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Romanism, renounced, in this manner, purgatory, the pontifical supremacy and in the west by the Waldenses, was op- communion in one kind.* - posed in the east by the Greeks, Nesto- The Greeks have shown great resorians, Jacobites, Armenians and Syrians. lution in opposing papal despotism. The Greeks occupy European Turkey Thomasin complains of their peculiar and the Mediterranean Islands ; and are unwillingness, beyond all the other oridispersed, though in fewer numbers, entals, to acknowledge the pontifical suthrough Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, premacy. Matthew Paris deprecates Palestine, Georgia and Mingrelia. The their open or concealed hostility, on all religion of the Greek Church is also the occasions, to Romanism, and their blasreligion of European and Asiatic Russia, phemy against its sacraments. Baldwin, comprehending a territory more extensive ihe Grecian emperor, honoured the Latins than the empire of Alexander or Tamer- with the name, not of men, but of dogs ; lane. The Greeks, as they possess an and this seems to have been their comextensive country, comprehend a nume- mon appellation for all the partisans of

a rous people. The patriarch of Constanti- Popery. The Greeks, says the Lateran nople, says Allatius, quoted by Thomas- Council, detest the Latins, rebaptize in, governed, in the eleventh century, those whom they admit to their commusixty-five metropolitans, and more than nion, and wash the altars on which the six hundred bishops.t

Romish clergy celebrate mass, and which, The Greeks, indeed, agree not with in their mind, had been polluted with the modern Protestants in all things. Some defilement of the Popish sacramentit of the orientals had drunk more and some The Mingrelians, who belong to the Jess from the muddy fountain of human Greek Church, appear to disbelieve traninvention, according to the period of their substantiation. Sir John Chardin, while connection with the Romish communion. on his travels in Mingrelia, asked a priest, The Greeks continued longest in con- if the sacramental bread and wine became junction with the Latins; and in conse- the body and blood of our Lord. The quence, have imbibed most corruption. priest, on the occasion, laughed, as if the The assimilation, indeed, between the question had been intended in raillery. Greek and Latin communions is in The simple Mingrelian, in the exercise many points, close and striking. The of common sense, could not understand Greeks, however, concur to a man in how the Mediator between God and man opposing papal usurpation and tyranny; could be compressed into a loaf, or why

, in denying that the Romish is ihe true he should descend from heaven to earth. I church; and in condemning the dogmas The Nestorians overspread Asiatic of purgatory, supererogation, half-com- Turkey, Arabia, Persia, 'Tartary, India

, munion, human merit, clerical celibacy, and China. Their number and extent prayers for the dead, and restricting the will appear from the stateinents of Coseirculation of the Bible. The Greeks mas, Vitricius, Canisius, Polo, Paris, excommunicate the Roman pontiff and Godeau and Thomasin. Cosmas, in all the Latin episcopacy, as the abettors Montfaucon, represented the Nestorian of schism and heresy. Prateolus, Fisher, churches, in the sixth century, as infinite More, Renaudot, Guido, Innocent, Bellar: or unnumbered. Vitricius records the mine and Aquinas confess the Grecian numerical superiority of the Nestorians disbelief in purgatory and in the utility of and Jacobites over the Greeks and Rosupplications for the dead. Their rejection of confirmation and extreme unction

• Simon, c. 1 Canisius, 4. 433. Fisher,

Art. 18. More, 199. Renaudot, 2. 105. Bell. 1. is testified by Simon; while their belief

1370. Innocent, 4. Ep. ad Otton. Du Fresne, in the divine obligation of communicating 5. 931. Bell. 1. 2. More, 200. More, 199, in both kinds is declared by Simon, Pra- Thevenot, 1. 258, 259. c. 55. Le Bruges, 1. leolus and More. Thevenot and Le 338, 339. c. 13. Bruges testify the Greek proscription of

† Thom. I. 5. M. Paris, 426. Cossart, 3. 21. Labb. 13. 938. Canis. 4.433. Le Bruges,

1. 327. c. 13. • Tho. Part IV. 2. 17. Allat. 1. 24.

# Chardin, 1. 100.

mans. Canisius, from an old author, Æthiopia and Nubia.* Abyssinia boasts gives a similar statement. Polo, the a Christian empire and establishment. Venetian, who remained seventeen years Jowett, the missionary, found in Siout, in Tartary, and was employed by the an Egyptian city, about 5000 Coptic Cham on many important commissions, Christians. testifies the dissemination of Nestorian- The Jacobites reject the supremacy, ism through Tartary, China and the em- purgatory, transubstantiation, half-compire of the Mogols. Matthew Paris re- munion, auricular confession, extreme lates the spread of the Nestorian heresy unction, the Latin liturgy and the seven through India, the kingdom of Prester sacraments. The usurped authority of John, and the nations lying nearer the the Roman hierarch, they view with east. Godeau mentions the extension of contempt. Their communion in both Nestorianism through the east and its kinds, as well as their rejection of conpenetration into the extremity of India, firmation and extreme unction, are testiwhere it remains to the present day. fied by Dresser and Godeau. Canisius, Thomasin attests its diffusion through from an old author, in his Lections, and India, Persia and Tartary, and its multi- Moreri show the Jacobite disbelief of plication in the north and east, nearly to purgatory. The Monophysite Missal, infinity.*

