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Fig. 2 Is a similar ono for block printing. I have written In the augles of the different slopes, so that any oue can set ono out (or himself. If block printing is not upright it should slope the reverse way to hand writing, else it looks very bad.—J. K. 1*.

[2567.]—OLD COIN.—I have pleasure In informing •• Fliut." from information just gained, that his coin is a Nurnberg counter, copied from a historical jetton of the Low Countries, of the 13th century, particulars of which may be found In Van Mlcrl's "Historyof the Princes of the Netherlands." The oby. contains the arms of Burgundy slightly varied. The rev. represents Fortuna. The legend has no meaning.—D. T. Batty.

[2S74.]-RRONZING MODEL VESSEL.—Varnish, and when nearly dry rub on the copper bronze varnish again to preserve the bronzo from changing colour. -.1. F.

[338&J—WEIGHT OF FRUSTUM, Ac—Let the radius of larger end = R = 2ft., radius of smaller end r 1ft., and let the height be represented by II = 12ft., then solid content

H

= — (R5 + r* + R r) = 4 x SUM (4 + 1 + 21) 3 •

= 125 664 cub. ft.

Thus wdgl.t of the whole frustum = 125-661 x 4401b. = 91-894 tons ; weight of frustum left = (91-894 - 4) = 87 894 tons. To tind the height and radius proceed as follows :—Let the radius of the new upper plane be /:,. and the. distance of this plane from larger end of frustum = k. We have again solid content

A
= — Tt (R2 + r,» + R r,) = 87-894 tons.
3

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And solids of whole cone = 879618 + 12 5664 = 100-5312.

Now solids arc to each other as the cubes of their similar sides, hence we have two simple proportion sums.

To tlnd diameter of smaller end—

As 100-5312 : 32 9300 : : 4^ to cube of dlam.

To find height of cone which is being cut off

As 100-6312 : 32 9300 : : 24-« *.o cube of II.—R. Wilson.

[2583.1 —"ENGLISH" VELOCIPEDE. Ac. — If "C. T. W." takes good dry wood, fits the spokes well In nave, ju-tweft the tenant of spoke when driving, he will tind that quite sufficient for a small nave. —F J. D.

- [25840 — SULPHATE OF LEAD BATTERY. — In reply to your correspondent "Carfax," and others, I did not amalgamate the zincs In the sulphate of lead battery, though I think from what I have rend It is better to amalgamate all zinc pistes, no matter what form of battery It may bo. I find my zincs very little worse tban when they were put in. I mixed my sulphate of lead with water to about, the consistency or cream, and filled each porous pot within half an Inch of the top. A friend of mine has a manganese battory of 6 cells, which ho says lias been in constant use for ringing electric belU in his warehouse for the last eighteen months without requiring one penny outlay or a moment's attention, and is as good now as at first. When next I require a battery I shM] try my hand at a manganese, as I believe they are by far the best for any kind of comtuunicntiug purposes, such as short lines of telegraph or electric bells and indicators. I notice Cox's price is 5J. per cell, bnt my friend says he did not pay near so much for his.—A Goon Boy.

[25871-CHINA GRASS.—If " Katka." will publish bis address, I think I can get him what he wants in a week or two.

[2693.]—DEFECTIVE BATTERY.—I presume that "G- F. L." Is using a medical coil, though he calls It an *' olectrlc machine." The fault he complains of most likely lies in the imperfect connections of the battery. When he bent the silver plate straight again did he sec that it was properly connected with its binding screw, and the pair of* zinc plates with theirs? As the silver is doubtless very thin, it is possible that It may have been torn awnv from the binding screw in the accident that occurred, and that would explain tbe stoppage of the action. I should advise him to look carefullv at his plates, and to seo that he has the circuit complete. that each pair of zinc plates are connected with the binding screw of the Bilvcriu the next trough, and so on throughout the scries, but I expect he has only 2 or 3 troughs. If the plates require platinising, it certainly would render the action more feeble, but it would net stop it altogether. He can easily tell by a look at them; if they are smooth in patches he may be sure that they require It. It Is not done with mercury, but by an application of the electrotype process. If he wishes it I will send him the mode of procedure. If he attempts to put mercury to silver plates he will spoil them.—Ap-rhyb.

[2594.J— BORING WOODEN HANDLES.-" A. R." can make and bore his handles in tho following manner :—First turn a cylinder in the usunl way between centres, then turn down tbe end nearest the poppet head, and fit on the ferrule and turn it true; next turn the handle any shape required, leaving the end like A, Fig. 1; now substitute u boring collar for

[2595.]-WORK ON PROJECTION, Ac.-An "Elementary Treatise on Descriptive Geometry, Arc, towhich is added a Description of the Principles and Practice of Isnmetricnl Projection, by T. F. Heather. U.K., Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. London I Virtue aud Co., 26, Ivy-lsno.—Bernardin.

