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derson, and the pretty fools steal Transitory ghost it should have been, walks and talks and plight their but it was not. Marry the step-daughlove and Mr. Lewisham is dis- ter of a Chaffery, a quack, a blasphenmissed the school with his charac- er of science! Marry on a legacy of ter (in the Proprietary School sense) one hundred pounds! A pretty pitiful considerably damaged. In London he marriage, full of its own mad sweettoils at the Kensington Normal Science liess. For she was sweet, was Ethel, School; toils manfully, little embar- and for a time her wifehood could hold rassed by memories of Ethel, who has its own against the Career. It was the vanished into Clapham. The Career bills and the price of coal that brought flourishes. It enlists a supporter, too, complete revelation; these, and the in a fellow-student, Miss Heydinger, reproaches of Miss Heydinger, and the a girl of the period, who encourages blankness of his scholastic prospects. him to wear the red ties of Socialism, The revulsion, the rebellion, the final Laboratory work, examinations, and solution-need we speak of them? Lewglowing talks in the Gallery of Old Iron isham is submissive to Love, and passat the Museum with his Egeria. But es with resolute resignation into the Ethel is to come again into his life, and obscurity of a small home, parentage, sbe does it, so to speak, with a ven- and Clapham. The child is coming, geance. More naturally than it sounds, and this-yes this—is life; the other he meets her in a darkened room, at a was just vanity; at any rate, it is over, spiritualistic séance, whither he has quite over. The schema that had long gone in laughing scepticism with some lined a trunk is torn up without a fellow-students; meets her, too, as the single pang - in the stillness of docile accomplice of her step-father, thought. Mr. Chaffery, in a despicable impos- That is the theme, and it is worked ture. Her helplessness and her beauty out with a searching analysis that and the old Whortley days are too would be merciless if it were not, in much for his common sense and fact, so very merciful. We have need strength of will. And when he finds or such themes. Modern fiction will be that Ethel is innocent at heart, though regenerated by these faithful seizures not quite in conscience, it is enough; of neglected types. It has great work he loves her, will save her. There are to do in floating little men (who are wonderful walks to Clapham, dwin- not little) and narrow lives (which yet dling honors at school, tears and dis- globe all life) into our ken. Dickens did mays in Miss Heydinger's bosom, and it by caricature, by an emphasis necesl'emorses (about the Career) which can- sary in his day. But it has yet to be not be uttered. At times he sees all done in the noble manner; and it is things with deadly clearness:

rauch that for Mr. Horatio Sparkins we

have now Mr. Hoopdriver. Let Mr. He suddenly perceived with absolute

Wells travel this road. These two nov. conviction that after the séance he els may be masterpieces or not (we should have gone home and forgotten sbould be the last to deny it); but we her. Why had he felt that irresistible

are certain that their production tends impulse to seek her out? Why had his

to create the atmosphere in which masimagination spun such a strange web

terpieces are born. Our own faith in of impossibilities about her? He was

bis future is immovable, and we know involved now, foolishly involved. All his future was a sacrifice to this tran

not how we can pay him a less formal sitory ghost of love making in the

compliment than by saying that when streets.

we closed "Love and Mr. Lewisham," full of gratitude and stimulations, we or the seed of greatness; a definition involuntarily groped for a definition adapted from Coleridge: of good novel writing which might celebrate our mood. And groping, we

He writeth best who loveth best found one which, with all its defects

All things both great and small, and bizarrerie, seems to sweep into its

For the great God who loveth us Let every writer in whom is greatness, He made and loveth all. The Academy.



