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activities Administration agencies American areas assistance Association better Board Books buildings cents child cities citizens classes classroom Commissioner Committee Conference construction Continued cooperation cost course cover Department of Health districts educa effective enrollment equal established experience facilities fact Federal field funds Government grade high school House important improve increase individual institutions instruction interest June learning living materials meet ment methods Michigan million National Negroes Office of Education operation opportunity organization OVETA CULP HOBBY parents percent period persons physical practical prepared present President problems progress projects public schools pupils responsibility school systems secondary schools serve social teachers teaching tion U. S. Department understanding United University Washington Welfare White York youth
Seite 127 - EDUCATION was established in 1 867 "for the purpose of collecting such statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress of education in the several States and Territories, and of diffusing such information respecting the organization and management of schools and school systems and methods of teaching, as shall aid the people of the United States in the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the country.
Seite 117 - In approaching this problem, we cannot turn the clock back to 1868 when the Amendment was adopted, or even to 1896 when Plessy v. Ferguson was written. We must consider public education in the light of its full development and its present place in American life throughout the Nation.
Seite 117 - MR. CHIEF JUSTICE WARREN DELIVERED THE OPINION OF THE COURT These cases come to us from the States of Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia and Delaware. They are premised on different facts and different local conditions, but a common legal question justifies their consideration together in this consolidated opinion.
Seite 92 - Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!
Seite 118 - It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities, even service in the armed forces. It is the very foundation of good citizenship. Today it is a principal instrument in awakening , the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity,...
Seite 118 - Any language in Plessy v. Ferguson contrary to this finding is rejected. We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ' ' separate but equal '
Seite 54 - Federal activities have on the local educational agencies in the areas in which such activities are carried on, the Congress hereby declares it to be the policy of the United States to provide financial assistance (as set forth in the following sections of this act) for those local educational agencies upon which the United States has placed financial burdens by reason of the fact that— "1.
Seite 117 - Our decision, therefore, cannot turn on merely a comparison of these tangible factors in the Negro and white schools involved in each of the cases. We must look instead to the effect of segregation itself on public education. In approaching this problem, we cannot turn the clock back to 1868 when the Amendment was adopted, or even to 1896 when Plessy v. Ferguson was written.
Seite 118 - Segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children. The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law; for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the negro group. A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of a child to learn. Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to [retard] the educational and mental development of negro children and to deprive them...
Seite 118 - To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of "separate but equal