[2598.j-ELECTRIC.-Let "Slasher ■ at once drop his notions about glass tubing as an electric. This is my experience :—Being of au amateur turn. I love to have overythlug on a miniature scale. For instance. I hnve a Grove battery with llu. by Jin. platinum foil, » Wollsston element about the name size, &e. I made a small Leydcn jar with an ounce medicine bottle, and succeeded with a glass tube and a piece of anriAltnmited leather in obtaining perrrpt&U shocks (If you can call them shocks), and in exploding hydrogen and oxygen mixed The jar was made thus: The outside was covered with tin foil, and the inside I filled to the required height with bran filings. The top of the wire is bent in a ring. Holding tho jar with tho thumb and first finger, and the lenther (amalgamated) on the palm of the hand and the other three fingers, I moved the tab© (|ln. diameter) backward and forward through the ring. If "Slasher" will be at a little trouble and make an clectropher about It* diameter. : he will be able to charge a moderate-sized jar so that I he will not want a Becond shock very quickly.— 'Tangent.

[2600.]—CLEANING OF DIATOMS.—After washing away the acids, pour some cold caustic ammonits on the fine sediment, let It stand for a day or two (themouth of the vessel being closed to prevent the escapeof the ammoBia); then decant off the ammonia aiid wash the sediment with water before cxnminntioo. The diatoms arc heavy, therefore the. washing -watery may be decanted off before tho whole of the Hoccnleut matter has settled. Would "Beaten " kindly stave lrom what sort of places be gathers his fresh diatoms, and what forms he has found ?—it G. Anderson.

[2600.]—OLD COIN.—Is a Roman coin struck to commemorate tbe taking of Jerusalem by Titus, then general to Vespasian, Emp. It is thus descried by "IHobler," Vol. I, p. 103, No.298:-Obv.: "imp.caes. Vespasian. AVG. P.SI.TR.P.P.P. Cos. in. Thelaureate head of Vespasian to the right. Rev.: Ivdaea. Capta. In the exergue, 8.C. A palm tree rising In the middle of the field, nu tbe left side of which a. female captive is seated upon armour, her bend reclining upon her led hand In the attitude of grief. The emperor is standing on the right side, bare beaded*. and in military costume; in his right band he holds Its spear erect, and in the left band a parazonlum: bl» left foot rests on a helmet lying at the foot of the palmtree; struck about A.d. 71 and 72." Ho mentien* sevcral varieties. It is a coin of some rarity, and is. much sought after by most aollectors on account of Its biblical interest, and is consequently of corresponding value.—D. T. Batty, 9, Fennell-street, Manchester.

[2615.]—BICYCLE WHEEt.-Tbc less the number of joints In a wheel the better. I do not seo «'.u-. drawing is wanted, or would send one.—F. J. D.

[J623 ]—SCIENCE QUESTION —

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the poppet heart, and bring the hand rest round and turn au Indent for the augur to enter, and he can then (if tho uugur is properly entered) bore a hole nuy length without fear of it being out of truth; the part A, Fig. 1, can then bo turned, and the handle cut off. The above is the way I turn long soft wood, turning handles lit. or so long; but short handles cau be turned quicker without tbe aid of the poppet head or boring collar. Fix a piece of wood in a wooden cup chuck in the usual way, turn down the eud farthest from tho chuck, and lit on the ferrule; then turn an Indent and bore tho hole: afterwards turn the handles the required shape, finishing at A, Fig. 2, where it can be cut off. I shall be happy to answer "A. B." if there is any part he does not quite uuderetaud.—

K.ENNINGTON A.MATEl'H.

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. — SCIKMJK yllfcS. — To eoustruet a tie A Ii C. given baBe, ami sum of the sides F+ C! B = l- Solullon: inv lv V pnrallcl to A B at a Ran re. = height, with A as oprilre and I as radios draw »rc D E; mark I symmetrical o( B. and with V (ail lUUmn on K r"> a» centre, draw I B K, li n<-« point. G and from G a T»t.«^snt to the arc D K, hence n constructing circle through II 1 B. we have C vertex of iw triangle; proof easy by Kuc- lit, s" (''"'*■ my reply (o Query 2<HHi—another solution on the lelt Bide of A B.—

SIRSARDIX.

