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The forms of falsehood by which the Shall we become useless, in order to minds of men are now pre-occupied are continue peaceable? Shall we walk in many and various, and consequently cowardice, or supineness, or paralyzing many and various are the controversies worldliness, and deceive ourselves and in which the bold, the faithful, and deter- others by calling this Christian meekmined, and persevering advocates of true ness ? Shall we be really traitors to God, religion must be involved. There is no in order to seem to be charitable among ņew thing under the sun. We have men? Or, repudiating all this as utterly around us at this day counterparts of the unworthy of us, shall we stand forth and ancient Sadducees, who, not knowing the speak out, in the strength of the Lord Scriptures, neither the power of God, Jesus; in imitation also of his high exdare to deny the first principles of reve- ample, in true meekness—not whining, lation; we have counterparts of the He- mawkish sentimentality; but the genuine rodians, who, by raising the cry of po- gentleness of calm, determined, dignified litical parsons, endeavour to neutralize self-possession? Shall we thus stand our advocacy because they cannot answer against the sneers of the scoffer, while we our arguments; and we have counter- expose the hollowness of his objections ; parts of the Scribes and Pharisees, who against the craftiness of the wily politician, being destitute of spirituality, and yet while we refuse to confine ourselves to the desirous of credit for religion, endeavour saying, “ Render unto God the things that to uphold outward formality by human are God's,” seeing that our glorious Lord authority, teach for doctrines the tradi- said also, .Render unto Cæsar the things tions of men, and so make void the glm- that are Cæsar's;" and against the formrious gospel of the blessed God. So ality and hypocrisy of apostate Scribes, situated, what shall we do? Shall we who make clean the outside of the cup withhold our testimony for our Lord and platter, while within they are full of Jesus Christ altogether, and thereby rottenness and corruption? Our course avoid all contention? Shall we modify, is plain. We are put in trust with the and soften, and adulterate our testimony gospel, for the preaching of it, and the with the lax principles of its enemies, propagation of it, and the desence of it; and dignify our temporizing trimming and as ministers of the church we have with the name of judicious prudence? no choice.
THE WORSHIP OF THE VIRGIN MARY AND OF THE POPES OF ROME.
Facts and Evidences demonstrating the Worship of the Blessed Virgin Mary by the Church of Rome,
derived from the Testimonies of her Reputed Saints and Doctors, from her Breviary and other Authorized Romish Formularies of Devotion, confirmed by the Atiestation of Travellers.
BY THOMAS HARTWELL HORNE, B.D., D.D.
"Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." Of all the systems of spiritual tyranny to "quiet the conscience, it has doctrines ever devised for subjugating the human of human merit and supererogation; to mind, popery, or the system of doc- aların indifferent, it has fears of pur. trines and practices of the Romish church, gatory; to give ease to the conscience of whose head is called the Pope, stands the man of the world and of pleasure, unrivalled and alone for its admirable each sin has its penance." All men, at adaptation to the heart of fallen man. If times, are under fears of God's wrath; we examine this complex system, we their conscience is touched; they are in shall find that every possible tempera- anxiety; and at such times popery interment has been consulted in it. In order venes, lulls them for the moment, and
sends them .... into eternity! On the titles, claims on my attention, while I am other hand the lovers of music are templ- engaged in proclaiming the doctrine of ed by compositions the most sublime and salvation ? (Mall. xii. 48-50.) And in beautiful, which can charm or delight the the concluding scene of suffering, we may ear; while the admirers of painting and well believe that, when he again addresssculpture are fascinated by the mosl' ex- ed his mother with the cold appellation quisite productions of those arts. To
To woman, and directed his beloved disciple those who are fond of pageantry, the to behold in her his mother, (John xix. Romish church presents a gorgeous 26, 27,) his intention was to abdicate for ritual; to the devout and sentimental she ever the human relationship of his earthly offers incessant prayers, very many of parent, as terminated with his earthly which are clothed in the most impassion- existence, that she might not, by supered, not to say amatory language.
