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too keen and fine? It is the course such great free human heart in this man. The men as the poor Poet Cowper fall into. common speech of him has a rugged Luther, to a slight observer, might have nobleness, idiomatic, expressive, genuine; seemed a timid, weak man; modesty, gleams here and there with beautiful affectionate shrinking tenderness the chief poetic tints. One feels him to be a great distinction of him. It is a noble valour brother man. His love of Music, indeed, which is roused in a heart like this, once is not this, as it were, the summary of all stirred up into defiance; all kindled into these affections in him? Many a wild a heavenly blaze.

unutterability he spoke forth from him " In Luther's Table-talk, a posthumous in the tones of his flute. The Devils Book of anecdotes and sayings collected fled from his flute, he says. Death-deby his friends, the most interesting now fiance on the one hand, and such love of of all the Books proceeding from him, music on the other: I could call these we have many beautiful unconscious dis- the two opposite poles of a great soul; plays of the man, and what sort of nature between these two all great ihings had he had. His behaviour at the death-bed room. of his little Daughter, so still, so great' “ Luther's face is to me expressive of and loving, is among the most affecting him; in Kranach's best portraits I find things. He is resigned that his little the true Luther. A rude, plebeian face; Margaret should die, yet longs inexpress with its huge crag-like brows and bones, sibly that she might live ;-follows, in the emblem of rugged energy; at first, awestruck thought, the flight of her little almost a repulsive lace. Yet in the eyes soul through those unknown realms. especially there is a wild, silent sorrow; Awestruck; most heartselt, we can see; an unnameable melancholy, the element and sincere--for after all dogmatic creeds of all gentle and fine affections ; giving to and articles, he feels what nothing it is the rest the true stamp of nobleness. that we know, or can know: His little Laughter was in this Luther, as we said; Margaret shall be with God, as God wills; but tears, also, were there. Tears, also, for Luther, too, that is all; Islam is all. were appointed him; tears and hard toil.

"Once, he looks out from his solitary The basis of his life was Sadness, Ear• Patmos,' the Wartburg, in the middle nesiness. In his latter days, after all of the night: The great vault of Immens- triumphs and victories, he expresses himity, long flights of clouds sailing through self heartily weary of living; he considers il.-dumb, gaunt, huge,—who supports that God alone can and will regulate the all that? •None ever saw the pillars of course things are taking, and that perit; yet it is supported.' God supports haps the Day of Judgment is not far. it . We must know that God is great, As for hiin, he longs for one thing: that that God is good; and trust, where we God would release him from his labour, Cannot see.- Returning home from Leip- and let him depart and be at rest. They zig once, he is struck by the beauty of understand little of the man who cite this the harvest-fields : How stands, that in dis-credit of him! I will call this golden yellow corn, on its fair, taper Luther a true Great Man; great in intelstem, its golden head bent, all rich and lect, in courage, affection and integrity; waving there, the meek Earth, at God's one of our most loveable and precious kind bidding, has produced it once again; men. Great, not as a hewn obelisk; but the bread of man - In the garden at as an Alpine mountain,-so simple, hoWittenberg one evening at sunset, a little nest, spontaneous, not setting up to be bird has perched for the night: 'That'little great at all; there for quite another purbird, says Luther, above it are the stars pose than being great! Ah, yes, unsutand deep Heaven of worlds; yet it has duable granite, piercing far and wide into folded iis little wings; gone trustfully to the leavens ;-yet in the clefts of it rest there as in its home: the Maker of fountains, green beautiful valleys with it has given it, too, a home!- -Neither flowers ! A right Spiritual Hero and are mirthful terms wanting: there is a Prophet; once more, a true Son of Na

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ture and Fact, for whom these centuries, ther quotation. His character of Martin and many that are to come yet, will be Luther appears to us wonderfully graphic thankful to Heaven."

and true. Mr. Carlyle always underIn this same admirable discourse, Mr. stands what he is 'writing about; he Carlyle discourses at some length upon never writes without having something John Knox, upon Puritanism, and col- 10 say; and what he says is said with no lateral subjects; but our limits forbid fur- superfluity of words.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY: ST. JOHN AGAINST SCHLEGEL.

1844.