-mm, 1-pnoronTioNs Of srACK.^cuttE And

Si'HBKK.—I suppose a sphere tangent to nil the faces <if the cube -, edge of the cube being D, the volume of

■x r>>

the spheres will bo . If now I divide tho edge

0 Su » equal part*. 1 ran have n3 spheres tangent to each oilier and to the cube, volume of each sphere will bu

•, and total volume of the n3 spheres =

6»» 0

tin- same as the first sphere Inscribed In the cube; tliis upliere is equal to the volume of the cube x 0 S2-10; all tills* Is theory: <n practice we must account with t t*c more or lesussukinstof the substance.— Ukbnardi*. rwil.l—BIROS' KGulS.—Blow out the inside careen 11 y. and then boll them for 10 or IS minutes; they will then keep many years.—Sempeb Pace.

riO'i5.]-rRESERVING EGGS.-lf "Rustle" will

procure some corrosive sublimate dissolved in alcohol,

»M<I insert a small quantity into the egg, and shake it

offer drying, lie will find no insect destroy it. If be

withes his egg-* to appeiir bright, lie must brush over

them very sparingly a little mastic varnish; but if for

blue or green ep-gs, gum arable must be used, as the

varnish is apt to slightly change the colour.—Oiseaux

[JniS.}-DIMENSIONS OF KNGIN'K.-I think the

following dimensions will gi»e "Cam" satisfactory

remits :—The steamways should be Jin. wide and lin.

Ion:r, or ex ictly \ of a square inch, the exhaust just

twii-dthis size,or \ of a square lucli. The steam-pipe

ought to be gin. diameter (Inside of course), the exhaust

pipa jin. diameter.- W. II. Thorpe.

(i„(4.]_PAPER HANGINGS. — Tbero are three moilcs of producing the required effect. 1st. Wooden blocks are carveil representing in relief the outlines <if the ligurc; uu impression is taken from these blocks, anil ilie device is completed by painting with a pencil. 2nd. A sheet of paper, leather, tin. or copper, is cut out into the required pattern, and laid on the paper to bo titnincd; a brush dipi-ed in a coloured pigment and worked over the surface of the perforated plate, conveys the pigment through all the perforations, and forms a pattern on the paper. 3rd. A block is carved for each of rho colours to be employed, and un Impression from all the blocks iu succession fills tip the design vii ill'' piper. The first of those methods is too slow nnil costly /or ordinary use; the second pro'iuces iuiperfect outlines; and the third Is the method chiefly employed at the present day.—A. Boughev.

[J0311.J —CESIENT KOU JOINING BOARDS.— Mariueglue will join boards so as to resist water.—J. F. (M.101-OPINIONS WANTED—I think John W. Bedford, of May 6. Vol. I!., page 16fl, will find a remedy for his engines If ho will look to his links. When his lever is in the centre notch, his links ought to hang so thai the valve spindle will be in centre of eccentric rod ■ends, if they are so at present, then the eccentrics nre not rixed properly. When thev are properly set the links ought to vibrato on the valve spindle or stud without imparting any motion to cither spindle It Mini, when his lever is in the centre notch. By attending to these he will make a perfect cure—J. HarBison.

[2011].— MEDICAL COIL.—I send diagram, which I hope will make the description at p .11 a of last vol. perfectly cleur. The battery circuit is from the binding

a commutator arrangement lor throwing either
length into the circuit; at the ceutro of the circle Is
a pivot enrrylng a spring which may be moved In con-
tact with either stud, from which It carries the current
to, the binding screw 1". Of course separate binding
screws may be employed for each length Instead of
this commutator. The core Is sli3*n with a handle,
by which it can be drawn out partially, to regulste
the shocks. Tho lines formed of dashes show the
primary circuit, and thoso of dots that of tho secondary
or induced current. Any battery will serve to work
such a coil, even a single Smee cell.—Sioma.

[•3fiH.]-ADULTERATION OF TURPENTINE.—
Apart from the evlileuce of colour aud smell, the use
of a specific grnvity alsss Is a certain test for the
purity of turpentine. They may be procured at any
optician's. Tho gravity of genu!

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•screw P to S. the stem which carries the screw of the •contact breaker, thence along the spring to Its stem a, thence by wiro to the electro magnet 5,0, and to the inner end of the primary of the coll 1, and from its other end 2 to the binding screw N. The secondary circuit, which is screwed in the coll. goes from binding screw N1 to :>, in order to utilise the action of the magnet, or it migh*. go to 1 direct, through the primary to 2. and theme to a stud; the secondary wiro which i« atlavhed to the termination of the primary has its outer end 3 led to a similar stud, aud if great force is required several layers may thus be foamed, all in a continuous length, but with branches thus led to aeparate studs arranged on an arc of a circle; this is

nc American turpentine is, of course! the standard to bo taken. If petroleum is added, tho mixture will show a lighter gravity. If " Russian," " German," " Polish," or other turpentines of a rougher kind, are added, the mixture osti be detected and approximated by the increased gravity figures. Field, optician, Birmingham, supplied my gravity glass.—Li.au.

[2015.]—IMPERFECT ORGAN—I am very doubtful whether by any alteration the clarion stop will be made perfect. I would not recommend " Anti Discord" to go to any expense in attempting to do so, but he might ask a pipe-maker for what he will supply him with a new »ne, taking the old pi |ie as part payment. A wooden flute from tenor E upwards would cost voiced about V>*. The cost of applying them need not be much; any handy carpenter or cabinet-maker conld do it in n day or less. Cannot " Anti Oiscord " do that himself ?—Miles Jenhingh.

