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Table 74.—Mixtures of METAL FOR BRONZE, GUN METAL, BRAss. AND

oth ER CASTINGS,

NUMBER of PARTs of

Description of Work the Alloy is suitable for. -
Copper. Tin. Zinc. Lead.
Hard bronze . 82% 17. --
Ordnance metal . - - - - 91; 8}
Metal for piston rings, requires no lubrication . I 5 5
Good locomotive brass boiler tubes; I fine spelter 2 / ... --
Brass tubes for condensers and heaters; 30 spelter 7O | ... . ..., | ...
Admiralty gun metal for bearings, &c.; very tough 88 Io || 2 | ...
Indian-railway gun metal for bearings . 88 | 12 ... . ...
Bearings for locomotive engines. - - . 64 7 I ---
Gun metal for locomotive engine bearings, and for
valves and glands - - - . . 84 16
Gun metal for railway carriage and wagon bearings | 85 15
Gun metal for bearings and details of locomotives 5 i -
Gun metal for cocks and valves for steam . - 9 l --
Gun metal bushes for lathes and engines, and for
all kinds of heavy bearings . - - - 9 i --
Gun metal for general castings for best work . 9 I
Gun metal bushes for plummer blocks and
machinery bearings - - - - . | 8 I ...
Metal for glands, spindles, and eccentric straps 8 I I
Gun metal for railway carriage, engine, and
machinery bearings - - 7 I l ...
Metal for slide valves - - - - 22 4. I
Metal for pumps and other hydraulic purposes 36 || 4 || 1
Metal for lining pumps for acid liquids . . 97 3 | . . . . . . .
Metal for covering iron rods, such as pump rods, &c. 16 2 I I
Gun metal for foot-steps of vertical shafts 2O 5
Metal for piston rings . - - 93 brass 7 | . . . . . . .
Metal for cocks, valves, and taps for water . . I4 I I
Metal for embossing press . - 87 || 1 1 || 2
Metal for rolls 86 | 12 || 2
Hard metal for bearings I 2 I #| ||
Hard gun metal 16 2:
Soft gun metal 16 I ...
Hard brass castings - - - - 25 4}| 2
Tough brass for bolts and nuts, and wheels . I6 I #| ||
Good brass for railway carriage and for engine
and machinery bearings . - - - - 7 I #
Good brass for all ordinary castings for engines
and machinery - - - - - - 7 I I ...
Good brass for pump buckets, plungers, valves,
and seats of pumps - - - - 44 3 3 || --
Common brass for light castings . - 4 I #! ...
Metal for axle boxes of carriages and carts 86 || 14 | ... " ...
Metal for ornamental brass castings 2 / ... | I ...

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Table 74 continued.—Mixtures of METAL For BRONzE, GUN METAL, BRAss, AND oth ER CASTINGs.

NUMBER of Parts of Description of Work the Alloy is suitable for. Copper. Tin. Zinc. Lead. Copper flanges for pipes - - - . . 36 1 || 4 | ... Anti-corrosive metal to stand acids 7 antimony | 63 ... . . ... 30 Anti-rust metal (Baily's metal) for instruments, &c. 16 2}| 1 Naval brass, very tenacious, used by the Admiralty for bolts, &c. . - - - . 37 spelter | 62 I ...

Metal for bearings exposed to heat - . 18 I I
Metal for toothed wheels - - - . . . 92 8 ...
Metal for statues - - - - - . 88 3 || 7 || 2
Spelter . - - - - - - - - I ' ... I ...
Pot metal for commonest water taps . - - 8 ... ... 3
Brass for gas fittings . - - - . . . 4C ... 2C I
Yellow brass . - - - - - - 2 . . . . . I
Sheet brass . - - - - - - - 3 . . . I
White brass - - - - - - . . Io Io | So
Red brass . - - - - - . . 16 ... 2
Brass wire . - - - - - - | 67 | ... 33
Bristol sheet brass; solders well . - . . 16 ... 6 -
Brass which solders well . - - - . 16 I #
Brass for mathematical instruments - . . . I 2 I ... -
Brass for watch-makers, malleable - - - 4 ... I
Brass for watch-makers, not malleable - I ... ---
Turner's brass . - - - . 98 brass ... . ... . ... 2
Button-maker's brass . - - . 8 brass ... . ... 5
Brass for making brass pans; very hard . . 48 II
Brass for cymbals and Chinese gongs . - - 4. I ...
Metal for cymbals; worked hot . - - . 80% 19% ...
Malleable brass; can be forged hot . . 33 ... 25