stitious worship, be exalted, as she has Among these impassioned prayers the been, to the throne of heaven. * The devotions directly addressed to the Bless- silence of the apostles John, Peter, James, ed Virgin are very conspicuous: and as Jude, and Paul, is a clear proof that no it is an artifice of papists to deny what is honours were paid by them, or in their not very agreeable to them to admit, as time, to the Virgin Mary. Equally silent the actual practice of their section of the are the genuine writings of the apostoliuniversal church, we indulge the hope cal fathers (as those who immediately that we shall render some service to the succeeded the apostles are ordinarily cause of pure and undefiled religion, by termed), and of the subsequent ecclesiasexhibiting proofs and evidences of the tical authors to the time of Athanasius.. MARIOLATRY, or Worship of the Blessed It is indeed, a well attested fact, that no Virgin Mary, as practised in and by the divine honours were given, earlier than Church of Rome, derived from the testi- the fourth century, to the Blessed Virgin monies of her reputed saints and doctors, Mary, of whom no“ true member of the and from her breviary and other author. Anglican branch of the Catholic Church ized formularies of devotion.
either can or will speak disparagingly or It can scarcely be necessary to apprise irreverenily.” The first persons upon our readers, that there is not a single record, as offering divine honours to her, text in the New Testament which affords were the Collyridians, who derive their any pretext whatever in favour of Mary. names from the xoàavpides, or certain worship. Our Saviour, in his personal cakes, which they offered annually to intercourse with the Blessed Virgin, from Saint Mary, in sacrifice, upon her festithe very commencement to the close of val, when they worshipped her as a his ministry, manifested an anxious de- goddess. This superstition came from sire of precluding, especially in regard Thrace, and the yet more distant regions to her, the belief that any intercession of Scythia and Arabia. While they with him might be expected. At the were mere pagans, they had been accusmarriage-feast, which immediately pre- tomed to bake and present similar cakes ceded his ministry, he checked her in- to the goddess Venus, or Astarte (the terference, even with some severity, when moon); and after they professed Christishe intimated her expectation that he anity, they thoughi that this honour would work a public miracle for the ac- might now be best shown to Mary.t commodation of the company; though This superstition was condemned by he immediately afterwards performed the Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis and a same privately, for the conviction, as it canonized saint of the Romish Church, appears, of his disciples. (John ii. 1-11.) in as strong terms as if he had foreseen In the progress of his ministry, he publicly disclaimed her right of concerning Miller's “Letter to the Rev. E. B. Pusey, herself with his conduct, even for his D.D.,” p. 62. London, 1840, 8vo. personal welfare; demanding, “Who is
† Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, Cent. my mother, and who are my brethren?" iv. Book II., Part ii., ch. v, $ 25. (Vol. ii., pp.
414, 415, of Dr. Murdock's accurate translaWho are the persons urging, under these tion, edited by Mr. Soames).
the hyperdulia or transcendent kind of stitious services in honour of the Blessed service with which Romanists would one Virgin. day worship the Virgin Mary. "What We now propose to show, from the scripture (he says) has delivered any- irrefragable evidence of her reputed saints thing concerning ihis? Which of the and doctors of the Romish Church, as prophets have permitted a man to be well as from her authorized formularies worshipped, that I may not say a wo- of public devotion, and from accredited man? For a choice vessel she is indeed, manuals of private devotion, that the but yet a woman." ...... • The body of worship of the Virgin Mary is taught Mary was holy indeed, but not God. and enforced by the modern Church of
The Virgin, indeed, was a virgin and Rome; and the practice of it shall then honourable, but not given to us for ado- be demonstrated from the testimonies of ration, but one that did herself worship modern travellers. Him who was born of her in the fleshi, 1. Our first class of evilence shall be and [who] came down from heaven out drawn from a few of the principal reputed of the bosom of His Father.” After SAINTS and DOCTORS of the Romish censuring the Collyridians at considera- Church. ble length for invoking the Virgin as a 1. We commence with the Blessed goddess, he sums up the whole in the Peter Damian, Cardinal Bishop of Osfollowing very emphatic terms:-“LET tia, about the middle of the eleventh cenMARY BE IN HONOUR; but let the Father, tury. In his first sermon on the nativity and the Son, and the Holy Spirit be of the Virgin Mary, he thus identifies the worshipped. Let no one Worship Almighty with her. Having asserted
LET NO Mary.'