[2(151.] — LECLANCHE BATTERY. — -Telos" should write to tho Patent Officii, and enclose 9 stamps for the specification. It was patented 10th Oct., 1k*6 (Np. 2823) in the name of Brandon. I have a specification of it which I wis recommended to procure by a well-known electrician, who assured me that the system must ultimately supersede all others, but 1 have tried in vain !o understand it. The battery consistsof two parts, the "generator" and the "accumulator," both of which have porous cells differently charged. A little light thrown ou this mutter would much oblige—Viator.

[2058.]—BOOKS.—I know of no book bettor than Culley's "Practical Telegraphy " to "Much-in-WanL"

pM5fi]—TELEGRAPHIC BOOKS-Cully's" Handbook" is perhaps the best, ami Clark's "Electrical Measurement" would be a valuable addition.—Sigma.

r2o83.]-ljUICKSILVKR.—There is no solvent which could be used; heat alone will succeed in driving It olT.

'Sow.)— PAINT TO COVER TARRED WOOD.— I know of no paint that will effectually cover tarred wood, certainly not a light paint. I would recoram'-nd your correspondent to clean the posts as much as possible, and theu ltmewash them with a wash having plenty of size or grease In it. This will whiten the pout as he required, and the lime would, 1 think, eventually "eat up " the tar, after which It may be painted. —Llaii.

r-><H17.]-PAINT TO COVER TARRED WOOD.—If "Associate," No. 2907, mix some red lead with boiled oil and paint his posts with it, he witl find the tar will not burn through. (I speak from experience, having found It staud tho hot Buii fur years.) Ho can then paint them white, or oxide of iron will answer the Bame purpose.—C. H.

[2«71 ]-CANOE BUILDING.-" C. D. R." wishes to know how tho planks of a canoe are kept to the proper shape while building. Ho will fiud that the strakes must be so cut and fitted to ench other, that there is no tendency to buckle or twist, and In this adaptation of flat surfaces with ourveil edges lies tho whole mystery and art of boet-buildlng. The skin of a boat may be divided into three parts—the floor, the bilge strakes, and the side. On the shape of the floor depends the form of the lx>at. The strako next the keel on each side (called the garboard strake) tits the rabbet in the keel. Thus we trace the modelling «f the boat to the starling point. I f the rabbet is not continued well foro aud aft, hut bridled up Into the stem and sternpost. the canoe will bo sharp and crank. The edges of the strakes should be lapped j or ^lu., and fasteued with copper boat-naiU about 2in. apart. The hole must be bored right through, the nail driven, and then a copper burr punched on the point. With a pair of cutting pliers then cut the nail just Inside the burr, and rivet. This draws the work together without caulking or any intermediate substance being necessary. The upper edge of the strake Is chamfered to the angle formed by tho strake above; but this is only required In somo parts. When " C. D. R." has his frame ready, he will find it best to got an ljin. board, rather longer than the frame; fasten the board on its ed#o nenr the ground, rind " lay down " tho canoe on It. As he says lie is totally Ignorant of the art, I recommund him to set up three or four moulds on his keel to work to, taking care that the strakes do not press too heavily on them. —Boat Builder.

[2079]-UNANSWERED QUERY.-Ono method of prepnring curled hair Ib as follows:—It is cut from the rumps, washed and dried, It Ib then spun up into ropes aud put Into n baker's oveu for a while, care being taken that it is not burned by the heat being too strong., It Is then teazed out by the band, and Is then ready for use,—Miles Jenmnus.

[2081.3-IRON PALISADINGS.-To this general question only a general answer can be given. If the palisades are painted with the most suitablo class of paints, and nil the other materials are good, and the work Is carefully done, it should stand and look well for at least seven years, and with re-varnishing 10 to 14 years. The most important matter is ts have the paint for the first coat of the right kind.—Llaii.

PG&SI— AMATEUR TURNERS' CLUB.—In reply to Mr. H. Humo's Inquiry. 1 beg to state that the Amateur Mechanical Society was originated in January, 1800; ndmlssion by introduction of a member on personal knowledge. I shall be pleased to send a prospectus, Ac , to any of y>ur readers ou application.—J. W. Boord, Hon. Sec, 180, Belslze-road, Kilburu, N.W.

[2Stsi.}—RENDERING WOOD INCOMBUSTIBLE. —I do not know of any preparation that will render wood absolutely fireproof. Alum will, however, if the wood is impregnated with a eolution of it, prevent the wood from flaming.—Llaii.

