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of a constitution which was already Personal loyalty will not be strengthmenaced by parliamentary assault. ened, but rather dissolved a But, what is of far deeper import, it broader patriotism-less conducive, ic gave to the new Japan the consecra- may be, to the security of the country. tio a heroic struggle—a sense of And, secondly, in proportion as the national pride. Enough has never been European theories are found to contain said in praise of the patriotism which precisely those anarchical tendencies fired all hearts from one end of the which we have detected in the whole country to the other. It was a sum- course of Japanese history, there will mons and a resurrection.

be gradual growth among the A resurrection of the old warlike tra- masses of the revolutionary spirit. ditions. The men of Japan found again That populace whose action is and has their fortitude of the bygone time and ever been, a series of reactions, in the divine idea of country revived in which so many resigned souls continue a purified form the venerable worship to preserve, piously and without profit, of death. The military party came out the tradition of the old-time courtesy, of it more robust; and in spite of the and the prerogative of silent self-sacri. persistent rivalries of the clans, it is fice—that populace, I say, knows how the one thoroughly organized party- to compass with a strange docility the the only one which stands for the painful subjugation of its own will. masses as a symbol of civic equality. They are struggling—these Japanese and as such it is the party of the na- masses-with an inheritance of servi. tion's hope.

tude of which they had so long been The feeling of personal dignity unconscious that it had become almost awoke along with the consciousness of instinctive. But their present rulers a common glory. The Japanese ex- are harder upon them in the hour of perienced the high joys of national emancipation than they ever were in solidarity. The Chinese battlefields that of tyranny. They are wrenching rent away from the revolution, for one from them bonds which never galled, instant, its false ideology, and brought for the reason that they formed an esit home to the national heart. Men sential part of their existence. Their have ridiculed the vanity of the vic- deliverance has been a murderous one; torious Japanese and complained and they are already beginning to reloudly of their arrogance. It has been fer what they suffer from the shackles. said that the lowest of the people, ser- they still bear to the wounds they revants, shopkeepers, artisans, kuru- ceived when the others were removed. mayas, have entertained ever since The present psychological state of that time intolerable conceit of the Japanese nation is assuredly a themselves. The plebeian has been en- disquieting one; so disquieting that the rolled, and participates in the rise of men in power will be forced ere long Japan. It is as if he had been raised to apply the European panacea. And to the rank of samurai by retroactive we shall yet witness the evolution of legislation. He feels himself fully a that disciple of parliamentarism,

His life has become more Itagaki, who has been called “the liv. precious, and his rights more mani- ing god of Liberty," in the direction of fest.


state-socialism. Political centralizaThus, then, as far as I am able to tion, consummated under the protecjudge, the imperial restoration will re- tion of the army, by means of an absult first in creating a wholly modern solute monopoly of industries and sentiment of national: consciousness. schools, labor and intelligence, may re


sult in happiness for a people already a gigantic, semblance of the Japanese appalled by its own attempts at eman- flag across the ordinarily pallid sky., cipation. But I have an idea that the My companion, who was a personage happiness of Japan is to be deferred a of distinction, waved his hand toward : while longer.

the unseen palace, on which the sun's ! eye seemed to linger, and said, with a

certain accent of sadness rendered the On the very evening of the great deeper, somehow, by the visionary festal day-after I had attempted with splendor of the scene. my mind still full of spectacular "Japan will continue tranquil just 80 effects, to set in order some of my im. long as that invisible dwelling shall pressions both of the new Japan and shelter its present mysterious occu.. of what I understood of its ancient pant. But I fear for my country on history, I was crossing in company the day after his death." with a Japanese citizen some of the And after a short pause he added: old feudal enclosures, and we fell into "Our people is easily governed only talk about the future of his country. so long as power remains anonymous The ruddy rays of the sinking sun and impersonal. The thing I should streamed through the glades of the im

dread above all others would be a too perial park, and flung something like intelligent emperor.”

André Bellesort. Revue des Deux Mondes.


From ancient times certain divine topus and the elephant to the grassand human personages have been sup hopper were drawn, not only with gen. posed to possess peculiar powers over eral correctness, but with a keen in. shy and savage animals. Bacchus bad sight into their humors and temperaa predilection for panthers. In the ments. The fondness of Bacchus for Pompeian collections at Naples there panthers is attributed to the fact that are several designs of Bacchus and

he wore a panther-skin, but there his panther; one of them shows the seems no motive for deciding that the panther and the ass of Silenus lying one tradition was earlier than the down together; in another, a very fine other. The rationale of a myth is often mosaic, the winged genius of Bacchus evolved long after the myth itself. careers along, astride of his favorite Perhaps all the stories of gods and ani. beast; in a third a chubby little boy, mals originated in the simple belief with no signs of godhead about him, that gods, like men, had a weakness clambers on to the back of a patient for pets. panther, which has the long-suffering

