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The musical instruments, anciently used in Wales, are as different from those of other nations as their music and poetry —These instruments are five in number, the Telyn, or Harp; the Crwth; the Plbgorn, or Horn-pipe *; the Tabwrdd, Tabret, or Drum; and the Corn-buelin, Cornet, or Bugle-horn. Of these an accurate representation is attempted in the opposite trophy.
The Harp, the principal of those I have enumerated, which appears to be the most ancient, and indeed the queen of all musical instruments, derives its origin from the remotest period. The Seventy 3, as well as Josephus*, have rendered Kinnor to be the fame as the Harp: and we find, in sacred history5, that Jubal, the seventh from Adam, is styled, The Father os all such as handle the Kinnor, (or Harp,) and the Hugab, (or ancient Organ,) which were before the flood; and the origin of any invention cannot well be carried higher.
Job, who lived among the Idumeans, about 1520 years before Christ, does not only speak of music and tinging, but also gives us the names of the musical instruments then in usea. Ezekiel 7 and Isaiah s represent Tyre as a city wholly given up to music. The antiquity of music appears also from the history of Jacob; who, having stole away from his uncle Laban without acquainting him of his design, was pursued and overtaken by him on the mount of Gilead, where he upbraided him for what he had done, in this manner, Wherefore didst thou flee away so secretly, and seal away from me? and didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth and with songs, with Tabret and with Harp 9?
It will be necessary to observe, that the musical instruments of the Greeks and Latins came to them from the Hebrews. The Greeks, a vain-glorious boasting-people, pretended that the greatest part of their musical instruments were the invention of their gods or their ancient poets. They seldom represented Mercury, Apollo, Orpheus, Arion, or Pan, without some musical instrument in their hands: but this false pretension of theirs is sufficiently contradicted by the Holy Scriptures themselves. Religion, the gods, music, or poetry, owe not their origin to Greece, but are the growth of a far more distant foilIO, The Latins are more sincere and ingenuous; they acknowledge they received their musical instruments from the East. Juvenal fays, jam pridem Syrus in Tyberim defluxit Orontes, Et linguam, et mores, et cum tibicine chords Obliquas, nec non gent ilia tympana secum Vexit"
It is very extraordinary, that all authors who have treated on this subject, have not discerned that the Harp and the Grecian Lyra were two distinct instruments; and it is evident, that neither the Greeks nor the Romans ever had our Harp, nor is it to be found on their coins and sculptures. Another proof may be educed from Venantius Fortunatus, (the bishop of Poictiers, about A. D. 609,) who fays, that both the Harp and the Crwth were instruments of the Barbarians, or Britons.
Romanusque Lyra plaudat tibi, Barbarus 13 Harpa,
Venantius Fortunatus, Lib."], Carm.%.
1 See Venantius Fortunatus, lib. 7. carm. 8.
* The dances which are called hornpipes probably derive their name originally on account of their being placed upon the Horn-pipe.
» Psalms, XLIII. v. 4; XC1I. v. 3; XXX. v. 2, 3; CXL1V. v. 9.
4 Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews, book VIII. chap. III. 8.
s Genesis, chapter IV. verse 21. And Ecclesiasticus, chap. XL1V. v. 1, 5.
a They fend forth their little ones like a flock, and their children dance. They take the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the found of the orpin Job, XXI. verse II, and 12.
» Exechiel, chap. XXVI, verse 13.
it Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. Isaiah, chap. XXIH. verse 16.
9 Genesis, XXXI. verse 27.
10 Ecclesiasticus, chap. 44; and in the account of Seth, and Enos, Sec.
"Juvenal, satyr III.
•* In Horace's Hymn to Mercury, book I. ode the IQtk. The origin of the lyre is said to be as loliows;
Thou God of Wit (from Alas sprung) M Who by persuasive power of tongue, *' And graceful exercise, refin'd "The lavage race of human kind; "Hail, winged messenger of Jove, 11 And all th immortal powers above, "Sweet parent of the bending lyre, . .
"Thy praise (hall all its sounds inspire, &C———
"O Mercury, (since the ingenious Amphion moved rocks by his "voice, you being his tutor,) and thou, my TeJludo, expert to '• resound with seven strings, formerly neither vocal nor pleasing, "but now agreeable to the tables of the wealthy, and the temples "of the Gods" &c —Horace, book III. ode 11.
Mercury is called the parent of the lyre, because, having found the (hell of a tortoise, and fitted strings to it, he first formed an idea of that kind of music. Hence teftudo signified a lyre, by reason that it was originally made of the black or hollow shell of the testudo aquatica, or sea-tortoise, which Mercury found on the banks of the Nile.
The antiquity of poetry is another argument for that of music; as they are both supposed to be coeval with man. Nature furnishes art with all her materials, and lays the foundations of all her improvements. As poetry and music were inseparable among the ancientswho knew no poet that was not at the fame time a musician, and who called making verse singing, and verses fings. What has been said of poetry may likewise be applied to music. There is a natural music which preceded and gave birth to the artificial5 both tend to the fame end, namely, to express the sentiments of the poet in such sounds and terms as hare a correspondence to what he feels within himself and would inspire others with.
David, the second King of Israel, was the greatest master of the Harp of his time, as well as a poet; he composed a great number of the psalms, or hymns, both for voices and instruments; which he instituted in the tabernacle of the Lord, to inspire mens hearts, and to sweeten their affections towards God *. (This accomplished prince, may truly be called a priest, prophet, and bard.) The prophet EHJha, likewise, thought music necessary to excite him to a fit disposition for receiving the impression of the spirit of God; and said, w but now bring me a Minstrel; and it came to pass, when the Minstrel played, that the hand of the Lard came upon him *.
