Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB
[graphic]

on of the diflicalt problem of cutting and I millstones.

»invention comprises two essential points: Et be application of hard stones, anil especi„iy of the diainonil, to cutting and dressing the millstones, this diamond acting so as to split off ■or chip the stone (exactly as the hand hammer Joes} by attacking it with blows succeeding each other with a great rapidity; the said blows may be produced by either a rotary or rectilinear motion, hnt the tool or diamond carrier which has been found to work best in practice acts by rotation, and in giving to this rotation a certain rapidity, a trne chipping motion or succession of shocks ig produced which attacks the stone, and by causing it to chip or fly off in minute fragments, produces the desired work.

'• Secondly, an entirely new machine by the aid of which the diamond is caused to work, and which will be understood from the following «lescription : Fig. 4 is an elevation (shown partly in section) of the improved apparatus, and Fig. 2 is a plan view of the same, as seen from above.

"The machino comprises a frame В consisting of a central socket, from which radiate the three arms Ъ furnished with screws c, which serve for levelling the apparatus: this socket is placed on the end of the millstone axle C, so as to centre the machine by means of set screws Л when the fixed or hed st me is to he dressed, but if the running »tone is to be operated upon, then the centering is effected hy means of a plug of wood which is fixed in the socket, and the end of which passes into the eye of the stone. The levelling screws с do not bear directly upon the snrface of the millstone A, but upon small plates e of cast iron which rect upon •the latter. On the framing is mounted a support 1) capable of turning on a fixed bolt /, and of being secared in any desired position by means of another holt g, which is capable of being moved in the curved slot E in the framing; to the support D a dovetailed slide F is connected by two screws or bolts A, and it is upon this slide that the tool carriage G moves; the slide F, which generally maintains the horizontal position shown in Fig 4, may,however, be slightly inclined when it is required to dress the central hollow part of the stone where the corn enters; this is effected Ъу slightly elongating one of the holes through which the bolts A pass. The carriage G can move on the slide F from the centre to the circumference, and ricr rersa, and, moreover, it carnes a elide 11 capable of moving in a direction transverse to that of the principal carriage ; this slide H carries below it the tool carrier I, which is mounted upon points or pivots k, and may be fixed in any required position by means of the pressure screws j; in this tool carrier the axle J of the tool К turns upon the points or ends of the screws i; the tool carrier is also provided with two other pointed screws ¿', upon which the tool is mounted when it is required to work near the centre. The tool К consiete of a disc (hereinafter more particularly described) furnished on its circumference with a tooth of diamond or other hard stone either in the rongh or cut, and caused to rotate rapidly by means of an endless cord or band /. In the top of the socket В of the framing a small colnmn L is screwed, the upper part of which forms a kind of footstep in which the pointed end of a shaft M turns ; the latter receives its movement from any convenient shafting or motive power by means of a cord or band psseing round the pulley m; its other pulley n gives motion to the cord or band I, which causes the tool to rotate. The column L carries a bracket or gallows N, which may be fixed at the desired height and position by means of a set screw; this bracket is furnished with a fixed stud o, on which a lever О freely oscillates; the latter carries at •one of its extremities the tension pulleys P, which gnidethe cord i, and at the other end a counterpoise p, which tends constantly to raise the pulleys P, consequently the latter preserve the tension of the с ird I during all the movomente of the carnage G. A lo-and-fro motion is given by hand to the carriage G by moans of the bell-crank lever <i «Inch turns on a fixed centre at q, the lower arm of this lever being connected to the carriage by a link R. The lateral setting of the line H, •and consequently of the tool K, is effected by mean« of a screw r end a ratchet motion S. To counteract the ill effects of deflection, which the weight oftha carriage might produce upon the •hue К, a supplementary foot T is fixed to that side of the latter opposite the carriage, this foot being curved so as to allow of the free passage of «he «mage from end to end of the slide; the loot T is provided with a screw c1 and a plate <•'.