Much more important than any of look of animals that are accustomed to these stories are the closely allied leg. be teased by children. It may be no- ends of the power of Apollo and of ticed that children and animals, both Orpheus in taming beasts. In each neglected in the older art, attained the case, the modus operandi was music." highest popularity with artists of the Like the greater part of myths, this age of Pompeii. Children were represented in all sorts of attitudes, and all

1 In Hindu mythology, Gunadhya attracts å

whole forestful of beasts in & far more marvelknown animals from the cat to the oce

lous way-by reciting bis poems to them!

one was not spun from the thin air of

And the swift, dappled fawns would imagination. Music has a real influ- there resort, ence on animals; in spite of theories to From the tall pine woods and about the contrary, it is probable that the

him sport. sweet flute-playing of the snakecharmer-his "sweet charming" in When Apollo gave Orpheus his lyre, Biblical phrase—is no mere piece of he gave him his gift "to soothe the theatrical business, but a veritable aid savage breast." In the splendid Pom. in obtaining the desired results. I my peian fresco showing a nature-peace, self could once attract field-mice by the bay-crowned, central figure is said playing on the violin, and only the to be Orpheus, though its god-like proother day, on the road near my house portions suggest the divinity himself. at Salo, I noticed that a goat mani. At any rate, nothing can be finer as fested signs of wishing to stop before the conception of an inspired musician; a grind-organ; its master pulled the the whole body sing8, not only the string by which it was led, but it mouth. A lion and a tiger sit on either tugged at it 80 persistently that, at side; below, a stag and a wild boar last, he stopped, and the goat, turning listen attentively, and a little hare caround its head, listened with evident pers near the stream.

In the upper attention. Independently of the pleas- section there are other wild boars ure music may give to animals, it ex- sporting round an elephant, while cites their curiosity, a faculty which is oxen play with a tiger; an anticipation extremely alive in them, as may be of the ox and tiger in Rembrandt's seen by the way in which small birds "Garden of Eden." are attracted by the pretty antics of the The power of Orpheus to subdue little Italian owl; they cannot resist wild beasts was one reason why the going near to have a better view, and early Christians took him as a type of so they rush to their doom upon the Christ. Of all the prophecies which limed sticks.

were believed to refer to the Messiah Legends have an inner and an outer none so captivated the popular mind as meaning; the allegory of Apollo, Lord those which could be interpreted as reof Harmony, would have been incom- ferring to his recognition by animals. plete had it lacked the beautiful in. The four Gospels which became the cident of a nature-peace, partial in- canon of the Church threw no light on deed, but still a fairer triumph to the the subject, but the gap was filled up god than his Olympian honors. For by the uncanonical books; one might nine years he watched the sheep of think that they were written princiAdmetus, as Euripides describes:- pally for the purpose of dwelling on

this theme, so frequently do they rePythian Apollo, master of the lyre, turn to it. In the first place, they Who deigned to be a herdsman and bring upon the scene those dear obamong

jects of our childhood's affection, the Thy flocks on hills his hymns celestial

ass and the ox of the stable of Bethlesung; And his delightful melodies to hear

hem. Surely many of us cherish the Would spotted lynx and lions fierce

impression that ass and ox rest on draw near;

most orthodox testimony; an idea They came from Othrys' immemorial

which is certainly general in Catholic shade,

countries, though, the other day, I By charm of music tame and harmless heard of a French priest who was made;

heartless enough to declare that they were purely imaginary. “Alas," as ceased to venerate the sycamore-tree Voltaire said, “people run after truth!” at Matarea (rather dilapidated now) As a matter of fact, it appears evident under which the Arabic evangelist that the ass and the ox were intro states that the Virgin and Child rested. duced to fulfl the prophecy of Isaiah: The "Pseudo-Thomas" contains some “The ox knoweth his owner and the vindictive stories, which were modified ass his master's manger, but Israel or omitted in the other versions; probknoweth me not." But there arose ably they are all to be traced to Elisha what was thought a difficulty; the and his she-bears; a theory which I apocryphal Gospels in harmony with offer to those who cannot imagine how the earliest traditions place the birth they arose. A curious feature in these of Christ, not in a stable, but in the writings is the scarcity of anything grotto which is still shown to trav- actually original; the most original ellers. To reconcile this with the story to be found in them is that of legend of the ass and ox and also with how, when the boys of Nazareth made the narrative of St. Luke, it was sup- clay sparrows, little Jesus clapped his posed 'that the Holy Family moved