The constitution of the Chinese Gov

had been purely a civilian body termed ernment can, perhaps, best be under- the Grand Secretariat. The latter was stood by a short reference to its origin. not formally abolished, but all business Two hundred and sixty years ago the was transferred to a much smaller Manchu dynasty came to the Throne at body termed the Chun Chi Chu, or millthe head of a conquering army com- tary council. This body, which was posed mainly of Manchu troops, but originally, as its name implies, the war including also certain corps of Chinese council of the Manchu army, is still and Mongolian origin. The victorious the Grand Council of the Emperor, and army, divided into eight Banners, was though no longer exclusively military it permanently quartered in and around keeps in touch with the Manchu force Peking and converted into an heredi- and can set the troops in motion. The tary force for the support of the Manchu soldier is not what he was 250 Throne, minor detachments being set- years ago, nevertheless an armed force tled at Canton, Nanking and other large of 75,000 men, the estimated number cities as permanent garrisons to over- of the Manchu troops, counts for someawe the native population. The chiefs thing, and is a ready weapon in the of the army were created princes, dukes hands of the council. and so on, and their commands were As are all Eastern monarchies, the made hereditary in their respective Chinese Government is essentially desfamilies.

potic. In theory everything hinges on The machinery of government left the personality of the Emperor. His by the outgoing Ming dynasty was, will is absolute, not merely in affairs speaking generally, taken over en bloc. of State, but in the smallest details of The six boards between which the ad- private life. The highest form of legisministrative business of the nation was lation is an imperial decree whether divided were retained, but the higher promulgated in general terms, or conoffices, such as president and vice-presi- veying orders on a particular point, in dent, were duplicated by the addition all matters judicial, administrative or of a Manchu colleague to each Chinese executive. The persons and property official, and so it has continued to this of all his subjects are at his disposal, day. The principal change was in the and he can behead, imprison, or conconstitution of the advisory council of fiscate without form of trial or reason the sovereign. Under the Mings this assigned. In ordinary circumstances


the rule is lenient enough and conduct- he cannot dispense with their assisted according to recognized forms, but ance or act in contravention to their when occasion arises the Government wishes. As an instance of what would does not scruple to use its despotic pow- happen in the latter event we may refer er to the utmost. But although the to the coup d'état of 1898. The Emconstitution provides no checks on the peror, as he was entitled to do, called arbitrary will of the Emperor, his pow. into his counsel others than the mem. er is circumscribed in practice by the bers of his advisory board, notably the necessity of finding capable and willing reformer Kang Yu Wei and Chang Yin agents to carry out his decrees. The Hwan, then a member of the Tsung-lipart that the Emperor personally plays Yamen. On their advice he began to in the matter depends on his character. issue a series of reform decrees, which A strong Emperor can be in fact as were not approved of by the grand well as in theory absolutely despotic. council and probably had never been A weak Emperor is simply a tool in submitted to them. Constitutionally, the hands of those who are strong the decrees were valid and became law enough and united enough to seize and there was no way of stopping them his power and wield it.

The pow

except by physical force. Had the of the sword is, in either Empress Dowager not been there, ascase the instrument by which decrees sassination would probably have been and orders are enforced, and the limi- the only remedy, but her presence entation of authority is the extent to abled a middle course to be steered, which it may be used without provok- and the Emperor was required to ining a successful rebellion.

vite her to assist in carrying on the After the Emperor himself the func- Government. As the council had tions of government vest in the grand 50,000 troops on whom they could rely council of which have already while the Emperor had none, discusspoken. The number of this council is sion was not possible. By a fiction he undetermined, but usually does not ex- continued to govern, but the despotic ceed five or six. They are nominated power of the Crown passed into the by the sovereign and can be changed hands of the Empress Dowager and at his pleasure or, if the Emperor is a her clique. nonentity, they nominate one another. Next to the grand council the departThe members are selected from the high- ment with which we are most conest officers of State and include both cerned is the Tsung-li-Yamen, which Manchus and Chinese. In recent years many people take to be synonymous one or more of the princes of the blood with the Chinese Government. It is, have always been included, who are, at however, a body of quite recent creathe same time, commanders-in-chief of tion. Prior to the war of 1860 there some of the Banner forces. It is this was no foreign department at Peking. small group which wields the real au- Foreign affairs were transacted by the thority of government. All business is Viceroy of Canton and only reached transacted in secret and in ordinary Peking as filtered through his decircumstances in the presence of the spatches. After the war and the estabsovereign. Decrees and orders are is. lishment of the Foreign Legations sued in his name and directed either something more was needed and to the executive boards in Peking or board was then created to deal with direct to the provincial authorities. The foreign questions. At first the men Emperor is not constitutionally bound appointed to it were of no great standto consult his council, but in practice ing except Prince Kung, who ably pre