"The operation of the machine is as follows :— The apparatus being placed upon the stone is levelled by means of the screws с and e1, regulating the height in such a manner that the diamond tooth of the tool will he at about the height desired. The adjustment of the height of the latter is completed by the screws j. The machine is centered by means of the set screws which press against the millstone axle or the wooden plug whioh is placed in the socket B. The machino is so placed that the slide F is parallel with the groove to be dressed; the shaft M is then put in motion, giving movement to the cord I, and consequently to the tool ; then by the aid of the lever Q, movement is given to the carriage G, whbh thus moves along the slide F: during this movement the diamond tooth of the tool K, which turns with great rapidity, attacks the snrface of the millstone, and form' a radiating furrow therein; the carriage is then drawn back by the ratchet movement S, the slide H is moved laterally, carrying the tooth with it, and a second furrow commenced. This operation is repeated across the groove of the stone to the end of the traverse of the slide H, after which, following grooves of the same division or group, the machine is slightly turned, and the parallelism of the slide with the groove is effected by turning the support 1) round the bolt/, which is then fixed in position by means of the bolt g; the carriage is then set in motion again. The position of the machine mnst be changed for each division or group of the furrows. As there are some millstones furrowed to the right and some to the left, the machino is so arranged that the slide F may be fixed on either side of the lug of the support 1) to which the bolt A attaches it. The position of the carriage and its movement may thus be reversed for .left-hand grooves. It will be observed that the pivoting of the support D round its bolt / is not theoretically indispensable, but if this facility were not afforded, a much longer movement of the slide H would be required to reach the three furrows of tho division, and consequently there would bo a greater danger of its getting out of truth.

"It may also be stated that the particular arrangement of the apparatus which is shown jn the drawing is that which the inventor considers the most practical, but this arrangement may be varied without departing from the principles of the invention. The diamond also, instead of acting by rotation, might operate on the millstone by means of a rectilinear or vibrating motion. The diamond, or other bard stone, may be mounted in a great variety of ways. The arrangement represented at Figs. С and 7 is that whioh the inventor considers best to unite the conditions of simplicity and solidity; it consists of two discs or washers capable of being screwed together on an axle between the shoulder t on the latter and the screwed nut v. In the interior faces of these discs, and near to their circumference, are formed small recessos v of different sizes (see Fig. 7): these recesses are opposite to each other in the two discs, and when the latter are brought together form hollow celle having a small opening at the circumference of the disc: apiece of diamond or hard stone is fitted into one of these cells, so that a point or angle projects through the hole in the circumference, and tho two discs aro then screwed together by means of the nut M, so as to hold the diamond perfectly firm, and the tool is complete."

(To be conlinued.J

HAWKINS'S FIRE ESCAPE.

THE accompanying sketch illustrates an ingonious arrangement fora fire escape, which is intended to form a houso fixture, so that it may always be ready for service in sudden emergency. The apparatus consists of a square net of sufficient length to reach from tho upper story of a building to the ground, and so formed that the meshes can serve as a ladder, or аз a means of lowering easily snch persons as are too unnerved to descend by any other process than that of simple giavitation.

The whole apparatus, when out of use, is stowed away within a box placed within the room, and beneath the window, and, when required, tho cover of the box is thrown open, and forms the platform from which the net is suspended, holding chains being attached to the net, and secured to the floor of the room, as shown iu Fig. 2. In the same figure it will be seen that a small winding drum forms part of the apparatus, and is

[graphic]

usod for raising the escape by means of a light chain attached to it for this purpose (see perspective sketch). The network, which is formol of chains, is sufficiently large at its mouth to admit a moderate-sized person freely, but, as it contracts in its dimensions from its own weight as it ncars the ground, the individual making nse of it would be enveloped in its contracting folds, and force his way to the bottom without injury. In practice it will be found expedient to secure the lower end of the net at some distanco from the building to which it wis attached, in order, as far as possib'e, to obviât-1 the unpleasant consequences inseparable from the contact of sliding humanity with hot chains. At the present time, when the question of compelling fire escapes to be attached to dwellings U being discussed, snch an arrangement as the present ought to be well received, and, indeed, we believe that it is highly spoken of in influential quarters. New York has set ns the example in ins:«ting npon the providing of fire escapes to sepárete houses, and some 11,000 l/uildings have already been fitted with them. It is an example our municipal authorities would do well to imitate, and would certainly be the means of saving many lives which are now annually sacrificed.

[ocr errors]

SCIENCE EOR THE YOUNG.

Br Tue Rev. E. Kkwak, Clonuowes College.

(Continued from роде 106.)