hands and caused his sparrows to fly from the grotto to a stable a few days away. This pretty legend penetrated after the Child was born. This is a into the folk-lore even of remote Icecurious case of finding a difficulty land. Notwithstanding the fulminawhere there was none, for it is very tions of Councils, the apocryphal Goslikely that the caves near the great pels were never suppressed; they en. Khan of Bethlehem were used as joyed an enormous popularity during stables. In every primitive country the Middle Ages, and many details deshepherds shelter themselves and their rived solely from these condemned flocks in holes in rocks; I remember books have crept into the "Aurea the “uncanny" effect of a light flicker- Legenda" and other strictly orthodox ing in the depths of a Phænician tomb works. near Cagliari; it was almost disap- The “Little Child" of Isaiah's prophpointing to hear that it was only a ecy was the cause of troops of wild shepherd's fire.

beasts being convoked to attend the InThomas, "the Israelite philosopher," fant Christ. Lions acted as guides for as he called himself, author of the the flight into Egypt; it is mentioned “Pseudo-Thomas” which is said to that not only did they respect the Holy date from the second century, appears Family but also the asses and oxen to have been a Jewish convert belong- which carried their baggage. Besides, ing to one of the innumerable "hereti- the lions, leopards and other creatures cal" sects of the earliest times. It may "wagged their tails with great reverbe guessed, therefore, that the ence" (though all these animals are not “Pseudo-Thomas" was first written in of the dog species, but of the cat, in Syriac, though the text we possess is which wagging the tail signifies the in Greek. It is considered the model reverse of content). on which all the other Gospels of the This is the subject of an old English Infancy were founded, but the Arabic ballad:variant contains 80 much divergent

And when they came to Egypt's land. matter as to make it probable that the

Amongst those fierce wild beasts, writer drew on some other early source

Mary, she being weary, which has not been preserved. Maho

Must needs sit down and rest. met was acquainted with this Arabic

“Come, sit thee down,” said Jesus, gospel and Mahometans have not "Come, sit thee down by me,

And thou shalt see how these wild

beasts Do come and worship me.”

pretty. But they fail to reveal the slightest apprehension of the deeper significance of a peace between all creatures. Turn from them to the wonderful lines of William Blake:

First to come was the "lovely lion," king of all wild beasts and for our instruction the moral is added: “We'll choose our virtuous princes of birth and high degree.” Sad rhymes they are, uor, it will be said, is the sense much better; yet, hundreds of years ago in English villages, where, perhaps, only one man knew how to read, this doggerel served the end of the highest poetry; it transported the mind into an ideal region; it threw into the English landscape deserts, lions, Heavenly Child; it stirred the heart with the romance of the unknown; it whispered to the soul:

And there the lion's ruddy eyes

Shall flow with tears of gold, And pitying the tender cries

And walking round the fold Saying: Wrath by His meekness,

And by His health sickness, Are driven away

From our immortal day.


And now beside thee, bleating lamb,

I can lie down and sleep, Or think on Him who bore thy name,

Graze after thee, and weep; For, washed in life's river,

My bright mane for ever Shall shine like the gold,

As I guard o'er the fold.

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The pseudo-gospel of Matthew relates an incident which refers to a later period in the Holy Childhood. ACcording to this narrative, when Jesus was eight years old he went into the den of a lioness which frightened travellers on the road by the Jordan. The little cubs played round his feet while the older lions bowed their heads and fawned on him. The Jews who saw it from a distance, said that Jesus or his parents must have committed mortal sin for him to go into the lion's den. But coming forth, he told them that these lions were better behaved than they; and then he led the wild beasts across the Jordan and commanded them to go their way, hurting no one, neither should any one hurt them till they had returned to their own country. So they bade him farewell with gentle roars and gestures of respect.

These stories are innocent and they are eren pretty, for all stories of great, strong animals and little children are

No one but Blake would have written this, and few things that he wrote are so characteristic of his genius. The eye of the painter seizes what the mind of the mystic conceives, and the poet surcharges with emotion words which, like the Vedic hymns, infuse thought rather than express it.

A single passage in the New Testament connects Christ with wild ani. mals; in St. Mark's Gospel we are told that after his baptism in the Jordan, Jesus was driven by the Spirit into the wilderness, where "He was with the wild beasts, and the angels ministered unto Him." In the East the idea of the anchorite who leaves the haunts of men for the haunts of beasts was al. ready fabulously old. In the Western world of the Roman empire it was a new idea, and perhaps on that account, while it excited the horror of those who were faithful to the former order of things, it awoke an extraordinary enthusiasm among the more ardent votaries of the new faith. led to the discovery of the inebriation of solitude, the powerful stimulus of a


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