that God is (or exists) in all created The worship of the Virgin Mary, things in four ways, he says—" In a which had continued to spread between fourth manner he exists in one creature, the fourth and ninth centuries, was in the viz., the Virgin Mary, by identity; betenth century carried much further than cause he is the same as she is."* And before. Towards its close the custom in his apostrophe to the Virgin, he actubecame prevalent, in the Latin or Western ally ascribes omnipotence to her; " He church, of celebrating masses and ab- that is mighty has done great things in staining from flesh on Saturdays, in thee; and all power is given unto THEE honour of Saint Mary. In the next in heaven and on earth.”+ place, the Daily or Lesser Offices of 2. Saint BERNARD was abbot of ClairSaint Mary was introduced, which was vaux, in France, at the close of the elesubsequently confirmed by Urban II. in venth and in the former half of the twelfth the Council of Clermont. And lastly, century: he wrote numerous homilies in tolerably distinct traces of the Rosary honour of the Blessed Virgin, besides and Crown of Saint Mary, as they are making very frequent mention of her in called, or of praying according to a his other writings. Having affirmed that numerical arrangement, are to be found the word Mary signifies Star of the Sea, in this century. The Rosary consists of and endeavoured to show how approfifteen pater nosters, or repetitions of the priate it is to the Virgin, he proceeds Lord's Prayer, and one hundred and fifty ihus to exhort his hearers to the worship ave marias, or salutations of the Virgin of her :Mary; and the Crown of Saint Mary ** If the waves of temptation arise, if thou consists of six or seven repetitions of the
runnest against the rocks of tribulation, look Lord's Prayer, and sixty or seventy sa
Soames, vol. ji., p. 229. (Cent. x., part. ii., ch. lutations.f Succeeding ages have wit. iv., $ 3.) nessed the inventions of additional super- Quarto modo inest uni creaturæ, vide
licet Mariæ Virgini, identitate, quia idem est Εν τιμη εστω Μάρια· ο δε Πατηρ και Υιός, και quod illa. Surius, de probatis sanctorum hisΑγιον Πνέυμα, προσκυνεισθω. ΤΗΝ ΜΑΡΙΑΝ ΜΗΔΕΙΣ ioriis."—(Tom. V., p. 113). POSKYNEIT2.–(Ephiphanius adversus Hæ- + “Fecit in te magna, qui potens est; et rests, lib. i11., Hær. 79.)
data est tibi omnis potestas in cælo et in terra.” † Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. by Murdock and -(ibid., p. 114).
to the star called Mary. If thou art tossed on ii. 15, to the woman, rather than to the the waves of pride, ambition, detraction, or seed of the woman-the Lord Jesus emulation, look to the star called Mary: . If Christ—by Bernard (we may incidentpassion, or avarice, or the allurement of the flesh, toss the little bark of (thy] mind, look to ally remark), proves how ancient is the Mary. If, disturbed by the heinousness of corruption, in this passage, of the Latin thși crimes, confounded by the filthiness of Vulgate version of the Scriptures, which (thyj conscience, dismayed with horror of reads ipsa for ipse. That this rendering judgment, thou beginnest to be swallowed up of the Romanists is false, is proved by the in the gulf of sorrow, the abyss of despair, evidence of the Septuagint version, the think on Mary. In dangers, in difficulties, in doubtful affairs, think on Mary-call upon Chaldee paraphrase on the Pentateuch, Mary. Let her not depart from (thy) mouth, and by the old Syriac version, all of let her not depart from (thy) heart; and, in which refer the pronoun it to the seed of order that thou mayst obtain the suffrage of the woman, and not to the woman herher prayer, forsake not the example of her Conversation. If thou follow her, thou dost self.* The very ancient manuscript of pot deviate; if thou supplicate her, thou dost the Latin Vulgate version in the British not despair; if thou think of her, thou dost not Museum, which is acknowledged to be err. If she uphold thee, thou dost not fall; if one of the copies of Alcuin's recension of she protect thee, thou hast no cause for fear; if she be thy leader, thou art not fatigued; if that version, and which was written