§ III.—Inertia ( Continued)

APP. II. Card and Coin. The well-known experiment of poising on one finger a card with a small coin above, and filliping the card from under the coin, requires a certain dexterity for success. The principles of this experiment can be shown upon a table without danger of failure. A slip of wood a is laid upon a table, Fig. 14, and a small weight placed upon the end of the slip. Now, draw the slip gently, the weight moves with it, a ; there is time for the motion to take effect upon the weight. 2. Draw the slip ijuichlij, the weight is left behind ; there was not time. So with the card and coin, a slow stroke throws both off the finger, a smart flip to the card leaves the coin on the finger. This experiment, as in Fig. 14, will succeed with even the lightest body, but according to the principles L IV., the lighter the body the quicker must be the motion. App. III. Rod broken. A rod of wood laid upon the edges of two glasses full of water may be broken by B smart blow without even spilling the water, Fig. 15 a. It may even be

[graphic]

done when the rod rests upon two inverted bottles, b. The quick blow breaks the rod before there is time for the motion to take effect on the glasses or bottles. A bar of wood is quite heavy enough to strike with. It is well to note that it is quite possible to spill the water, and to break the glass. A very great point to mind is the steadiness of the foot, f. The glass should not rock about. Of course the shorter and wider the tumbler, the less danger of failure.

App. IV. Rocket ropes. One of tho great difficulties in throwing a rope from the shore to a ship in distress is to have the rocket move so slowly that there is timo to overcome the inertia of the rope, or, in other words, to 60 coil the rope that it can receive the quick motion of the rocket. When it is not so coiled, the¡rope acts as the weight in Fig. 11, b; the first part of the rope is torn from the rest, which, from inertia, is immovable, Fig. 16. Much attention has been given to this

[ocr errors][merged small]
[graphic]

important subject, both as to the projectile and the coiling or " faking " of the line, as it is termed. A good deal of interesting details may be seen in the English Mechanic, Vol. IV., p. 296, and Vol. V., p. 11. There is one point very much to the present subject, that the rocket is superior to shot, in consequence of its getting into motion gradually, whereas the shot starts at full velocity, and with a jerk.

App. V. Deep-sea cables. While paying out to cable in deep water, there is considerable danger, in a rough sea, of a sudden snip from a lurch of the ship, which did happen in the laying of the first Atlantic cable. There was a mile or more of the cable hanging astern, and the brakes on deck were full on. The vessel gave a sudden pitch ; there was not timo to communicate the motion to the great weight of cable in the water it parted. *

App. VI. Projectiles. A bullet from a rifle I will make a clean hole in a pane of glass; cannon ball will go through a door open without closing it, Ice. There is not time for the projeotile to communicate the motion.

App. VII. Equestrian jump. The apparently difficult feat of jumping from a horse through a ring requires but one motion on the part of the performer. His body, by inertia, partakes of the forward motion of the horse ; hence he need only rise, up to arrive safe, on the horse's back. Of the exact path of his flight in another place. In the ваше way, a person sitting in the railway carriage going at express speed may throw a heavy body —a ball, for instance—up into the air; it will fall into his hand, although he has advanced B yard or more while the ball was in the air, and it will seem to him to move in a straight line, A stone let fall from the window of the carriage seems to move straight down: not to an observer standing on the road; the stone moves forward, ¿ca. Wherever there is motion in a body, anything that separates from it continues, by inertia, the motion it had in common with the body.

App. VIII. Accidents from inertia. A horse stops suddenly; the rider may pass over its head unless prepared to resist the inertia of his own body. A person running, trips upon a straw, the upper part of the body moves on and causes a fall. In railway collisions, all are tossed about inside, or, strictly, toss themselves about, from the motion which they had acquired in the train; the waggons dash against one another with terrible force; and such is sometimes their inertia action, that they rise from the road and pile themselves one over the other, kc. In any body where there ie motion, if this be suddenly stopped all that was connected with the body has its motion, if not rigidly joined, so as to resist the action of inertia. On the other hand, sudden quick motion of a vehicle may cause a person, standing especially, to be thrown about; some vehicles might drop a person ou the road; a boat shot forward, those standing at the stern are thrown in the water; precious goods may be injured if carried off suddenly from a table, Me. Where there is rest, instant quick motion may cause an accident.

App. IX. Uses of inertia. Rope-walkers lean for an instant on the pole which they carry in their hands, and which, for an instant, is im

movable; instrument handles авс fastened or removed by a sharp stroke at either end; the instrument is for the instant inert; turning chisels and all others having no flange act thus: also plane-irons, spade-handles, and all of that sort, are tightened by the handle being struck against some immovable body ; the head, by the mot: acquired in striking the handle, mom on, through the action of inertia, aloti the point of the handle, when this ■ etopped by the stroke.