Horæ Apocalypticæ, or a Commentary on the the other !-In his general abstract noApocalypse, Critical and Historical. By the tions, indeed, of the philosophy of history Rev. Ë. B. Elliott

, A. M., Trinity College, and its objects, Schlegel has much that is Cambridge. 3 vols. 8vo. London, Seeleys,

admirable. He lays it down that, as the

highest object of philosophy is the restoThe study of unfulfilled prophecy, raiion of God's image in man, so the which had fallen into some neglect, has great object of the philosophy of history recently been pursued with great learn- must be to trace historically the progress ing, ability, and ardour, both in England of this restoration ;-that it is his object and in this country. While the puerili- and intention, through that all-ruling ties of persons like William Miller have Providence which regulates the whole invited 10 such speculations the contempt course of human destiny, ultimately to of scholars, the profound and impressive accomplish it;-that Christianity, God's discussions of thinking men have rein- own heaven-sent religion, is the regenevested them with their appropriate dignity rating principle, whence whatever may and importance. We have not room in already have been accomplished has prothis number of our Review, to present an ceeded, and whence alone man's final and outline of the argument of Mr. Elliott, perfect regeneration is to arise ;—that the but our readers will be gratified with the hindrances and obstructions in the way following contrast which he draws near of its accomplishment have arisen from the conclusion of his third volume, be- the fearfully powerful, though most mystween the great German critic and St. terious, influence in the world of ihe John, as the last is explained in Horæ spirit of evil, alike God's enemy and Apocalypticæ.

man's, and man's endowment with free “ Here it is that the moral of the Apo- will, to choose, as he may please, the calyptic prophecy, its philosophy of the guidance of the one spirit or the other; history of Christendom, if I may so call further, that it belongs to the province it, becomes unspeakably valuable. We of the philosophy of history to mark have elsewhere had the philosophy of God's wrathful judgments on the world, the same history traced by human pen; when thus led astray from Him; and to and lessons at the same time drawn from mark also the interpositions and proceedit in the way of instruction and direction ings of Divine Providence, especially for the fulure :--more especially I may as illustrated from time to time in the rise refer to the work of the late celebrated and conduct of any remarkable particular Frederick Von Schlegel on the subject; nations or individuals, with a view to the a writer of no common eloquence or fulfilment of its designs, whether of judg. common reputation. But if we compare ment or of mercy.-Such, I say, is the two outlines of historic philosophy Schlegel's generally just idea of the phitogether, the human and the divine, what losophy of history; and the reader has a contrast will appear! And how true but io recall what has gone before in this the one; how superficial and delusive commentary, or to glance at the illustrative chart prefixed to it, in order to be tianity from being lost in a multitude of convinced how eminently, on such an sects :-in all which he thinks to mark idea of it, there attaches a high degree of the presence and operation of God's anithe philosophic character to the historic mating Spirit, as well as kindly proviprefigurations of the Apocalypse. It is dence. On the other hand he traces the in the application of the principle that cotemporary operation of the evil spirit, the marked contrast appears between (the Spirit of time,' as he calls it, from these and Schlegel's sketches : nor, I after the era of the overthrow of the pathink, can I better place the moral lessons gan empire that it had previously ruled of this holy book in sull relief and dis- in and animated)—I say, he traces the tinctness before the reader, than by set- evil spirit's operation through the same ting forth its philosophy somewhat fully, period in the beguiling sectarian spirit in direct contrast with the other. and religious schisms of Christendom;

“The German philosopher then, agree- including not alone the Arian schism, and ably with his religious creed, directs him- the Mahomedan schism (for he places self by the Romish standard in his judg. Mahomedanism in the same category, *) ment of things that concern religion and but also in the iconoclastic proceedings the church. After the first four centuries, of certain of the Greek emperors,-pronotable for the diffusion and final triumph ceedings which he lauds Gregory the of Christianity over paganism in the Ro- Second for resisting.--and the consequent'. man empire, he traces ihe church visible schism between the eastern and western and established (already then, with re- churches. In his sketch of the latter half spect to its acknowledged head, a Romish of the middle age, reaching from the church) through the four long centuries twelfth century to the Reformation, he which followed, of a chaotic intermediate admits the general religious deterioration stale between ancient and modern history, of western Christendom; particularizing as still Christ's true church, the upholder the essentially false scholastic philosophy and preserver of the Christian religion, then in vogue, and the internal feuds and as well as civilizer of the barbarous in- contests between church and state : and vading Germanic nations; then the next traces the kindly operation of the divine three centuries, after that the tempests Spirit, (• the Paraclete promised to the had subsided, and the wild waters of bar church by its divine Founder') whereby barian inundation begun to flow off, from Christianity was preserved, in the rise Charlemagne to Gregory VII. and the and institution of the ecclesiastical mendifirst half of the twelfth century inclusive, cant orders, as men of the most perfect -a period constituting the earlier half of evangelical humility, poverty and selfthe middle age,-as the happiest era denial : at the same time reprobating the and golden age of Christendom;' when doctrines of the then popular opposers of "the influence of religion on public life the church,--as the Waldenses, Albigenwas paramount,' when, in the project of ses, and also Wickliffe and Huss aster a universal empire to embrace all civilized them, as fraught with the germs of heresy. nations, the foundation-stone of the noble -So arrived at the Reformation, he fabric of modern Christendom was laid, and all the elements of a truly Christian

