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have been tolerated, and for short periods gained some strength. · We may include within our sketch of Chinese Budhism some extracts from Mr. Hodgson's account* of that religion, as he found it in the · Bauddha Scriptures of Nipal,' much nearer to its source, and greatly better understood, than it is in China. The primary motive for doing good, and worshipping Budha, according to these scriptures, is the hope of obtaining absorption into the nature of the god, and being freed from transmigrations. Between the highest class of votaries and Budha there is no difference, because they will eventually become Budhas. Those who do good from the fear of hell are also above the class of sinners, and their sufferings will be lessened; but they will be constrained to suffer several transmigrations, and endure pain and pleasure in this world, until they obtain mukti, or absorption.
The mystic syllable aum is not less reverenced by the Budhists than the Brahmins; but the latter apply it to their own Trimurti, or Triad of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva ; while by the former it is applied to Budha, Dharma, and Sanga, which is the Triad represented by the three gilded images in the Canton temple, described at pages 44, 45, and alluded to in the Chinese books, when they say that “ Fő is one person, but has three forms." Their scriptures contain in native characters, which imitate as nearly as possible the Sanscrit sounds, the following invocation to the Triad, Namo Buddhâya, Namo Dharmaya, Namah Sangaya—Om! that is to say, “ Adoration to Buddha, adoration to Dharma, adoration to Sanga-AUM !” concluding thus with the mystical monosyllable which represents the three terms united in one sign.* The three divinities are called by the Chinese “the three pure, precious, or honourable Fo,” concerning whom Rémusat has given the following explanation :“ According to the interior doctrine, Buddha, or the Intelligence, produced Dharma, the Law, and the two united constituted Sanga, the Union, or combination of several. According to the public doctrine, these three terms are still the Intelligence, the Law, and the Union ; but considered in their external manifestations, the intelligence in the Buddhas to come, the law in the writings revealed, and the union in the multitude of the believers, or the assembly of priests. Hence it arises that the last have, among all the Buddhist nations, the title of Sanga, united, which, being abridged in the Chinese pronunciation, has formed the word Seng, rendered by the missionaries bonze,' but which signifies literally, ecclesiastic. Such are the sense and the origin of this well-known word, the etymology of which has not before been investigated.”
* Royal Asiatic Transactions, vol. ii. p. 232.
The same writer has the following observation concerning the goddess Kuân-yin, one of the most important divinities in the Budhist mythology :-“ De Guignes (he says), wishing to explain the Chinese names of Poo-sa and Kuân-she-yin, adduces a passage from Kircher, who supposes that the being to whom these names are applied is Nature, and calls her the Cybele of the Chinese. He remarks that she is also called Lotus-eyed, and born of the lotus flower. Kuân-yin, then, he concludes, is the Lakshmi of the Indians. Rémusat, with apparent reason, combats this notion, and gives his own explanation in the following terms:f—The supreme intelligence (Budha) having by his thought (Dharma) produced union or multiplicity (Sanga), from the existence of this Triad arose * Abel Rémusat, sur la Doctrine Samanéenne, p. 27.
† Observations, p. 51.
five abstractions or intelligences of the first order, that is, Budhas, each of which produced an intelligence of the second order, Bhodisatua.* It is from this name that the Chinese have, by abbreviation, formed that of Poo-sa, common not only to these five secondary intelligences, but to all the souls which have attained the same degree of elevation. Kuân-she-yin, or Kuân-yin, is placed in the first rank; but Padmanetra (Lotus-eyed) is the name of another divinity of the same kind. The Sanscrit name of the former (Kuân-yin) is Padmapâni, who represents, on account of her productive power, the second term of the Triad, and in the exterior doctrine is characterized by several signs of a female divinity. It is certain that no idol in China is more honoured than Kuân-yin.f
In the name of Poo-ta-la, a temple, or rather monastery, described in Lord Macartney's mission, may be recognised the Chinese pronunciation of Budha. This extensive establishment, which was found in Manchow Tartary beyond the Great Wall, is described as a quadrangular structure of considerable height, each of its sides measuring two hundred feet, and the whole building affording shelter to no less than eight hundred priests or lamas. In the square court or quadrangle within is a gilded chapel, with representations of the Triad, and the whole description assimilates it, though on the largest scale, to the monasteries in Nipal, as they are described by Mr. Hodgson. “ The vihar is built round a large quadrangle or open square, two stories high; the architecture is Chinese. Chaitya properly means a temple of Budha, and vihar an abode of his cænobitical followers. In the open square in the midst of every vihar is placed a chaitya ; but those words always bear the senses here attached to them, and vihar can never be construed temple; it is a convent or monastery, or religious house." Poo-ta-la, then, is a vihar, with a chaitya within the quadrangle.
* Poo-te-să-to, an Indian word introduced with the Budha sect; now, according to the genius of the Chinese language, contracted to Poosa.”—Morrison's Chinese Dictionary, part ii. p. 682.
of M. Rémusat observes very truly that Chinese Budhism can only be duly investigated by comparing the Chinese versions with the Sanscrit texts, and thus combining two departments of learning which have not as yet been united in the same person.
Staunton, vol. ii. p. 258.
The Chinese pronunciation of Budha seems also apparent in the name Poo-to, applied to an island of the Chusan group, in latitude 30° 3', and longitude 121°, where Mr. Gutzlaff* visited one of the largest establishments dedicated to Fỏ and his priests ; a place of such note as to be the resort of numerous votaries from remote parts. “At a distance (says he) the island appeared barren and scarcely habitable ; but as we approached it we observed very prominent buildings and large glittering roofs. A temple, built on a projecting rock, beneath which the foaming sea dashed, gave us some idea of the genius of its inhabitants in thus selecting the most attractive spot to celebrate the orgies of idolatry. We were quite engaged in viewing a large building situated in a grove, where we observed some priests of Budha walking along the shore, attracted by the novel sight of a ship. Scarcely had we landed when another party of priests, in common garbs and very filthy, hastened down to us chanting hymns. When some books were offered them, they exclaimed, • Praise be to Budha !' and eagerly took every volume that I had. We then ascended to a large temple, surrounded by trees and bamboos. An elegant portal and magnificent gate brought us into a spacious court, which was surrounded with a long range of buildings
* Journal of a Voyage along the Coast of China, 1832-33.
not unlike barracks, being the dwellings of the priests. On entering it, the huge images of Budha and his disciples, the representations of Kuân-yin, the goddess of mercy, and other idols, with the spacious and welladorned hallē, exhibit an imposing sight to the foreign spectator. : “The high-priest requested an interview. He was a deaf old man, who seemed to have very little authority, and his remarks were commonplace enough. We afterwards followed a paved road, discovering several other
smaller temples, till we came to some high rocks, on which we found several inscriptions hewn in very large letters.* One of them stated that China has sages. The excavations were filled with small gilt idols and superscriptions. On a sudden we came in sight of a still larger temple, with yellow tiles, by which we immediately
* This is a common practice of visitors, who employ artists to cut these gigantic letters very deep into the face of the rocks. The embassy of 1816 met with them near the Poyang lake.