cited by Geddes, disclaims transubstanThe Jacobites or Monophysites are tiation. According to this document, divided into the Asiatics and Africans. “the bread and the wine are distinct The Asiatics are diffused through Syria, from our Lord in nature, but the same in Mesopotamia and Armenia; and the power and efficacy. His body, is broken, Africans through Egypt, Nubia and but only by faith.” An Abyssinian or Abyssinia. The vast number of this de- Monophysite priest expressly declared nomination, and the extensive territory against transubstantiation to Bruce. “The which they have occupied, may be shown priest,” says this author, “ declared to from the relations of Vitricius, Paris, me with great earnestness, that he never Canisius and Thomasin.

did believe that the elements in the euVitricius records the dissemination of charist were converted into the real body the Monophysite contagion through more and blood of Christ. He said, however, than forty kingdoms. The patriarch of that he believed this to be the Roman the Jacobites, says Matthew Paris, super- Catholic faith, but it never was his, and intends the Chaldeans, Medians, Per- that he conceived the bread was bread sians, Armenians, Indians, Æthiopians, and the wine was wine even after conseLybians, Nubians and Egyptians. These, cration." Vitricius attests their rejection mingled with the Saracens or fixed in their of auricular confession. Their disose own settlements through Asia, Africa and of the Latin liturgy is well known; and the East, occupy more than forty king- their renunciation of confirmation, condoms, containing an innumerable Chris- fession and extreme unction, shows their tian population. Canisius, from the manu- opinion of the seven sacraments.t script of an anonymous historian, has The Nestorians were said to divide the transmitted a similar account. The Ja- person of the Son, and the Jacobites to cobites, according to Thomasin, spread, confound his natures. But this controunder the empire of the Saracens, through versy, as the ablest and most candid theoall Asia and Africa. The patriarch of logians and historians admit, was a disAntioch presides over the Metropolitans pute about words. This is the opinion of Jerusalem, Mosul, Damascus, Edessa of the Protestant historians, Mosheim, and Cyprus. The patriarch of Alexan. Bayle, Basnage, La Croze, Jablonsky dria and Abyssinia presides over Egypt,

* Paris, 425, 426. Canisius, 4.433. Thom.

2. 20. Vitricius, I. 75. Renaudot, 1. 375, 438, * Montfaucon, 2. 179. Canisius, 4. 433. 440. Vitricius, 1. 76. Thom. 1. 4. Part 4. M. + Dress. 525. Godeau, 1. 275. Canis, 4. Paris, 425. Godeau, 3. 354. Thom. 2. 20. 434. Moreri, 8. 429. Gedd. 169. Vitricius, Part IV. Thom. 1. 357. Bayle, 3. 2079. I. 76. Bruce, V. 12.

and Buchanan. Many Romish as well have each an Armenian church. Touras reformed critics entertained the same nefort extols their civility, politeness, opinion. This was the judgment of Si- probity, sense, wealth, industry and mon, Bruys, Assemanni, Tournefort, Ge- enterprising disposition. Godeau recklasius, Thomasin and Godeau. Neslo- ons the Armenian families, under one of rianism, says Simon, is only a nominal the Armenian patriarchs, at more than heresy, and the controversy originated in 1500. The Armenian patriarch of Ana mutual misunderstanding. Bruys, As- tioch, says Otho, superintends more than semanni, Tournefort and Gelasius speak a thousand bishops, and is, in conseto the same purpose. Thomasin calls quence, called universal. He governs, the Jacobites, Armenians, Copts and says Vitricius, twenty provinces and Abyssinians, demi-Eutychians, who re- fourteen metropolitans wiih their suffrajected the extravagant imaginations of.the gans, who occupy, according to 'Thooriginal Monophysites. Modern rela- masin, many churches through all the tions, says this author, show, that the east, in Mesopotamia, Persia, CaramaJacobites confounded not the godhead nia and Armenia.* and manhood of the Messiah; but repre- This denomination, beyond all the sented these as forming one person, with- Christians in Central Asia, have repelled out confusion, in the Son, as soul and Mahometan and Romish superstitions. body in man. The Abyssinians, who True to their ancient faith, they have are a branch of the Monophysites, disbe- nobly resisted the oppression of Islamlieve, says Godeau, any commixture of ism and the allurements of Popery. Deity and humanity in the Son of God.* Preserving the Bible, their faith, says