App. X. Liquids. Their inertia ex- plains the difficulty that one has to carry a tray full of water. At each step the water moves on, and continues to move by inertia, when invcluntarily the tray is stopped while taking the next step. Any effort in the opposite direction causes inertia to act towards tho person. On a table a small flat tray with water exemplifies well the inertiaof liquids; »quick movement, or a short stoppage, will nearly empty the tray. Waves in the ocean are an example on a grand scale of liquid inertia. Long after the storm has ceased, it is still disturbed, tossing and surging. Oo the other hand, the winds may blow for some time before the great waves are produced.

App. XL Oases. The path of storms, another great natural phenomenon, is due to the inertia of the gaseous state. Sometimes these storms pass in the broad belt, outside which all is calm. Whatever may be their cause, they have gone by before there was time for the surrounding atmosphere to be set in motion.

Problem*.

At the end of each important matter a few questions will be proposed, to be explained by the student according to the principles just established. These problems will sometimes be an exercise in the use of formulas, at other times they will be facts, well known or extraordinary, to be accounted for, or else the conditions of certain results desired, or the results of certain conditions.

Prob. I. Were an engine to start at full speed, what would be the consequence to the train J

Prob. II. Why does B train slacken its speed so long before it comes to a station'

Prob. III. What would be the effect of letting an anchor fall from tho last "arriage of an express at full speed?

Prob. IV. How should one jump from а vehicle, against, across, or with the motion, and what would be the consequence in each condition?

Prob. V. In certain artillery experiments at Shoeburyness, some heavy pointed shot was found, after striking the target, to have its point reversed; its form was that of a roll of paper, of which the

[graphic][graphic][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[graphic]
[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

M

[ocr errors]

dogne, France, n coachbuilder, hat patented an invention for improvements in velocipedes. The idea oí utilising manual power by combining it vithwell known mechanical principles to «over a givea distance mnch more rapidly and with mnch less fatigue than by the means of locomotion natural to mankind isnotnew, as is proved by the various and numerous systems of velocipedes which have already appeared. Nevertheless, and despite their number, these various processes imperfectly accomplish the object with which they have been conceived, and none CDmpletely fulfil ail the conditions requisite to the simple and regular action that should form the basis of their construction. The patentee believes that ho has solved this problem by the production of the locomobile apparatus, to which in view of it« special construction he has glvon the name of "veloeimane." This novel aid to locomotion, or loeomotiveeno-ine, has three wheels, two in front, the other behind." This number is not, however, invariable, and some may be constructed with four wheels, which would materially increase the original stability. The impulsion is given mainly by the action of the feet of the rider upon two pedals with cranks, these giving a rotary motion to an axle, which in its turn transmits it to the two front wheels. This axle is an entirely novel application; it has a doable action}; that is to say, its particular arrangement permits it in the first place to turn on itself, and further (o diverge obliquely to the right or left, and thus to give the direction. Two other cranks of less size than those first mentioned tie these latter to the axle ; their main purpose is to receive the heads of two connecting rods, which at the opposite end couple on to a horizontal shaft. The axle revolves between two bearings fitted on two forked pieces acting as supports ;itisgoverned by the pole pin or working bolt, which being of one piece with the part in question, thereby permits he desired direction to be given to the axle. The entire arrangement rests as it were upon the two forked pieces. The fore carriage has a moveable plate composed of two superposed parts, through which passes the workingbolt, and which receives at its upper part a lantern bearer, and the support of the beam which upholds the hind wheel. Resting or guide pedals are fitted and fixed to the forked pieces. The following'pieces meet on the working bolt : lo. The main support of the seat, which receives the saddle intended for the rider. ». The arched support of the beam intended to

ment fitted to the fore wheels with the object of making them drive together or separately, but leaving themplayononghtopreventany hindrance to their evolution. The result of this novel arrangement is claimed to be a much greater activo power when mounting an incline, paved or rNo paved, a requirement which no vehicle of this nature has hitherto met. Figs 1 and 2 are .respectively a front and side elevation of the machine,

REVIEWS.

Arithmetic, Theoretical and Practical, by W.U.

GntDLEsTONB, M.A., of Christ's CollegP.