eweller's metal . - - - Io brass 30 - -

Ietal for punches for jewellery and instruments . 83% 16}|... Metal for screw propellers . - - - . 83 || Io 7 Gilding metal - - - - - . . . 16 1} Lap alloy . - - - - - - - i 8 Metal for brass rivets . - - - . . . 16 1} Metal for copper rivets - - - - . 6o I ... Dipping brass - - - - - . . 16 ... 14 Dipping brass, another - - . 6 spelter | 19 - - Mosaic gold metal . - - - - - - I . . . . I Manheim gold metal . - - - - • 3 | . . . . I Pinchbeck . - - - - - - - 5 ... I Mirror metal . - - - - - . | 68% 31: ... . . Speculum metal . - - - - . . . 43 2C ... Bronze medals . - - - - - . 97 || 3 | ... Bronze medals, another . - - - . . . 96 4 | . . . I3ronze medals, another - - - - . | 89 8 3

Table 74 continued.—Mixtures of METAL For BRONZE, GUN METAL,
BRAss, AND other CASTINGs.

| NUMBER of Parts of
Description of Work the Alloy is suitable for. -
Copper. Tin. Zinc. Lear".
Bronze medals, another . - . 3 nickel 8 3#
Dutch metal . - - - - - 5; I - - -
Bath metal . - - - - . 35 brass ... 9
Princes metal - - - - - I I
Blanched copper - - - # arsenic | 8 | ... . ...
Bronze coins, English and French . - . . 95 4 I
Gold coins, French . - - . 9o gold Io ... . ...
Silver coins, French - - - 90 silver Io ... ... . ...
Shot metal . - - - - . 2 arsenic | ... . . . . . ... 98
Bullet metal . - - - . I antimony ... . ... . ... 5
Metal for nails for ship's sheathing . 86% | 9 || 4 || ...
Bell metal for musical bells . - - . . . 25 4} ...
Bell metal for small clock bells . . . . . 25 || 5 | .
Bell metal for gongs - - - - . . 25 5%
Bell metal for house bells . - - - . 25 6 -
Bell metal for larger bells for factories, &c. . . 25 6#| ...
Bell metal for small church bells. - - . 25 7 ...
Bell metal for the largest church bells . . . 25 7# ...
Metal for barometer dials - . 3o arsenic | 70 ... . ...
Imitation gold - - - . 7 platina | 16 | ... 1
Ring gold . - - . 5 gold : 3 silver | 6 | ... . ...
Standard gold . - - . I I pure gold i - -
Table 75.—WEIGHT of BELLs.
I
Diameter of |
bell, in inches |6||7|8||19|12|14|16, 20 |25 |30|35 | 40 |45 59 || 6o || 7o | So 91}
Weight, in lbs. o 11|16'22'45 so so ofoo o

Thickness of Bells.--To obtain variety of tone, the thickness of house bells should range from oth to orth of their diameter. Clock bells and dinner bells should be not less than orth of their diameter in thickness. Large church bells and peals of bells range from Tooth to +\ith the diameter in thickness at the sound bow. The clapper of small bells should be about so, and for large church bells from 4's to so the weight of bell.

The largest bells in England are:—Great Paul, of St. Paul's Cathedral, which is composed of 13 lbs. of copper to 4 lbs. of tin, and weighs 37,383 lbs.; Great bell of Westminster, weighs 30,352 lbs. ; Manchester, 18,256 lbs. ; Tom of Oxford, 17,360 lbs. ; Tom of Exeter, 13,440 lbs.; Tom of Lincoln, 12,096 lbs.; and Tom of St. Paul's, weighs 1 1,474 lbs.

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WHITE METAL,

White Metal being one of the best alloys for reducing friction, is conmonly called antifriction metal. It is cheaper than gun-metal, but it is much softer and is liable to crush and spread out, unless cased in an iron box. Babbit's original receipt was : 4 lbs. copper; 8 lbs. antimony; 24 lbs. tin = 36 lbs. This was called hardening. For every lb. of the above he added 2 lbs. more tin, making altogether loS lbs.

A great number of other mixtures are now used by brassfounders, and a collection of those most generally used is given in the following table, containing 72 different alloys.

Table 76.—ANTIFRICTION WHITE METAL AND other Alloys.