[SOW.]—BOTANY.—Cuckoo flower (Cardtimine pinteiisij), root stock short and perennial, stem erect, leaves primate, the segments of the lower radicle ones ovate, the terminal segment being largest. Flower* sometimes pure white, but more frequently tinged with a faint purple, sepals 4, petals 4. stamens 8. Pistils short, almost wautlng, seed pod flat, grows iu mendowsand on the banks of brooks. Hedge mustard (Sitymlrinya offichialt), an erect annual, about 4ft high, flowers very small and yellow, sepals 4, petals 4. stamens 6; leaves deeply pumutitid, seed in a pod about Jin. long, tapering to a point, hairy, and iu long slen ler racemes.—Automedow.

[26U3.]-GEOORA1'HICAL QUERY- Might "key" not have the moaning of "quay" in these wrrds? netherset is evidently an Anglo-Saxon word meaning "to lay down." lieuce the quay, where goods are stored; keyhouso. where duty is paid; key-spink, warehouse.—Fraxck.

[2B06.J-CLKANING FLAGS.—Use mineral naphtha and a hard brush on a piece of pumice stone. Let tbe naphtha He upon the tar for some time if it has been long there. Mind the fire, or a light—Llaii.

[2007.1—CANARY.—In reply to "Minehaha." I cr>py the following from "Becholelu's Natural History of Cige Birds" :—" Asthma or hard breathing.' which arises from an oppressed stomach, generally yields to plantnln aud rape seeds moistened with water as the sole food."—El Hakim.

[37(11.]—KOLA-NUT.—I do not know whore to procure it. I asked for it at many places without result last year.—Bebxardin.

BOTES AM QUERIES.

[370fl.]-PANCn\TIC TUBES —Will "AmaVur," p. 1.30, describe the manner of using tbe pancratic tubes wtiU'h he employ:* with his eyepieces: where they may be obtained, and the cost of making f—T. J.

[3707.]—TWISTING POWER OF METAL—Will any of your numerous renders kindly give me a rule by which I cau fiud the relative twisting power of metal, lrou, aud steel shafts ; or what diameter a steel orlrouBhaft should bo to bo equal to a given-sized metal one V—P. P. W.

[3706.]—CARBONIC MONOXIDE, Ac.-Hoff can tlil« (jus b<) prepared otherwise than by depriving carboulc acid of half its oxygen, or by adding carbon to It?— Carbon.

[3700.J—TURNING—Will aomo of ray brother turners luform me the following :—How the sandy surface Is taken off metal before turning? I turned some metal, and it continually kept blunflng* my tools although they were good steel, and left at, I think, about a straw colour. How are cylinders bored out in the lathe? A sketch would greatly assist me. aud I think some of my brother readers also, liow are cylinder covers turned, both sides nud edge (hind ones); they will have no hole in them for a mandrel to go Into?—Amateur Turnrr.

[37U).]-ARITHMET1CAL QUERY— Will any of your numerous readers kindly inform me, through the medium of your valuable paper, how the decimal 7854 is arrived at as a multiplier for converting areas of circles into squares ; also, how the multiplier :1,U10 is made out so as when multiplied by the diameter o£ a circle it will give the circumference of the same ?— Falcon.

[3711]— CUSTOMS EXAMINATION PAPER— Could any of your renders inform mo where I could gee a copy of the examination pnpers (last time, or last but one), for the Customs service.—K. P.

[3712.]-POWERS OF TELESCOPES—As no one has noticed my eommnnicatlon on the above subject in Vol. X , No. 20S, p. 600, I should take it as a great favour if your obliging correspondent "F.R.A.S," would tell me if the method there suggested for the determination of telescopic powers Is correct, and if not, to what extent tho results so obtained would differ from the true results 7—R. G. Anderson.

[[3713— TELESCOPIC— Will "F.R.A.S," or BOmo gentleman, reply to these queries:—! have been endeavouring to make a 4iu. achromatic object glass for a telescope, in the following manner, but at present with slight success; I am acquainted with the theoretical portion of the subject, but I am not yet able to realise my wishes practically. I have used for a grinding tool n, piece of glass, liu. thick, and tho same diameter as the lens, 4iu., and in this I have ground the convex side of the flint glass with different finenesses of emer*. till I thought it was fine enough for polishing. I then covered the glass tool with black pitch, about |th of an Inch thick, and commenced polishing with putty power, but 1 found that the glass would only polish m the centre, tho edges remaining untouched (I worked the lens across the tool, and not >nore than lin. over tho edge); I removed the pitch, re-ground the lens, covered the glass tool with a piece of tine calico, and commenced polishlug in the same way as I had done when polishing on the pitch, but tho result was still tho name. I could not get the edges to polish, and I shall not be satisfied unless Icsnget a good spherical figure. I have come to the conclusion that the error lies in ray grinding tool not being large enough, and I, therefore, wish " F.R.A.S.", or some other gentleman, will till mo whether this Is the reason, und give me the di am iter of tools for a -lin. tens? I wish they would also tell me of what metal they should be made, whether it Is necessary to use brass ones, or would iron do as well? I should also like to know how to tell when my leuse Is ground lino enough to begin the polishing; aud whether it should be ground with anything el»e besides emery before commencing to polish, and on what it should bu polished on, pitch or linen and lastly, whether putty powder is tbe proper polishing material to use ?- DiorTRics.