Cambridge, &e. Second edition, revised and

enlarged. Rivingtons: London, Oxford, and

Cambridge. ГТШЕ

The Right Ascension of the San at Mean Noon on the First of May l»2a. ЗЗгд. 48s., and his North declination 16° 3' 56". He Is consequently about halfway between the three bright Stars in Aries, and the Pleiades ; and somewhat beneath a lino joining these two seterisms (Mapof "Eastern Sky," Vol. X, p. 04) Henow souths before Mean Noon, nnd the Equation of time must consequently bo subtracted from the hour indicated by a sandial. On tho first day of the Month this equation is 3m. 27s., nnd increases to 3m. M 5s. on the 11th, after which it dlminiihes, nnd on the Met amounts to 2m. 380* The Sun rises in London on the let at4h. SfSm., and on the 31st at 3h. 52m., setting at 7h 21m. and 8h. 3m. on those days respectively. He la consequently 14h. 4flm. above the horizon at the beginning of the Month, and Mb. 11m. above the horizon at the end of it. As we arc now arriving at the period of greatest solar activity, the diso of tho Sun will for some tlqic never be free from spots,>nd consequently will form a remarkable and attractive telescopic object. Details will be found at p. 109 of our last volume, of the most effective methods of observing the phenomena exhibited by our great centre of light andhcat.

The Moon will enter her first quarter at 38 minutes past 3 on the afternoon of the sth. Will be full at в minutes past 0 a.m. on thel">th;enterhcr last quarterat f)h. Dm. am. on the 22nd, aud bo new in the forenoon of the 30th at 57 minutes past B, Sho will be in Perigee at » o'clock in the morning of tho 14th, and in Apogee nti) atnightonthe 20th. She wdl be In conjunction with Jupiter at 5h. ЗИП. a.m.on the 2ud, and with Mercury 3 hours later. At 10 o'clock on the morning of the 0th with Uranus ; and at 20 minutes before noon on the 17th with Saturn; with Venus at 32 minutes past 5 In the early morning of the 20th; with Mars at 019

science of arithmetic has probably been -1- favoured in a greater degree than any other

with attempts at elucidation by those who least on the 6TMnlng of the 28th ; once more with Jupiter understood its guiding principles. These would

recmeand uphold the beam of the hind wheel. Л*-. The support of the directing or guiding arm, which serves to give to the axle the oblique movementsi required during the journey, and in the

^hi 'i" to work a brake Placei1 in front of 'he vÏT'i The support of the horizontal shaft,

which by the aid of two crank handles communicates to the above-described connecting rode an alternate come-and-go motion, thereby producing tho rotary propulsion. 5°, and lastlv. The upper curved part for carrying the lantern. The two tint and the last of these pieces do not however completely adhere to the pole pin or working bolt but are united to it by the aid of a wrought-iron perforated piece on which they abut, and which traversed by the said pin facilitates its rotary the other pieces mentioned above.

be teachers deemed it quite sufficient, after a few pages of weights and measures, and examples of numeration and notation, to give the most abbreviated description of the rules, dimly illustrated by marginal examples. All attempts at explanation of the principles on which those rules are based, and of which, indeed, they are merely the mechanical exponents, were (perhaps wisely) left to the care of the teacher, who, too frequently, was as unprepared for the task as the book he consulted. Mr. Girdlestone's book is a pleasant antidote to the remembrance of such works. His system insists on the clear comprehension, by t,he student, of геазопв, and his book is, as he says, " a protest against the still common process of teaching ' sums,' which may be called the 'magical process.'" "Follow the rule as laid down," says the master, "do not trouble yourself about the reason; but do this—do that —and, hey-presto, theanswer."Worecommendthfe purchase of Mr. Girdlestone's book to those of our readers who require a comprehensive and comprehensible book on arithmetic

The Gas Manager's Handbook, «yc, ,ye. By Thomas Îs'ewbigging, A.I.C.E. London: W. B. King, 11, Bolt-court, Fleet-street, E.C. This volume is an exhaustive cyclopaedia of the literature of g is lighting. The author has laid his hands on everything good that already existed in the way of tables aud statistics, and has embodiod the whole, with many additions, in the form of a volume, the want of which hoe been long felt by gas engineers and managers. An interesting chronology of gas lighting is appended to the book.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Gas EcommyThings worthkntmina abtut Gas. By Robert Fermer, Inspector of Meters for the City of Edinburgh. London. Houlston and Sons ; Edinburgh, Menzies aud Co.' This little book is issned in the interest of the gas consumer. There are many things connected with gas lighting which, if attended to on the part of the consumer, would promote economy and comfort, and prevent occasional disputes between the company and himself. These Mr. Ferner bos successfully endeavoured to point out. His position renders him perfectly independent in the matter, so that the rights and duties of consumer and manufacturer are fairly stated. The