• “The rigid prohibition of the religious use government and policy were offered to ofimages was proper in those cases only where mankind, when the principles which the use of them was not confined to a mere deanimated society were the besi and noblest votional respect, but was likely to degenerate and soundest,' when the church like the into a real adoration and idolatry, and where a

strict separation from pagan nations and their all-embracing vault of heaven,' with its rites was a matter of primary importance. But pure faith sheltered and shed kindly in- now that the Mahomedan proscription of all fluence on all, and the Papal power, holy emblems and images of devotion arose founded on and adapted for unity, after from a decidedly antichristian spirit, this Byhaving grown up towards the end of this zantine fury against all images and symbols

of piety can be regarded only as a mad contaera to unprecedented greatness, used this gion of the moral disease of the age." --Lech. great power only so as to preserve Chris- xii. p. 106.

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speaks of it as manifested to be a human, Catholicism as a revival of religion, not divine reformation ; by its claim of more especially in the countries of France full freedom of faith, its rejection of the and Germany;—and finally expresses his traditions of the past, its destruction of hope of a true and complete regeneration the dignity of the priesthood, and endan- of the age, at no great distance of time, gering of the very foundations of religion, (though not till after a temporary triumph through a denial of the holy sacramental of some antichristian spirit of evil,) as the mysteries, its adoption finally of a faith fit conclusion to the philosophy of hisof mere negation, (so he designates it,) tory:-its essence to consist in a thorough and severing of ils Protestant constituents Christianization alike of the state and of from the sacred centre of faith and reli- science ;—its form to be somewhat like gion, i. e. from Rome. *

the perfection of the noble but imperfect "Such is Schlegel's philosophic view Christian empire of Charlemagne ;—its of the history of Christendom down to the introduction to be not without the disReformation : after which he notices the play of fearful divine judgments, nor inreligious indifferentism of spirit, and deed without Christ's own coming and false illuminism of the seventeenth and intervention :-and, with this divine reeighteenth centuries, – ascribing them formation, and its accompanying com

very much to the influence of the Pro- plete victory of truth, that human retestant principle,tuntil the tremendous formation, which till now hath existed, political outbreak of this infidel illuminism to sink to the ground, and disappear from in the French Revolution. Then, after a the world.' notice of the Revolution and its twenty- “ How different the philosophy of the five years' war of irreligion,'-—'a con- same history of Christendom, as traced vulsive crisis of the world which has out to St. John in the prefigurative visions created a mighty chasm, and thrown up of Patmos !-a difference based in fact on a wall of separation between the present a totally different view of what Christ's age and the eighteenth century,'—he true religion consists in, and what is speaks of the late progressing revival of Christ's true church! After a brief

symbolization of the chief coming eras *“Had it been,” he says, p. 228, “a divine and vicissitudes of the Roman pagan perreformation, it would at no time, and under no condition, have severed itself from the sacred secuting empire, until its total overthrow centre and venerable basis of Christian tradi

before the power of Christianity, there tion; in order, reckless of all legitimate deci. was forth with very strikingly intimated sions, preceding as well as actual

, to perpetu- to him in the sealing vision that a general , ate discord, and seek in negation itself a new apostasy would then have begun, and be and peculiar basis for the edifice of schismatic opinion.”

progressing, among the professing ChrisHe speaks with high approval, p. 222, of the

tian body in Roman Christendom,-an institution of the Jesuits ; as a religious order, apostasy which the comment of subsewholly dependent on the church, and from quent history has shown to have arisen

10 their opposition to Protestantism, as the great in chief part through that same over-estiwant of the age. t“Those negative and destructive princi

mate and unscriprural view of the church ples,-those maxims of liberalism and irreli- sacraments and church ministry with gion, which were almost exclusively prevalent which Schlegel would connect the es. in European literature during the eighteenth sence of religion;—and that this apostasy century,—in a word, Protestantism, in the com- would be the cause of a series of fearful prehensive signification of that term.”—Lect. xviii

