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Alfred in the Chronicles. By Edward tures on Archaeology for 1898. By Conybeare, M. A. Elliot Stock.

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By L. A. Kastner, B. A, and H. G. Rubens: his Life, his Work, and bis Atkins, M. A. Wm. Blackie & Son. ne. By E. Michel. 2 vols. Illu Greek Testament, The Expositors'. trated. W. Heinemann. Volume II. The Acts of the Apostles; Smith, Sydney, Wit and Wisdom of. St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans; St. Gay & Bird. Paul's First Epistle to the Corin- Studies in Love. By Maude Egerton thians. Edited by the Rev. W. Rob- King. J. M. Dent & Co. ertson Nicoll, M. A., LL. D. Hod. Uttermost Farthing, The. By B. Paul der & Stoughton.

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In the month of September of last equal opportunities of commerce for year Secretary Hay began a diplomatic the citizens of all nations in the leased correspondence in reference to the so- territory or sphere of interest possessed called “open-door" policy in China by any nation within the territorial which marked an important departure limits of China, with uniform customs in American diplomacy, and indicated dues, under a Chinese tariff and colto the world that the United States lected by the Chinese Government, harproposed to be heard from at least in bor dues and railroad charges. The the settlement of the future of China, final replies of the other Governments and was willing even to take the initia- addressed

reasonably explicit tive in securing the assent of the other and final; that of Russia, though Count Powers to a policy believed by her to Mouravieff expressed his conviction be a sound one. If the doctrine of the that it would be satisfactory, and Secopen door for commerce in China was retary Hay so accepted it, is certainly British in its origin, Lord Salisbury's only partial, and not very definite. But Government none the less acted wisely perhaps it was asking a good deal of in allowing the American Government her friendship for the United States to to make it their own by adoption-par- expect her to commit herself at all on ticularly as it had been seriously com- a matter so vitally related to her future promised while in charge of its original in the Far East. The point of more sponsors. In March of the present year immediate present interest is that the Secretary Hay officially announced the American proposals, undeniably good success of the negotiations, in com- as far as they go, do not pretend to emmunicating to each of the Governments body any solution of the Chinese quesconcerned the several replies of the tion. For it is now sufficiently evident others.

that that question is primarily a politiWhile recognizing a creditable diplo- cal, not a commercial, one.

The open matic achievement, we must not over- door policy is limited to securing equal look either the very partial and guarded trade conditions; it does not recognize adherence given by Russia-and she the deep-seated political disease afflict. was the one Power most important to ing the Chinese Empire or offer any commit-to the American proposals, or remedy. Its implication is that it does their very limited scope. These may not matter what becomes of China be summarized in a single sentence; politically, or how her territory is di

vided up among other Powers, provided can policy as to call for some explanathat these agree to preserve the open tion--particularly in view of the fact door for all commerce alike within that we have had no political or terrisuch portions of the empire as they torial aspirations in China, and have, choose to acquire-or to "lease," if that partly on this account, occupied a speterm softens at all the hard fact of sub- cial position of friendliness towards the stantial ownership and control. Yet in Chinese Government. the very communication in which Sec- Secretary Hay states that the United retary Hay gravely proposed to the States adheres to the policy initiated British Government that it should give by it in 1857, "of peace with the Chiits formal adhesion to its own policy, nese nation, and of furtherance of lawhe recognized that there was a Chinese ful commerce," and he further includes question inside the open door, and in- in this policy “the protection of the dicated that the policy of the United lives and property of American citiStates was still in favor of preserving zens in China by all the means guaranthe integrity of the Chinese Empire, as teed under extra-territorial treaty the most effective way of safeguarding rights or covered by the law of naits own rights. And now the inert tions." If wrong be done to Ameribody of the Chinese nation, pronounced can citizens," he says, “the responsible to be politically dead by the nations of authors will be held to the uttermost Europe, has very unpleasantly come to accountability.” Then follows the imlife again, and it becomes clear enough portant statement that in the view of that the commercial program of the his Government the condition at Pekin open door must be supplemented by is one of virtual anarchy, "whereby some pretty vigorous political action, power and responsibility is practically if there is to be any commerce left to devolved upon the local authorities." safeguard. Again Secretary Hay comes As long as these officials are not in forward with a statement of American overt collusion with rebellion, and use policy-and this time he does not liinit their powers to protect foreign life and it to securing commercial equality. property, they are to be regarded "as

On July 3rd, in a telegraphic despatch representing the Chinese people, with addressed to the various European whom we wish to remain in peace and Governments, the full purport of which friendship.” He then states that the soon after became public, the Secre- purpose of the President is to act in tary defined in general terms the pol- concurrence with the other Powers, icy which his Governinent sought to first in opening up communication with pursue in China. While this definition Pekin and rescuing American officials, of policy was taken in some quarters missionaries and other citizens who are as intended quite as much for the in- there in danger; secondly, in affording. formation of the American people dur all possible protection everywhere in ing a Presidential campaign as for the China to American life and property; enlightenment of foreign governments, thirdly, in guarding and protecting all its authoritative and important charac- legitimate American interests; and ter cannot be denied. The landing of fourthly, in aiding to prevent a spread American troops upon Chinese soil, to of the disorder to the other provinces join the armed forces of the European of the Empire, and “a recurrence of nations and of Japan in military oper- such disasters." The Secretary conations, of highly uncertain scope and cludes with the significant statement duration, certainly marked such an im- that it is the policy of the Government portant departure from former Ameri- of the United States "to seek a solution

which may bring about permanent task proposed is certainly one of exsafety and peace to China, preserve ceeding difficulty; and if, as there is Chinese territorial and administrative only too much reason to believe, the entity, protect all rights guaranteed to movement against all foreigners, of friendly Powers by treaty and by in- which such wrongs are merely a maniternational law, and safeguard for the festation, is to a large extent a general world the principle of equal and impar- and national movement-so far as any. tial trade with all parts of the Chinese thing can be national in China—the obEmpire."