[ocr errors]

at 2 minutes past 1 a.m.on the 30th; and finally again with Mercury at 38 minutes after midnight of the same day. There will bo threo Occultations of Stars by the Moon during May; the first on May 14th when o5 Libra; will disappear at the moon's dark limb at Ilh. 29m. and re-appear at hor bright limb at 12h. 21mOn the 10th { Ophiuchl will he occulted at the bright limb of the Moon at 8h. 34m., and re-nppear at her dark limb at 9h. 29m., at which time she will be rising. Later on the вате night, at 10.13, the Star 5806 of the "British Association Catalogue," will disappear at the bright limb, and re-appear at thedark llmbat 11.iu. The age of the Moon at noon on the 1st is 07 day; at the same timo on the 2nd, 17 days, and so on. At 11 o'clock at night on tho 7th, Libratlon will have brought an additional part of her S.E. limb Into view: and at 0 a.m. on the 28th, more of the B.W. part of her disc than usual will be visible from tho same cause.

Mercury is anovening star during May, and will bo most favourably situated for observation on the 11th, and for a few days afterwards. He may then be picked up, glittering to the West of North above the sunkeu Sun. Venus is a morning Star throughout themonth. Sho will be dichotomized a little before the middle of it. The youug Student who may have observed her during the timo she was approaching inferior conjunction In February, will notice how markedly her apparent diameter has now decreased. Mars is also a morning Star, but continues In a most unfavourable position for observation. He is in Aries, passing just to tho confines of Taurus at the very end of the month. Jupiter, also in Tauru?, is practically invisible during May, from his proximity to the Suu, with which he is in conjunction at 2.31 am. on the 25th. He is on the Meridian at 2 minutes after noon on the23rd. Of course, the phenomenaof his satellites are absolutely invisible during this period. Saturn, in the Constellation Sagittarius, albeit at an Inconveniently small altitude, now rises and comes into view at a more convenient hour of the night. He rises on the 1st at lib. 11m. p.m., and on the 31st at 9h. Ош.р.т. The opening of his rings is now nbout at its maxi mum and but for his proximity to tho horizon, he would be very favourably placed for examination. Uranus, In Uomlni, Is rapidly approaching the Suu, but may Btill be seen in tho north-westerly part of the Heavens afterdusk. He sets at 58 minutes after midnightou the 1st, and stlfafter 10 on the 31 st Neptuno is too close to tho Sun to be seen.

Arago though t thai there were some slight grounds for expecting a shower of Shooting Stars about the middle of May, and as no opportunity should be lost of adding to our knowledge of these straugo Cosmical visitors, it may possibly be worth while to look oat about the period referred to.

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][graphic][subsumed]

DOMESTIC EECIPES.

THE "FOOD JOURNAL" SOUP.—This is a most excellent and economical soup for poor people. For one quart of soup, fry three onions In dripping, about the s>z« of a walnut ; then take half a carrot, and cut it up in small pieces, with one turnip, half a dozen potatoes, a little salt, pepper, and white ginger. Boil them together for four hour*, very slowly. The cost is a little over a halfpenny a plateful of half a pint.

SPINACH FRITTERS. — Boil some spinach thoroughly, drain it well, mince and add some grated bread, nutmeg, ginger and cinnamon, all pounded; add an much cream, or yolks and whites of eggs, as will niiike It of the consistence of batter; scald a few <-currants, and mix them m. Drop the batter into a frying pan, on boiling lard, and as soouasUhe fritters rise take them out, drain, and serve.

POTATO PUDDING—A few potatoes must be well boiled, and mashed fine, with a little milk, then sweetened to taste, and pressed into a pie-dish. Beat one egg, and lay It on the top, with a little grated nutmeg,and bake for half an hour.

POTATOES FOR NURSERY DINNERS—Stir new milk into mashed potatoes till the mixture is as thin as double cream. Boil this with a little butter, pepper, and salt, for ten minutes.