[3714.]— BACK DRAUGHT IN ENGINE.-Would some kind brother reader inform me how to prevent what is generally termed back draught in a steam boUexf Onrsis an ordinary twofluod boiler, and wc have a good draught, so much so that the damper is seldom needed to be drawn above ono-half, but whenever the eoals are thrown on it makes a very oppressive humming noise, and causes the boiler shake very much, and consequently breaks the joints very often, as we have to carry nOlo pressure of steam. There is a good draught under the furnace, but still it blows out of the apertures in the furnace doors.—One Is A Fix.

[8715.]—COIL.—Many thanks to Messrs. Conisbee and Tucker for their kindness in replying to my last questions, and ns I have made up my mind not to touch the old coil, hut make a complete new ono, I think I can not do better than ask the gentlemen above mentioned, if they know of anything new in the construction of coils, 1 made my'last one, 121n. loug, of gutta-perch, with a disc in the centre dividing the secondary in two, joined by a piece of copper at the bottom of the centre disc going through the disc ; the primary I wound on a small reel of lignum vltie, same length as large reel, with (In. hole through for iron core. I covered the Iprimary well with gutta-percha tissue, and pushed it tight into tho large reel. Now can any of my two frieudt* suggeBt anything new? I mean to put 41b. No. 3« secondary; what will bo the bestfor primary? I intend making the reel 12in. long. —D. Forbes.

[3716.] - RELACQUERING BRASS WORK. — Would W. Seabrook, p. 18, No. 1929, kindly say if there is any peculiar pickle or solution for immersing brass work in before dipping in nitric acid, ns I have some old brass work I wish to reiaequcr, and have gone to work as directed, but the work not come clean enough from the boiling In soda process, and 1 find the acid will turn the brass nearly black if in for 2 or 3 seconds. How is that? I should also liko to hear, through our Mechanic, how " Inquirer " has succeeded? A reply on the above will, I have no doubt, oblige many besides myself—Pro Bono.

[3717.]-COPPER AND SILVER COINS.—Will either of our kind friends, Mr. Henfrey or Mr. Batty, give ine any information relative to tho two coins of which I send attempts atreprescntatlons ? Of the small

[graphic]

copper taken, there are two varieties, the other ipcrimen has the date under the G 1. I have had one specimen many years (17), the other was sent to me a few days since. Of tho silver coin 1 know uothin" but should be glad to learn?—S. Smith.

[8718.]-TALI CHIMNEYS.-Can any of onr brother readuis inform me the height, with sizo at bottom and top, of the large chimney at the chemical works of Messrs. Teunant and Co., Glasgow, or one at any other works? A sketch with full particulars through the English Jieciianic would be esteemed

—GA-INSUORO.

[3719.]-LACE AND BUTTONS.-I wish to know if there is any way of cleauing tarnished silver lace on a uniform, and also a recipe, for a dark bronze lor buttons winch have become bright through wear ?—

P1720.]-BONE BLEACIIING.-Will some brother reader kindly Inform me how to bleach bone so ns to make It like ivory, 1 have tried hot lime, but did not find It answer r—on.

[3721 j-GRINDING.—I would be greatly obliged if some of our miller friends would answer my query on the above, 2277. p. 45, to which I beg to add, the small stones .eiug driven at 200 revolutions, and tho others at 1:0 per minute.—Sergius.

[3722.J-OLD COINAGK.-Can any reader inform me if there is any ircaus of getting rid of the old copper coinnge, now out of circulation, either for its full value or otherwise ?—Sergius.

[3723 ]-GLAZE FOR POTTERY. - Conld any fellow reader lutorm mo how to make the different colours of glaze, to put on common clay pots ?—X. N.

[3724.J-COTTON.- Some time ago I>r. Forbes Watsou, reporter of East India products, published one or two engravings which show tho various lengths of different classes of cotton, if any brother nailer would kindly say where they can be got, and price, he would confer a great favour.—SOMYMOK,

[•725.]- OILED PAPKR.-WUI any of your readers suegesttome a method of preparing paper to receive oil similar to that sold by artists' colourmen, which is too costly for my purpose ?—Amateur Artist

f372o.]-CHKOME BLACK.-Cun any kind reader Infirm me how chrome black is produced /—morDant.

[3727J-WIRE TACKS AND NAILS.-Can any reader give me a description of a good machine for manufacturing the above ?—C. F. J

[3728.1-CURIOC8 CHUCKS.-Ihavc seen in tool makers' shops, lathe chucks like figures 1 and 2, but I

[merged small][graphic]

pose the flutes ronnd tho sides are to grasp it while the work or drill is fixed .'—W. T.