about the middle of the eighth century, she be propitious, thou obtainest (thy requests); and thus thou dost experience in has this corrupt reading, which was most thyself how deservedly it is said And the probably introduced in order to support name of the Virgin was Mary."*
the growing superstition of the age in Elsewhere, Bernard terms the Virgin a favour of the Virgin Mary. The followmediator to the Mediator (Jesus Christ], ing “ Prayer of Saint Bernard to the and adds that there is none more useful Blessed Virgin" is extracted from the to us than Mary;t to whom we are to "Little Office, Litany, and Mass, of the have recourse as an advocate with Him,! Sacred Heart of Jesus :'+ and as the woman who was to bruise the serpent's head. This application of Gen. thing unheard of, that thou ever forsakest
“ Remember, 0 most pious Virgin! it is a
those who have recourse to thee. Encouraged • “Si insurgant venti tentationum, si in
with this hope and confidence, my most dear curras scopulos tribulationum, respice stellam, Mother, I, a most miserable sinner, cast myvoce Mariam. Si jactaris superbiæ undis, si self at thy sacred feet, humbly begging that ambitionis, si detractionis, si æmulationis, thou wilt adopt me as thy son for ever, and respice stellam, voce Mariam. Si iracundia take upon thee the care of my eternal salvaaut avaritia, aut carnis illecebra naviculam
tion. Do pot, Mother of the Word Incarnate, concusserit mentis, respice ad Mariam. Si reject my petition, but graciously hear and criminum immanitate turbatus, conscientiæ grant it. Amen.” (page 35.) fæditate confusus, judicii horrore perterritus, baratro incipias absorberi tristitiæ, despera- 3. An interpretation of Gen. iii. 15, tionis abysso, cogita Mariam. In periculis, similar to that just cited from Bernard, in angustiis, in rebus dubiis, Mariam cogita, Mariam invoca. Non recedat ab ore; non
was written by the Blessed Albert the recedat a corde; et, ut impetres ejus orationis Great, Bishop of Ratisbon, about the saffragium, non deseras conversationis exem- middle of the thirteenth century; who, in plum. Ipsam sequens, non devias: ipsam fogans, non desperas; ipsam cogitans, non inter te et mulierem. Et si adhuc dubitas qnod erras. Ipsa tenente, non corruis; ipsa prote- de Maria non dixerit, audi quod sequitur, ipsa gente, non metuis; ipsa duce, non fatigaris; conteret caput tuum. Cui hæc servata victoria ipsa propitia, pervenis; et sic in temetipso ex- est, nisi Mariæ? Ipsa procul dubio caput conperiris quam merito dictum sit— Et Nomen trivit venenatum, quæ omnimodam maligni Virginis Mariæ.'"-(Bernarda Opera à Mubil suggestionem tam de carnis illecebra, quam lon, vol. i., col. 743, C. D. Paris. 1690). de mentis superbia, deduxit ad nihilum."
† “ Opus est enim Mediatore ad Mediatorem (Col. 738. A.) istom: nec alter nobis utilior quam Maria."- “ Bp. Beveridge's Works, vol. ii., p. 193; (Col. 1006. E.)
and vol. ix., pp. 233, 234. 8vo. edit. # “ Advocatum vis habere et ad ipsum? Ad t * Praise be to Jesus! the Little Office, and Mariam recurre.”—(Col. 1014. F.)
Liiany, and Mass of the Sacred Heart of Je. $ “Quam tibi aliam prædixisse Deus vide- sus." ..... Published by “Ferguson, 108, tur, quando ad serpentem ait Inimicities ponam Patrick street, Cork.-1836." 24mo.