The Armenians are scattered through Buchanan, is a transcript of biblical Armenia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Syria, purity. The Armenians condemn the suPersia, India, Cyprus, Poland, Turkey, premacy, transubstantiation, purgatory, Transylvania, Hungary and Russia. image-worship, clerical celibacy, the Julfa, in the suburbs of Ispahan, is, say seven sacraments, the Latin liturgy, the Renaudot and Chardin, entirely inhabit- power of the sacraments to confer grace, ed by this denomination. This colony the observance of vigils and festivals, amounted to 30,000 persons. Abbas, and the withholding of the Bible from the Persian monarch, contemporary the laily. Their rebaptism of Papists with Elizabeth of England, invited, says who join their communion, as mentionWalsh, the Armenians to settle in his ed by Godeau and More, is a sufficient dominions, where he gave them every evidence of the opinion which they enterprotection. Twenty thousand families tain of the supremacy and of Romanism. were placed in the province of Guilam. The uncatholicism and falsehood of Forty thousand reside in India, and carry Popery, besides, is, says More, one of on a great part of the inland trade. Two their prosessed dogmas. Their disbelief hundred thousand of them remain in of the real presence in the communion, Constantinople, in the adjoining villages, except in sign and similitude, is acknowand on the Bosphorus.f

ledged by Godeau, Guido and More. The Armenian merchants are distin- Their denial of purgatory and prayers guished for their indnstry, frugality, for the dead is admitted by Godeau, activity and opulence. Fixing their More and Canisius; while Nicetas, Basettlements in every principal city and ronius and Spondanus proclaim the Aremporium of Asia, the Armenians, menian renunciation of image-worship. says Buchanan, are the general mer- The Armenians, according to Godeau, chants of the east, and in constant mo- ordain only married men to the priesttion between Canton and Constantino- hood; and detract from the sacraments ple. Calcutta, Madras and Bombay the power of conferring grace. Theveand the pope, as well as their great en- opposition of the Syrian Church to Popemity to all the professors of Romanism.* ry, and of its agreement, in every essen

not attests their rejection of purgatory • Bayle, 2077. Simon, c. 9. Bruys, 1. 207. Assem. 291. Tourn. 2. 297. Gel. de duob. Thom. 2. 21. Godeau, I. 275.

* Godeau, 1. 273. Thomasin, 1. 4. Lab

beus, 12. 1572. Vitricius, c. 23. Thom. I. 4. † Renaud. 2. 376. Chard. 2. 97.

part 4. Spon. 1145. IV.

'The Syrian Christians who agree in tial, with Protestantism. . The acts of faith with the reformed, inhabit India, this synod are inserted in Labbé's and where Travancore and Malabar consti- Cossari's collection, and supply the foltute their chief settlements. These had lowing statements. “ The Babylonian occupied Western India from the earliest patriarch is independent of the Roman ages, and had never heard of Romanism pontiff, and the Syrian Church of the paor the Papacy, till Vasco De Gama ar pal communion. The Son of God conrived at Cochin in the beginning of the ferred no authority on Peter above his sixteenth century. The infernal spirit apostolic fellows. The Romish commuof Popery and persecution then invaded nion has renounced the faith and fallen this ancient church, and disturbed the into heresy. The Popish theology is a tranquillity of 1200 years. The Sy- system of falsehood, which was proparians on the sea-coast yielded, for a time, gated through Christendom by the arms to the storm. But the inland inhabit- and enactments of the Roman emperors. ants, in support of their ancient religion, " Transubstantiation is an absurdity. braved all the terrors of the Inquisition The body of Jesus is not in the host and with unshaken resolution.

is only in heaven. The bread and wine The Syrians constitute a numerous are the emblems of his body and blood, church. Godeau reckons the Syrian from which they differ as a picture from population of Comorin, Coutan, Cranga- the original. The sacramental elements nor, Malabar and Negapatam at 16,000 are the Lord, not in reality, but in appearfamilies, or 70,000 individuals. I But ance, not in substance but in efficacy. the multitude is greater towards the west, When Menez elevated the host, the Sythe north and the city of Cochin. rians shut their eyes lest they should see

The antiquity of the Syrian church the object of idolatry.. reaches beyond that of Nestorianism, Ja- “Images are not to be venerated. cobitism or Armenianism, and this ap- These hateful and filthy idols are to be pears in the purity and simplicity of their excluded from the churches and houses iheology. Godeau admits their reading of the faithful.” When Menez exhibited of the New Testament in the Syrian an image of the Virgin Mary, the people tongue in their churches; and their re- cried, “ away with this abomination. We jection of extreme unction, image-wor- are Christians, and do not worship idols." ship and clerical celibacy. The Syrians, “ Matrimony, confirmation and exsays Moreri, as well as Thomas, quoted treme unction are no sacraments. The by Renaudot, neither believe purgatorial Syrians had no knowledge of confirmafire nor pray for the dead. These In- tion; and regarded it, when proposed by dian Christians, says Renaudot, celebrate the metropolitan of Goa, not only as suthe communion in Syriac, and reckon, perfluous and unnecessary, but as an insays Canisius, all the Latins excommu- sult. The Syrian clergy administered nicated.