sided over it for many years. It was regarded as, and was probably intended to be, a sort of buffer between the foreign ministers and the real Government, a body to receive the hard knocks and transmit them in a modified form to those who held the power. Its function never was to facilitate business, but only to stave off importunate demands as long as possible, and when things became too importunate to yield the minimum that would keep the peace. Latterly it has included among its members officials who also belonged to the grand council, and to that extent its authority has been strengthened, but even so, it has no independent power, everything it may agree to being subject to the approval of the Emperor and grand council. The other departments of the central government, comprising six principal boards and several ministries of State, fulfil a two-fold office of tendering advice to the sovereign and carrying on the administrative work of the country. It will be noticed that nowhere is there anything in the nature of popular representation. The constitution, however, endeavors to provide a sort of substitute in the Censorate, which deserves a word or two. The censors are a paid body of public servants whose duty it is to keep the Emperor informed of anything that may be transpiring in any part of his dominions, and in particular to keep an eye on malfeasance or oppression on

The Saturday Review.

the part of his officers. In some respects they may be compared to tribunes of the people who are expected to stand up for the popular cause against the officials. But however excellent the theory may have been, in practice the Censorate has become simply a huge blackmailing office. Its function being to denounce officials, if any one wants to ruin another he has only to trump up a story, bribe a censor and the thing is done. Or, as villainy is usually double-dyed, private notice will be given to the accused that the blow may be averted by a bigger bribe on his side. There is no court to which a man thus wronged can appeal for justice and, however clean-handed he may be, it is usually wisdom for him to submit and pay the

squeeze de manded.

No provision is made for fresh legislation as such. The penal code which is the only body statutory law in existence is supposed to contain enactments to meet every possible case, but if by chance some difficulty occurs for which there is no precedent it is referred to the Board concerned, which, in turn, reports to the Throne. A decree or rescript is thereupon issued which settles the case. Periodically the code is revised, and these various decrees are consolidated or incorporated and become part of the statute law.

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It is a strange psychological fact in pretty array of butchers' bills in huworld-politics that when, after a spell man flesh. of peace, war breaks out somewhere, I do not say this as one who holds it is soon followed by a series of other all war to be wrong. Far from it. wars in rather unexpected quarters. When a nation has to defend its indeJapan and China; the United States of pendence against foreign aggression; America and Spain, with the still last- when freemen rise with arms in hand ing Philippine conflict; England and the for the overthrow of tyranny, the sword South African Republics, are some re- has its full justification. Arbitration cent instances. Not to mention the ex- from case to case," on matters which traordinary number of previous wars two countries can reasonably agree which followed each other with great upon to submit to an umpire, is cerrapidity, during about half a century, tainly to be recommended most strongly between the Russia of Nicholas I and by all men in whom there is a spark the Allied Powers; France and Aus- of human feeling. But when Napoleon tria; Italian Democracy and the King- III, who had murdered two Republics, dom of Naples; the United States and tried to do the same for the Mexican the Slaveholders' League; France and Republic, and, being foiled there, the Mexican Republic; Germany and sought an escape from difficulties growDenmark; insurgent Poland and Rus- ing upon him by a war against Gersia; Prussia and the German Confed. many, no sensible person could say that eration; France and Germany; Servia in those cases there was anything to and Turkey; Russia and Turkey; Bul

arbitrate upon.

Murdered Republics, garia and Servia; Russia and the Kha- fortunately, have sometimes their resnates of Central Asia; the Transvaal urrection. Though the Roman Comand England; England and the Egypt monwealth of 1849 did not rise again, of Arabi Pasha, with the later struggles its heroic defender, Garibaldi, the asin the Sudan; France and Madagascar; sociate of Mazzini, became the founder Greece and Turkey. Add to this the in 1860 of Italian unity. The French wars fought by this country in Afghan Republic revived in 1870, after the fall istan, beyond the eastern and north- of the Man of December. western frontiers of India, and in the The fact of so many wars following Sudan; and by France in Africa and upon each other, as soon as the spell of Southern Asia. The whole forms a peace is broken, remains a noteworthy

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