his “ Biblia Marialia,” affirms that the with ardent piety, he affects the reader Virgin Mary is the Heaven and the Light while he instructs him."* Bonaventure which the Almighty created, and the wrote many pieces in honour of the VirThrone of Mercy to which the sinner gin Mary: particularly the “ Mirror of comes for pardon.* The limits neces- the Blessed Virgin Mary" (Speculum sarily assigned to this tract prohibit even Beatæ Mariæ Virginis), the Office on the smallest selection of passages from the Compassion of the Blessed Virgin his twelve books in praise of the Virgin Mary” (De Compassione B. Mariæ Mary, which fill nearly the entire twenty- Virginis officium), the “Crown of the first volume of the folio edition of his Blessed Virgin Mary” (Corona B. Ma. works printed at Lyons in 1651. riæ Virginis), the Praise of the Blessed
4. Saint BonaveNTURE, Cardinal Bi- Virgin Mary” (Laus B. Mariæ Virginshop of Albano, is accounted one of the is), the “ Lesser Psalter of the Blessed most eminent saints of the Romish Virgin Mary” (Psalterium Minus B. Church ; he lived in the middle and lat- Mariæ Virginis), and the “Psalter of the ter part of the thirteenth century. In the Blessed Virgin” (Psalterium B. Mariæ fifth lesson of the special service in his Virginis). honour, appointed for the 14th July (on Of these various treatises the “Psalter" which day he died in 1474),t we are in- is, perhaps, much the best known. formed that “ he wrote many things ; in Taking every one of the hundred and which, combining the greatest learning fifty Psalms of David, the “Seraphic
Doctor” Bonaventure so changes the • “Gen. i. 1. 'In principio creavit Deus commencement of each as to address cælum et terram.' Cælum, scilicet, empyreum, them, not, as the inspired Psalmist did, per quod intelligitur Domina Mundi, Virgo
to the Lord Jehovah, the one only Lord Maria.
" Ipsa etiam dicitur Lux. Gen. i. Tenebræ God Almighty, but to the Virgin Mary; erant super faciem abyssi
. Tenebre ignoran. inserting much of his own composition, tiæ et cæcitatis super faciem cordis humani. and then adding the Gloria Patri to each. Dixitque Deus, Fiat Lux, id est, Maria gene. So offensive to Papists are these speciretur et nascatur.”—(Biblia Marinlia, page 1.,
mens of direct invocation to the Virgin col. 1., Op. Tom. 21. Lugduni, 1651).
" Job xxiii. 3. Item ipsa est misericordiæ Mary, that some of them have affirmed solium, ad quod veniens peccator, absolvitur.
that this Psalter has been put into the Quis mihi tribuat ut veniam ad solium ejus? id Roman Index of prohibited books, while est, usque ad Mariam, quæ solium est miseri- others have not hesitated to assert that it cordiæ.”—Ibid, p. 12., col. 2.
never was written by Bonaventure. † The following are the prayers in use in the Romish Church on the 14th of July, the
In reply to these false assertions, it is feast of " Saint Bonaventure, Bishop, Confes- sufficient to state, that a careful examinasor, Doctor." We give them in the translation tion of all the Indexes of prohibited books, printed in page 630 of “The Missal for the issued under the auspices of the Romish Use of the Laity." Newly arranged, church, has demonstrated, that the Psalter and in great measure translated by the Rev. F. C. Husenbeth. Third edition, improved,
of Bonaventure is not to be found in any with the approbation of all the Right Revs. the
one of them. And in disproof of its preVicars Apostolic of England.” London: C. tended spuriousness we may remark, that Dolman, 61, New Bond-street. 1840. 12mo. its genuineness is proved by the facts,
“SECRET.-We beseech thee, O Lord, that first, that it is included in the body of the the annual solemnity of holy Bonaventure, Vatican edition of Bonaventure's works, thy confessor and bishop, may render us acceptable to thy mercy; that, by these offices of
• “Multa scripsit, in quibus summam erupious expiation, while our blessed retribution
ditionem cum pari pietatis ardore conjungens, attends him, he may procure for us the gifts lectorem docendo ‘movet.” (Brevarium Roof thy grace: through our Lord,” &c.
manum. Pars. Æstiva., p. 485., Edidit F.C. Postcom: Deus fidelium.-—"O God the re- Husenbeth. Norvici. 1830.) warder of faithful souls, grant that we may + King's “Psalter of the Blessed Virgin obtain pardon by the prayers of blessed Bon- Mary, illustrated by extracts from the works aventure, thy confessor and bishop, whose of ecclesiastical writers,” (Dublin, 1840,) pp. venerable festival we celebrate : through our 83, 84. Rev. H. T. Powell's“ Roman Fallacies Lord,” &c.
and Catholic Truths." Appendix, pp. 15–17.