[3729.]-SEAMLESS KELT SKIRTS.-I want a machine for making seamless felt skirts, a description would oblige.—C. F. J

[3730 ]-PAPER COLLARS AND CUFFS.—A description of the apparatus used for finishing paper collars and cuffs would bn welcomo ?—C. F. J.

[373I.]-BL0CKING BLACK LEAD—Will some kind friend inform me how to make black lead Into blocks and medallions with devlceson ; all the information to enable me to make them up will very much oblige ?—An Amateur.

[3732.]—TRANSPARENT PARAFFIN.-Will any of your many readers kindly inform mo how I can take niuk. greeu, blue, and mauve colour out of hard paraffin, so as to make it white, or.nearly white, and transparent again ?—Green.

[3733]-C0TT0N SPINNING.-Can an reader inform me of a good new German book on cotton spinning, price and name, anil wheie to obtain ?—Oscar.

[3734.]-THE GOAT AND THE GRASS PLOT.— I have a circular grass plot In my grounds, 45 yards circumference, I want to tether a goat to a peg driven into tho edge of the plot in order that the goat may feed over only half the ground. Wnat must be the length of the tether?—Captain Bixter.

[3735.] —ENGLISH VELOCIPEDE. — Will "A Thinker " kindly say how his machine is steered, and whether the cranks are sot at a quarter circle or both or both in one plane ?—Garibaldi.

[373<5.]-GENEVACYLINDER—I thank "Nobody'for the information given, but would like to know the kind of callipers used, and if there is not a Swiss tool used for the purpose of taking the height ?—Cvl.

[3737.]—HARDENING PLASTER. — The plaster on the walls of a mill staircase is being cntlnually knocked off with the boxas and other things that are carried up and down tho steps, will some obliging reader inform me of a cheap and simple method of keeping It in its proper place, either by hardening tho surface of the plaster or any other plan (—cotton SriNNEa.

[3738.]-UNNOTICED QUERY.-Having a few Fitzroy barometer tubes,quite new, but covered with a film inside, would some friend tell mcinwhatwuy to remove it before filling them ?—T. Forty.

[3730.]—CHLORIDE OF TIN.—I find great difficulty iu obtaining chloride of tin, I have tried at several chemists, and each have given me different things. Is It better knowu by some other name ?— Amator ScuUfTljB.

[3740.]—FLOAT FOR BOILER.—Perhaps some of your correspondents could inform me if there is any material a solid float could be made with to carry its own weight in a steam boiler, pressed sny from :s0 to 401b., or can a hollow float bo made strong enough to keep from filling with water ?—J. K.

[3741 ]—TURBINE.—Can any oue Inform mo where o turbine is to be seen working in England?— M.K.C.S.

[.!742.]-SEASONING WOOD.-Would anv of your readers kludly tell me the best method of quickly seasoning small pieces of wood for carving or turning, I think I saw'sorae recipe or direction in a former number, but caunot find it now ?—Bruin.

[3743.]-SYPHON PIPES.—Will any reader kindly give me a rule to calculate the quantity of water n syphon wlll;dlscharge in a given time, diameter of pipe, height water rises to in syphon, and length of discharge eud being known ?—Calculus.

[3744]—SILVER COIN.-Will some fellow subscriber kindly tell me what coin this is, and its value? About the size of a threepenny piece, on one side a rose, crowned, inscription—G. ROSA. SINE. SPINA; other side a thistle, crowned, inscription—ATVlt. V1T. DEVS.-J. Nash.

[3745.J-STEAM PIPE JOINTS.-WI11 some brothrr subscriber be kind enough to lulormnie what quantify of salammoniac should be mixed with lewt. of metal borings to make steam pipe joints 1—J. K. S.

[3740.]-TK STING BOILER.-Could any of my brother readers inform me of the best way to test a boiler without taking it out of its bed? My boilers arc oh p., and I want to work them up to more' pressure, but the safctv valve blows off at 101b and I should like to test them before adding more weight to my lever.—Thomab Edwards.

[3747] - SITUATION OF- PLANETS. - TO "F.R.A.S."—In what constellation ur sigu of the Zodiac Is Saturn and Mar. at the present time; is Hcrscbel still in Gemini, although, of course, ir is 'not dlsccraablo to the naked eye .'-secundum Natu

11AM.

[3;48.]-DENTISTRY.-Wlll'PortsmonthChemist" oblige by informing me where I cau procure a copy of "huhardson's Mechanical Dentistry,'' or where the publishers, Lindsay and illakistoii, carry on business' — 1'. W.