. p. 285. So, too, p. 295; though he there avenging judgments, soon to follow. At allows that the English Protestantism of phi- the same time there was also manisested losophy is to be distinguished from the French God's gracious purpose, while giving Revolutionary atheism; for that “though by scope to apostate man's evil, yet 10 preits opposition to all spiritual ideas it is of a

serve to Himself a faithful church and negative character, yet most of its partisans witnesses in the world. And the formacontrive to make some sort of capitulation with divine faith, and to preserve a kind of tion, character and secret history were belief in moral feeling.”

also shown him of those that would constitute this the Lord's real church; how

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they would be no visible corporate body, cations, murders, thefts, sorceries ;' in

, but strictly the xvpraxn exxımova, Chrisi's fine as continuing unchanged, unchangeown outgathering and election of grace, able in apostasy, notwithstanding the individually chosen, enlightened, quick- repeated checks of woes and judgments

, ened and sealed by Him with the Holy, from heaven, even until the end; and Spirit of adoption : a body notable as therefore then at length, in its impeniGod's servants' for holy obedience; tency, to be utterly abandoned to judg• and though few in number, compared ment, (this being an essential prelimi

, with the apostate professors of Chris- nary to the world's regeneration,) and, tianity, yet in God's eye numerally per- like another Sodom, made an example of fect and complete. Thenceforth these the vengeance of everlasting fire.-On

two lines and successions were traced the other hand the Apocalyptic prophecy distinctly and separately in their respect. represented Christ's true church, the ive histories, through all the series of election of grace, consisting of such as events and revolutions following, even to should hold to Christ as their head, and the consummation ; and the invisible au- keep the word of God and testimony of thors of their different polities and actions, Jesus, as almost at once entering on the - whether the evil spirit or the good, great, the long tribulation; yet, though made manifest. On the one hand there in number few and fewer, and redụced to was depicted the body of false professors a state spiritually destitute and desolate, of Christianity, the constituency of the like that of the wilderness, so as to conapostatizing empire and church, -having stitute a church invisible rather than visia religion not Christian but antichristian, ble, as still secretly preserved by their formed on traditions of men, (traditions Lord : the revelation of God's doctrines that figure so high in Schlegel's estimate,) of grace, acted out in the light-bearing not God's word, and giving worship to visions of the sealing and the palm-beardeparted saints and martyrs as mediators, ers, just before the burst of the emblemnot to Christ,-in its eastern division as atic tempests,-a doctrine directly antagotherefore soon mangled and afterwards nistic to that of the incipient apostasy, exterminated by the divine avenging and which Augustine's history well illusjudgments of the scorpion-locusts and trated,-being the result of God's direct Euphratean horsemen,-in other words, primary intervention, with a view to of the Saracens and the Turks: in its their spiritual preservation and life. It western division as rising up again from represented the witnesses for Christ's the primary desolating judgments of cause, from out of this little body, and Gothic invasion, in the new form of an protesters against the reigning apostasy, ecclesiastical empire, (the same that (verified historically afterwards in the Schlegel eulogizes as Christ's true history of those whom Schlegel would church,) seated on the seven hills of make heretics, the Waldenses, and Wickancient Rome: its secret contriver being liffe, and Huss, and their followers,) as the very Dragon, or Satanic spirit, that made war on by the Roman ecclesiastical had ruled openly before in the pagan empire, soon after the full establishment empire; its character proud, persecuting, of its power, like as by a beast from the

; blasphemous and self-exalting against abyss of hell, and at length conquered God, even beyond its pagan precursor; and apparently exterminated; but then its constituency and priesthood, through- presently after, as all suddenly revived oui Schlegel's boasted middle ages, cha- and exalted in presence of their enemies, racterized by idolatries (oh impotent with a revelation from heaven accompaattempt to defend Rome's image-worship - nying (the result of God's great second by the German philosopher !") and forni

that it did not require idolatrous worship of * See the quotation in Schlegel about the the Virgin Mary; and that he has left it, and iconoclastic Greek emperors in preceding rejoined the English church, on finding that it page, 395.

was in very truth required of him. But did it Mr. Sibthorp, it is said by Mr. Faber, went need that he should enter the Romish church over to the Church of Rome, under the belief for evidence on this point ?

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