BREAKFAST DISHES-Omelette with or without herbs, and a layer of minced mutton or other meat Is a favourite dish for breakfast. Also sandwiches made of hot toast and bacon between, w Ith or without anchovy paste- A young rabbit cut up and fried is much liked. Minced mutton or beef, with breadcrumbs and clariucd butter, salamandered, also make a change, in addition to kidneys and the remains of poultry and game, which all come in for breakfast dishes.

Tiik following amusing recipe for a dish of frogs Is taken from a collection in Lady Llanovir's excellent cookery book: — Take the thighs aud fry them in clan Bed butter, then have slices of salt eel watered flayed, boned, boiled and cold: slice them in tbln slices, and season both with pepper, nutmeg, and ginger; lay butter on your paste, and lay a rank of frog aud a rank of eel, some currants, gooseberries, grapes, raisins, pineapple seeds, juice of orange, sugar and butter; this do three times i close up your dish, and when baked, ice it. Make your paste of almond milk, flour, yolks of eggs, and sugar. In the afooesaid di-th you may add fried onions' yolks of hard eggs, cheese curds, almond paste, ana grated it's.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

[We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our correspondents. The Editor respectfully requests that all communications should be drawn up as briefly as possible.]

*,* All communications should be addressed to the Editor of the English Mechanic, 31, Tavistockstreet, Covent Garden, W.C.

All «heques and Post Office Orders to be made payable to J. Pabbmore Edwardb.

ALLEN'S REAPING AND MOWING MACHINES.

Sir,—The proposal lately made to devote a portion of your valuable space to the consideration of agricultural matters is a good one. It will, 1 imagine, embrace agricultural inplemeuts; and as the farmers will soon be busy in the hay-fields— that Is, if the traditional "April showers" ouly put in an appearance during the few days still left of thomeuth-1 send a description of an improved reaping and mowing machine invented by William Allen, of Auburn. New York, U.S.A. The object of this invention is to construct reaping aud mowing machines in such a manner that they will be more durable and Jobs liable to derangement, and may be worked with less power than the machines heretofore constructed. To this end all the teeth of the toothed gearing are cut Instead of being roughly cast, Bo that they will work more smoothly than "heretofore. All the toothed gearing and part of the mechanism, moreover, is enclosed within a cast or wrought iron box provided with a lid, so that access may be obtained thereto when required. The running or supporting wheels of the machine are mounted on an axle outside the bearings, and between which is mounted a driving wheel provided with Internal teeth. The cutting mechanism Is driven from thiB t which drives a pinion on the end of the cross shaft of a bevel wheel, which drives a similar wheel on a short Bhaft, at the opposite end of which is another Internal toothed wheel whichdrives aplnlon on the crank shaft .whereby the cutter bar 1b actuated. Recesses are formed in the cast-Iron case and its cover to receive the shafts if the projecting parts of some of the wheels, and the Irons to support the driver's seat are Inserted in sickness cast on or attached to the hinged cover of the box or case.

Fig. 1 Is a side elevation of the machine; Fig. 2 a plan of the same with the covers thrown back to show the mechauism; and Fig. 3 an end view. I D. StudF.ly.

POTATO DIBBLE.—ANTS.

Sir,—By way of adding my mite to the agricultural departmeutof our journal. 1 have enclosed a sketch of an improved potato dibble, which I have had In use for the last four years, by the aid of which I can plant potatoes at more than double the rate I can by using an ordinary dibble. It may be useful to some of our gardening friends. Tbe raanuerof using it 1b as follows:-The foot is placed between the uprights to force the dibble Into the ground, at the same time Faying bold of the two cross bandies at the top to guide it. Tbeyals* serve to pull It up again. The lateral extension gives the distance from one hole to the next,

I shall be much obliged if any of our friends can. Inform me of a way to destroy afrits. Boiling waiur lias no effect on them; I have emptied three kettles of boiling water into their holes, and In half an hour they were as lively as ever. I have also tried Glenuy> plan of putting a marrow bone close to their boles to entrap them, but they will not go into it.

T. Cooke.

PATENT STEAM ENGINE LUBRICATOR.

(For illustration, see next page) Sir.—We shall feel much obliged If yi»u can make It convenient, and think it of sufficient utility to your readers, to insert the enclosed drawing of our patent steBin engine lubricator. Tbe advantages we claim for Hover any other, whetr Irapermeter,suet-cup, or revolving plug, are that it is not left to the vacuum,, pressure of steam or condensation, which are all uncertain. Ours gives an uniform supply of lubrication, and above all Is mfe, inasmuch, as it is forced by the ram.

