admitted the

Mabil. 5. 125. Mabillon, 5. 139. | Mabil. 5. 139.

Mageoghegan, 3. 379, 380, 381. Cart. 3. Cossart, 2. 28. Mabillon, 5. 125.

393.-Heylin, 303.-Strype, 1, 228.




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