stacles in the way of enforcing such The language of this important note accountability, while preserving "relawas certainly carefully considered, and tions of peace and friendship with the it must be taken to define the policy to Chinese people," would seem to be inwhich the administration of President superable.

i McKinley is definitely and fully com- When we come to the other points. mitted, however it may be attacked by in this program it becomes tolerably the political party in opposition-a pol- clear that it commits the United States. icy which will last during his present to action which will ultimately and term at least, ending next March, and necessarily lead to an actual, if not at will be continued in the event of his once to a formal, participation on her reelection. While this program only part in the concert of the European corresponds to the course tacitly or ex- Powers and Japan in regard to China. pressly accepted by the European Gov- Of course the word used is "concurernments concerned as the necessary rence," and doubtless fine distinctions one, and while it marks no radical de. can be drawn between concurrent acparture from their past practices in re. tion and joint action, if it is desired to spect to interference with the affairs persuade the American people that of semi-civilized or Oriental peoples, it some shadow of independence of action certainly marks a significant change in still attaches to the course of their American foreign policy, and one which Government in China. But the fact cannot but have far-reaching

remains that it is humanly impossible quences.

for the United States to carry out her The finding out of those responsible present comprehensive program in for wrongs to American citizens and China otherwise than by acting in holding them to the “uttermost ac- full accord with the other Powers, as countability,” will be likely alone to long as unity of action continues among prove a task of the greatest magnitude them, or by joining with one or more and difficulty. As long as such wrongs of them if a divergence of policy should could be traced to the action or non-ac- unfortunately arise. tion of local officials, and as long as Two lines of action included there was a central government to ap- within the program enunciated by Secpeal to, the steps to take were, indeed, retary Hay, the one military, the other comparatively simple, even if rarely political. The actual necessity that effective. But if the condition of military operations should be underChina is to be regarded as one of vir- taken by the united forces of the differtual anarchy for the time being, as Sec- ent countries concerned, acting in comretary Hay quite wisely concludes, mon, seems sufficiently obvious. The and if the Government of the Empress number of men whom the United was itself practically responsible for States could at present contribute to a these wrongs, through directly or indi- Chinese campaign would be utterly inrectly countenancing them, then the adequate to carry out the policy of

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punishment for outrages to American ment will largely determine the future life and property in China, or to afford of China, and the interests of the Westanything like adequate protection to ern nations in that future. But the American interests during the present strong probability that American accrisis-to say nothing of preventing the tion will not be confined within spread of the disorders to other prov. military lines is made almost a cer. inces, which absolutely requires that tainty by the express language used by a strong and united front should every. Secretary Hay in concluding his last where be presented by the Powers con- note. Besides committing the United cerned. As the movement of the Chi- States to aid in preventing "a recurnese seems to be directed against all rence of such disasters" as have reforeigners indiscriminately, unity of cently taken place, which certainly canaction on the part of the foreign mili- not be effected otherwise than through tary forces is a prime necessity. political action, he further states that American troops may even be placed it is the policy of his Government "to under the supreme command of an seek a solution which may bring about officer representing some other nation, permanent safety and peace in China." and the necessities of the situation This language certainly means that must secure the continuance of joint America intends to participate in, if not military operations. It may truthfully to originate, action which will go to be said, therefore, that the United the root of the whole Chinese question, States has already entered the concert and effect a radical and fundamental of the Powers in China so far as mil- change in the government of that itary action is concerned.

country. In the accomplishment of But the use of armed force leads di- such an object it is even more clear rectly and almost necessarily to politi- than in the case of military operations cal action, and in this field the impera- that the United States will be comtive need of concert between the pelled, instead of preserving her tradiPowers is equally obvious. As soon tional independence of action in the as the international forces reach Pekin East, to enter, more or less openly and - perhaps

sooner-the political frankly, the concert of the other Powquestion must come to the front. It ers, if that be maintained, or to act in would, of course, be theoretically pos- harmony with one or more of them, if sible for the United States to contine the concert be broken up. If the lanits action in China strictly within guage of Secretary Hay has any mean. military lines, and to leave the settle- ing-and it is certainly intended to ment of the future government of the have-it plainly and necessarily incountry entirely to the other nations volves the representation of the United concerned, merely asking for the recog- States in any congress or concert of nition and safeguarding of its own the Powers which undertakes to settle existing rights and interests. It would, the future of China. however, certainly prove a difficult If then America is in future to have matter to draw the line between mili, voice-based upon her present tary and political action, and it is military operations, upon her important hardly likely that any country would treaty rights and her commerce, upon be willing to make the sacrifices in- her geographical position, including volved in the armed operations and now not only the Pacific Coast but also then assume an attitude of non-partici- Hawaii and the Philippines, and upon pation in the settlement by the Powers her rank among the greatest Powers of those political issues whose treat- of the world-in the radical settlement

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