We have every reason to believe that music was in a degree of perfection among the Hebrews towards the latter part of David's reign^ and in the time of King Solomon, &c; and, we are informed that Afaph, Heman, and Jeduthun, were the princes, or presidents, of all the temple-music, in those reigns. Asapb had four sons, "Jeduthun fix, and Heman fourteen. These four and twenty Levites, sons to the three grand presidents of the music, were set over four and twenty bands, or companies of musicians. Each of them had under him eleven officers of an inferior rank, who presided over the other fingers, and instructed them in their art. These several companies seem to have been distinguished from one another by the instruments on which they played +, and by their places in the temple. Those of the family of Kohath stood in the middle; those of Mirari, on the left; and those of Gerson, on the right hand S. The sons of Jeduthun played on the Kinnor, or Harp; the sons of Asaph, on the Nebel, or Psaltery; and the sons of Heman on the Metsilothaim, a kind of tinkling bells, or Cymbals. "The number of them, with their brethren that were
In ode 32, Horace invokes his lyre, and calls it Barbiton. "We "are now called upon. If, in idle amusement in the made with "you, we have played any thing that may live for this year and "many; come on, assist me with a lyric ode in Latin, my dear «• Barbiton,—first tuned in Greek by the Lesbian citizen Al«« earns V Sec.
* Alcaut was the contemporary, countryman, and friend, of Saps ho. Horace lays, in book II. Ode 13, that Alcmu played with a golden pUctnim, (an instrument with which they struck the strings of the lyre.) Likewise, probably the instrument called feBii, or ftcttn, is so termed, from its being played with a stick, or a quill.
Virgil describes Dido's feast to Æneas, Lib. I. v. 744, SecIn which, the fame instrument is termed Cithara. "The long** haired Jopas sounded on the gilded Cithara what great Atlas '* had taught; he fang of the changing moon, and the course of "the fun; the origin of mankind and other animals; the nature of
the elements, the heavenly constellations, and the causes which "operate 'he change of seasons."—Homer calls the instrument, on which Acbillts played, the Phorminx, which implies the lame asTestud;. Iliad, book IX.
The Greeks call the Lyra; Kitbara; Barbitos; Phorminx; and Chclys t . The Romans have made use of the fame terms, to which they have added Tcstudo; all of which imply a tortoise, a shell, or an instrument made of that form. (The back of the lute and the guitar are frequently carved in that shape.) The lyra of Mercury had at first but three strings; Orpheus is said to have added a fourth; and Pindar mentions his lyre as having seven. It is evident, from Maccabees, that the kinnor, or harp, and the cithara, or guitar, are not the fame, since they are mentioned in the lame place as two different instruments. I. Maccabees IV. v. 54; and XIII. v. Jt.—Notwithstanding all the accounts, given by the Greeks and Romans, it is not improbable but the cithara, or guitar, is derived from the Cithern of the Hebrews; (which, according to Mersennus, is a kind of fiddle with fix strings). See also Maccabees, as before quoted.—Galilie uses the term lyre for the lute, and other instruments of that class: but the true distinction between the viol and the violin species arises t rom the difference of size, and the number of their strings, re
f Pliny mentions a fish called Citbarui or a folio. And another called ftorcuu—Pliny, XXXU.and is.
spectively, the viol, meaning that for concerts, of what size soever it be, having fix strings; and the violin, whether it be the treble, the tenor, the violoncello, or the bass, having uniformly four. In short, all the instruments of that genus are characterized by the appellation of the Cithara, whether a lute, a viol, a fiddle, or a kit.
The English make use of a similar loose and vulgar term, when they want to express any musical instrument which they do not well know the name, by the term hordy gourdy; which in fact is an old English instrument that consists ot a bladder upon a slick, with a string or two stretched acrols the bladder, which are fastened to each end of the stick, and played upon with a bow.
The rebeck is a three-stringed fiddle. The cithern has six strings: also, a mandolin, or a small guitar played with a quill, is sometimes called a cittern. The lute is esteemed to be a very ancient instrument, as being mentioned in Psalm Ixxxi. &c. it originally had six strings, but now has a much greater number. The theorbo, or arch-lute, is sometimes called cithara bijuga, from its having two necks, with a great number of strings: the Spanish lute, and the guitar, are called cithara Hifpanica. The lute is always strung with gut, and played upon with the fingers. The orpharian, bandore, or guitar, are generally strung with wire, and mostly played with a quill. (Salinas asserts, that the instruments of the above class take the name of lute, from their haUeutic, or boat-like, form.) The crwth; fiddle; viol d'amour; viol de gamba; the bariton; &c. are all played with a bow.
11 Casar, in his Commentaries, book IV. chap, 12, Sec. calls the Britons, barbarians; and Tacitus the fame.—'* The appellation of barbarians was given by the Greeks to all the world but themselves: the Romans gave it to all the world but the Greeks, T.". A note from Mr. Belœ's translation of Herodotus.
"Thnagcnes fays, that music was the most ancient of all studies; Lord Herbert, of Cherbury, on the Religion of the Gentiles, page 204. tlutarch, Libello de Mufica.—Qtiintil. Lib I. or 10, 1.
1 I. of Chronicles, chap. XXV. v. 6 and 7.—H. Chronicles, chap. XXIX. chap. V. v. 11.—Of the dresses of the Levites, tic. fee Exodus, chap. XXVIII. chap. XXXIX. and Isaiah, chap. ILL I. Chronicles, chap. XXIII. v. 5. chap. XIII. v. 8.
* II. Book of Kings, chap. III. v. ic.
* I. Chronicles, XXV. 1, 3, ;, 6. II, Citron, chap. V. v. it.
* L Cljrmidts VI. 3 J, 34, 39.