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alluvium Alps alternate ancient animals aqueous argillaceous augite Auvergne basalt beds bottom breccia calcareous called carbonate carboniferous character clay cliffs coal composed cone conglomerate consist containing corals crag crater Cretaceous crystalline crystals denudation deposits dikes earth England Eocene eruptions extinct feet thick felspar fish fissures flint formations fossil fossiliferous fragments freshwater genera genus Geol geological geologists gneiss granite gravel greensand greenstone height hills horizontal hornblende hypogene igneous island lakes land lava layers Lias lime limestone lower marl mass matter metamorphic mica miles mineral Miocene mountain newer observed occur Oolite organic remains origin pebbles period places plants Pliocene plutonic rocks portion quadrupeds quartz red sandstone region resembling river sand schist scoriae seen shale siliceous Silurian slate sometimes species stone strata stratified supposed surface tertiary testacea trachyte trap tuff upper valley veins vertical volcanic rocks Wealden white chalk
Seite 93 - Poets that lasting marble seek Must carve in Latin or in Greek; We write in sand, our language grows, And, like the tide, our work o'erflows.
Seite 23 - The upper valve is almost invariably wanting, though occasionally found in a perfect state of preservation in the white chalk at some distance. In this case we see clearly that the sea-urchin first lived from youth to age, then died and lost its spines, which were carried away. Then the young Crania adhered to the...
Seite 60 - We often said to ourselves, What clearer evidence could we have had of the different formation of these rocks, and of the long interval . which separated their formation, had we actually seen them emerging from the bosom of the deep ? We felt ourselves necessarily carried back to the time when the schistus on which we stood was yet at the bottom of out.
Seite 248 - Here, accordingly, we find that it produces a corresponding influence on the scenery of the country ; for it runs out like a step beyond the foot of the chalk-hills, and constitutes a lower terrace, varying in breadth from a quarter of a mile to three miles, and following the sinuosities of the chalk escarpment.* Fig.
Seite 135 - Secondly; a gradual submergence then took place, bringing down each part of the land successively to the level of the waters, and then to a moderate depth. below them. Large islands and bergs of floating ice came from the north, which, as they grounded on the coast and on shoals, pushed along all loose materials of sand and pebbles, broke off...
Seite xvi - Principles of Geology; or, the Modern Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants considered as illustrative of Geology. Ninth Edition. Woodcuts. 8vo. 18s. - Manual of Elementary Geology ; or, the Ancient Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants illustrated by its Geological Monuments.
Seite 234 - The regular and uniform preservation of this thin bed of black earth over a distance of many miles, shows that the change from dry land to the state of a freshwater lake or estuary, was not accompanied by any violent denudation, or rush of water, since the loose black earth, together with the trees which lay prostrate on its surface, must inevitably have been swept away had any such violent catastrophe then taken place.
Seite 53 - ... the direction of the strata. Thus, in the above instance of strata dipping to the north, their strike must necessarily be east and west. We have borrowed the word from the German geologists, streichen signifying to extend, to have a certain direction. Dip and strike may be aptly illustrated by a row of houses running east and west, the long ridge of the roof representing the strike of the stratum of slates, which dip on one side to the north, and on the other to the south.
Seite 60 - An epoch still more remote presented itself, when even the most ancient of these rocks, instead of standing upright in vertical beds, lay in horizontal planes at the bottom of the sea, and was not yet disturbed by that immeasurable force which has burst asunder the solid pavement of the globe. Revolutions still more remote appeared in the distance of this extraordinary perspective. The mind seemed to grow giddy by looking so far into the abyss of...