NUMBER of PARTs of Description of Work the Alloy is suitable for. Tin. |Copper. A. Lead. White metal for filling perforations in slide valves | 82 || 6 || 12 ... Antifriction white metal for bearings of engines, millwork, machine tools, and general machinery 96 || 4 8 ... Antifriction white metal do. do. 90 2 8 Antifriction white metal do. do. 85 || 5 || Io Antifriction white metal do. do. 84 || 6 || Io Antifriction white metal do. do. 78 Io 12 Antifriction white metal do. do. 60 3 6 Antifriction white metal do. do. 60 || 7 || 9 Antifriction white metal do. do. 56 || 3 4. Antifriction white metal do. do. 50 I 5 Antifriction white metal do. do. 50 || 1 || 5 Antifriction white metal do. do. 5O 3 5 Antifriction white metal do. I bismuth || 42 2 5 Antifriction white metal for bearings of engines, shafting, tools, millwork, and machinery . . . 40 5 IO | . Antifriction white metal do. do. 36 || 1 , || 3 Antifriction white metal for bearings . - . . 28 2 3 Antifriction white metal do. . - . . . 22 || I 2 Antifriction white metal, used for lining locomotive axle boxes, and bearings of machine tools . 16 || 1 || 2 Antifriction white metal for bearings of shafting, implements, &c., and general machinery . . IO I 3 || 6 Antifriction white metal do. do. 20 | ... 20 | 60 Antifriction white metal do. do. ... . ... 15 || 85 Antifriction white metal do. do. 32 || 5 || 10 | 18 Antifriction white metal do. do. 2 | ... 2 || 24 Antifriction white metal do. do. 2 | . ... || 2 | 20 Antifriction white metal do. do. 8 || 2 | 20 | 20 Antifriction white metal do. 1.2 bismuth ... . ... l I 20 Antifriction white metal for bearings of machinery | 16 2 3 4 | -- t

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Description of Work the Alloy is suitable for. Tin. Copper. o: Lead. Antifriction white metal for light machinery bearings | 1 || ... | 1 || 1 , Antifriction white metal for machinery bearings 8 I 2 9 White metal for models and instruments I brass 2 4 | . . . Hard white metal 20 brass; 3 spelter | 1 - I - - Hard white metal, another 16 brass; ; zinc I ... I Hard white metal, another . - . 13 zinc || 2 || 35 White metal - - - - . I 3 zinc | 6 || 1 White metal . - - - - . I 3 zinc | 3 || 1 --White metal for sockets . - - 5 zinc | 8 || 5 | ... 8 White metal for rolling . 90 3 7 White metal for spinning 94 | I 5 | . . . Metal for vice clams - - - . . . . . . . . . . . I IO German silver for castings . 20 nickel; 20 zinc 60 3 Imitation silver - . I metallic arsenic 9 --Imitation silver, another 3 oz. tin; 1 lb. copper | ... --- --Imitation silver - - - - . I zinc | 5 || 4 | ... I Pewter - - J OO ! ... 2 | ... Metal for organ pipes 50 ... 50 Pewter, common - - . 79 ... I 2C) Pewter, fine . - - - 1 bismuth 50 I 4. Metal for ornaments and lamps . - - . 76 | 1 4 ... Metal for ornaments and small statues 2O zinc 64 ... . ... l I6 Nickel alloy for candlesticks, &c. I zinc.; 1 nickel ... 2 2} Nickel alloy for spoons and forks 1 zinc.; 1 nickel 2 Nickel alloy for knife handles 2 zinc.; 2 nickel 4} Nickel alloy in sheets 2 zinc ; 2 nickel ... 5; --Nickel alloy for models, &c. 5 zinc ; 3 nickel || 1 || Io 5 White metal forbucklesandbuttons 16 brass; 2 zinc | 1 --Electric amalgam 4 mercury; 2 zinc | 1 | ... Electrum - 7% zinc ; 8% nickel ... 17 | ... . ... Queen's metal . - . I bismuth | 9 | ... I I Britannia metal IO I | ... Type metal - - - 2 || II Stereotype metal - - 2 bismuth 4 | 18 Imitation platinum 8 pale brass; 5 spelter | ... --Tutenag - - 1 bismuth 2 --Metal for medals - - - - - . | 6 I ... Alloy for fusible plugs,softens at 366°, melts at 372°F. 2 2 Alloy for fusible plugs, , 373° , 383° 2 6 Alloy for fusible plugs, ,, .378° ,, .388° 2 7 Alloy for fusible plugs, , 396° ,, .408° 2 ... 8 Alloy that expands in cooling I bismuth 2 9 Alloy that melts at boiling water heat, 212°F., used for taking impressions . 8 bismuth 3 5 Alloy that melts in hot water . I zinc.; 1 bismuth ... --- I Standard silver . 92% pure silver 7;

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