1. Rod which screw* into tube to prevent lubricating substance escaping while working.

2. Cup to prevent overflow of tallow while flllllng.

3. Threaded tube fixed through the bottom of rum, and down which the cylinder Is supplied.

4. Bevel wheel and -pur cast together, and keyed on a wrougbt-iron buidi.

6. Cap on top side works wheel and bush on bottom, l Uprights to which the cap is fixed.

7. Ram, which l cast hollow.

8. Glan, to prevent tallow or steam escaping. 0. Cylinder which holds tallow.

10. Tsp connected with t

11. Eccentric shaft with worm aud rack-wheel.

12. Lever and catch adjusted to the most convenient place for a

13. Thumb-screw to handle iu position while working.

14. Handle to throw out of gear when worked down.

15. Reversing motion to retell the cylinder. James And*;. Turner, Buckley, near Koehdale.

[graphic]

PUMP FOR MODEL ENGINE

I

[graphic]

wheel, and S S shows two bevel wheels for'conveying the power. Fig. *2 is a section of the spiral partition«, represented ae loaded with water to excessive power, as may occur on the starting of the wheel, or on being cheeked by excess of work, such as driving circular saws, cutting through thick timber, &c.

Parties having a continual convenient stream of watereufficient;to supply from ¿in. to au iuch pipe, may drive my centre-fluid hydraulic, as I call it, with a wheel lsTn. diameter and 4lu. broad, to keep up a conuuuous supply of compressed air for from one to six jets of my coal gas apparatus, whether for burning, brazing, heating, boiling, or cooking of any description. The four mouths of the wheel are at right angles with the wheel, as seen at m г, to retain a power level of water from m to r. Figs. 1 and 2.

1 do not give au explanation of the centre-fluid hydraulic, as it is simply the reversed motion of an enlarged scale of the working drum of the wet gasmeter, as generally known, for measuring gas consumed, which gives a steady compressed current of air. JOBS C. Siiewan, Fltehcombe Works,

near Stroud, Gloucester shire.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

have two valves between tbe pump and tbe boiler to ensure action; and tho petcock may be screwed into the cover of tbe top clack of pump, or anywhere along tho feedpipe, by putting a 1 piece instead of ouo of the ordinary plain junction sockets. In making a small pump, the clack covers would be screwed in with a piece of greased card uuder, to make tho joint, and the pipes screwed into tapped holes, instead of all having flanges with bolts and nuts. Otherwise the arrangement is, I think, as good as can be devised, as the valves are so easy to get at. Directions for making balls are given in No. 25, Vol. IX. J. K. P.

SHEWAN'S SPIRAL WATER WHEEL. Sir,—In submitting to your помог- one of my inventions, the spiral water wheel, I beg to acknowledge with pleasure and satisfaction that I daily receive through the medium of your widely-circulated paper Information and wisdom.

As a favourable contrivance for low waterfalls, and for putting small volumes to advantage—for instance, to produce a J. h.p.. as desired by T. W. lioord, query 2473. lor driving amateur machinery, with a volume of <W cubic feet per minute playing inio a »heel 5ft, 8in. diameter and 17in. broad, he can gain the power required. Or if "В. O." wtshee to fix a much lees costly engine than my turbine suggestion behlDd his dam, 7ft. high, he can, with a volume of 200 cubic leet per minute playing into a wheel 16ft. diameter and 4ft. broad, gain 12 h.p. In proof of this, before submitting it to you ana my brother readers, I made one 4ft. 6in. diameter aud Hin. broad, ami gained over i b.p. from a stream ,of 54 cubic feet per minute. To find the diameter and breadth of wheel, as a rule oue-twelfth tho lineal of tho volume of water «ivee the diameter, and one-fourth the diameter the breadth. To tind tho power, multiply the weight of the volume of water per minute in pounds by half the diameter of wheel (tbe amount of fall), and tlmt product by tbe breadth of the wheel (the leverage power), and divide by 33 000, and you have tbe number of h.p., which, less 15 per cent, elves the ordinary speed power, or rather 85 per ceut. is the speed power, Я to 4 revolutions per minute. Fig. 1 represents an edge view oi my waterwheel A fitted on a shaft set at the angle of 45°, resting on two bearings С С. Tbe funnel-ehaped mouth is the tame in diameter at NN as the breadth of tbe

[merged small][ocr errors][graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
« ZurückWeiter »