no extreme unction, and were ignorant of But the Synod of Diamper, in which its supposed institution, use and efficacy. Menez, Archbishop of Goa, presided, The Syrian laity practised no auricular affords unexceptionable evidence of the confession. The Syro-Indian church

used no holy oil, either in baptism or in Godeau, 1. 273. Romana. More, 62.

any other ceremony. Menez, the Popish More, 62. Godeau, l. 272. Guido, c. 22. More, 62. Godeau, '1. 273. More, 63. Cani: metropolitan, ordered baptism to be adsius, 4. 434. Spond. 863. V. Godeau, 1. 273. ministered according to the Roman ritual: Godeau, 1. 273. More, 62. More, 63. Cani.

a certain token that the chrism, exorcism, sius, 4. 434. Thevenot, 3. 396.

spittle and other ridiculous superstitions + Coss. 6.83.

of Romanism, in the administration of # Godeau, 1. 270. $ Godeau, 1. 270. Moreri, 7. 397. Thomas. this sacrament, had been unknown in VII. 15. Renaudot, 2. 105. Renaud. 1. 374. this ancient communion. Sacerdotal Canisius, 4. 433.

celibacy was no institution of Syrian discipline. The clergy married, and The European, Asiatic and African sometimes even widows." Such is the denominations that dissented from PopeSynod of Diamper's representation of the ry were four times more numerous than distinctions which discriminated Syrian- the partisans of Romanism, when, prior ism from Popery."

to the Reformation, the Papacy shone in Buchanan and Kerr visited this Chris. all its glory. Popery, instead of univertian community, and have transmitted saliiy, which is its vain but empty boast, accounts of its people and profession. was never embraced by more than a Their knowledge of the Syrian clergy fisth part of Christendom. The west and and laity was obtained by personal ac- especially the east were crowded by the quaintance, and their delineations possess opponents of the Romish despotism and all the merit of pictures taken from life. absurdity. Superstition and error, inBuchanan held long conversations with deed, except among the Waldenses, prethe Syrian clergy; and found, after ma- vailed through the European nations, and ture examination, the conformity of their reigned in the realms of the Papary with faith with the reformed. He acknow. uncontrolled sway. Darkness, within its ledged the antiquity of Syrianism, and dominions, covered the earth and gross its identity, in all its tenets, with Proteste darkness the people. But the Waldenses, antism. India, from time immemorial, who were numerous, held up, in the contained a church which was unknown western world, a steady light which to the rest of Christendom, but which shone through the surrounding obscurity, held the same theology that had been and illuminated, with its warming beams, professed in the European nations by the the minds of many. The oriental ChrisWaldensians, and which, in the sixteenth lians, more numerous than the Waldenses century, was promulgated by Luther and and divided and disputing abont minor Calvin, and is received, at the present matters of words and ceremony, opposed, day, by a great part of the Old and New with firmness and unanimity, the tyranny World.

and corruptions of Romanism. All these,

overspreading the eastern and western * Cossart, 6. 29, 36, 37, 39, 40. Cossart, 6.

world, and resisting the usurpations of 39, 40. Cossart, 6. 40, 47. Cossart, 6. 36,65, pontifical despotism, far outnumbered the 72, 73, 83, 101, 112, 127. .

sons of European superstition and Popery.





But, to outweigh all harm, the Sacred Book, For what contend the wise ? for nothing less In dusty sequestration wrapt too long,

Than that the Soul, freed from the bonds of Assumes the accents of our native tongne;

Sense, And he who guides the plough, or wields the And to her God restored by evidence crook,

Of things not seen -drawn forth from their With understanding spirit now may look

recess, Upon her records, listen to her song,

Root there, and not in forms, her holiness; And sist her laws — much wondering that the For Faith which to the Patriarchs did dispense wrung,

Sure guidance, ere a ceremonial fence Which faith has suffered, Heaven could calm- Was needful round men thi ting 10 transly brook.

gress; Transcendent Boon ! noblest that earthly King For Faith, more perfect still, with which the Ever bestowed to equalize and bless

Under the weight of mortal wretchedness! or all, himself a Spirit, in the youth
But passions spread like plagues, and thou- or Christian aspiration, deigned to 611
sands wild

The temples of their hearts--who, with his With bigotry shall tread the Offering

Beneath their feet-detested and defiled. Informed, were resolute to do his will,

And worship Him in spirit and in truth.

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