[3749.J-CENTRIFI-GAI. FORCE AND TH' LAUXLIS ROTATION.—"C. IX. O., Hants." iu a

letter on Ihe ■' Earth's notation,'' p 13t seems to imply that the amount of centrifugal force depends not on the size of the revolving body, but upon the'rate at which it revolves, which seems to me to be correct though I never thought of it before—and that the amount of tendency which bodies on the enrth's earface have to fly off Is precisely the same as that of the filings on his iron globe, because tho revolution of his iron globe occupies the same length of time as that of the earth. Seeing, then, that the centrifugal foreo of thoearth is so small, how is it that its circumference at the equator Is so much greater than its circumference at the poles—I believe 25 miles. This is, I have beard, owing to centrifugal force. I wish some one who knows something about it would eulighten me?—Salopian."

[S750.]-SILVER COIN.-Could Mr. H. W Henfrey, or any other kind correspondent, inform me

[graphic][graphic]

what the silver er>in is of which I enclose a full size copy; and 1! it is of any value; weight' Iter ?—A Beginner.'

[:i571.]-ASTRONOMICAL QUKUIES.-I beg to inform "I.R.A.S." that I did turn my 210 cvepiece round in the tube, while watching the planet Venus snd my " supposititious moon" did not describe an orbit round its primary. Will some kind friend give me some information on the following :—Has D'Arrest's comet been picked up by nny one, aud whereabouts is it now? Is that the only comet now that is within reach of an KJin. silvered glass reflector? Where can I find the position of any of the asteroids given in R. A. nnd D. for nny day of Ihe year? What power with an Sjlu'With mirror, would be necessary to divide ft* Bootis? What is the apparent diameter of tho sun, moon, Venus, and Jupiter, to the nnassi»ted eye in inches or parts of iuches, and how can such be ascertained from their diameters iu minutes and seconds given monthly In the " Nautical Almanac " ?—II. A C

[3752.]-DEPOSlT FROM SODA CRYSTALS— I shall be glad if any of your chemical correspondent* can answer the following :—In dissolving a quantity of soda crystals without water, -ind by either fire or steam, there is a sediment left at the bottom of the pan which, when cold, is a hard brittle mass which d»es not mix with the other part of the soda even if cooled in the same pan, but seems to be quite another material, although the same in colour. I wish to know what It is, aud can it be prevented; I have used the beBt Newcastle soda ?—Natrum.

[3753.]—BOTANY.—Would some one of your correspondents who is interested In botanical pursuits, kindly inform me what is the best handbook of botanv, or guide to the indigenous plants of Great Britain, for field use? I have used an old edition (the 7th) of Maegiliivray's "Abridgment of Withering," but have often found it difficult to determine the species from the short descriptions given.—D. N. E.

[375i.]-ELECT«0.— Will Mr. Chapman, or any other obliging reader help mo out of the following difficulties:—I have a large Smec'a battery for depositing copper. I want to get a deposit on a nonmetallic surface a foot square, which I cannot get in less than 30 hours, and not theu with nny degree of certainty? How can 1 quicken the deposit? What is used for removing the wax from a shell taken from a wax mould ?—J. D.

[37351-TURB1NE WHEEL.—Will "Senex," or ary other practical person, oblige me by answering a few questions respecting turbines r— What is the quantity of water per minute required to drive a one-horsepower turbine wheel, the uelght of the fall, diameter of feed pipe or jet, diam ler of wheel outside, number of revolutions per minute, or any information concerning the machine.—A. B.

[2756.]-LAMKNESS IN HORS s.-llaving seen a paragraph in your valuable paper 11 t week" Amateur Farming," that a "Country Vet." on Id at any time be happy to render help towards the advancement of n column respecting the breedinc. rearing, and diseases of dogs, &c. I think that a few hints upon the above subject would be very Instructive to many. Would the "Country Vet " be kind enough to give ine his opinion and a little information respecting that troublesome lameness which the horse is so much subject to iu this country—namely, lamlnitls or founder of Hie feet, and also the best method of shoeing lor chronic lamiuitis? —J. O. DurritvN, Neath.

[3757.]-BOOKBINDER'S PLOUGn.-Thanks to "Ab Initio" for his answer to my query, l have shown some samples of books to a printer and a bookseller, and tliey say they are veiy fair specimens. I should be obliged if he, would describe how to make a plough ?—Masciiil.

[:;5'>8]-emk;rants' ;inquiries.-"f.r.g.s."

kindly effers to give some information to those of your renders who require it, and which will most certainly be useful to all of us. As an intended emigrant, I shall esteem it a great favour to obtain some geographical and general information of the colony of South Australia. I am a carpenter, been used to railway work, and desire to fix on some town Iu that part where the climate would be congenial (a* I am i-1 very robust in constitution), nnd where mv trade would be likely to be brisk. If "F.KG.8. would kindly assist me iu my choice of a destination through the medium of your ruin .bh- English .VIi.Ciianic, 1 should consider it a great boon —J Francis.

[3751.1—ASCARIDES.-Can one, out of the verv many obliging, correspondent! ol the English Me'

)

one of the fil

diAJric. answer me the whole or any lewiD" questions -.—1. What is the primary cause of uraride^, or thread worms» 2. What is a safe ami certain cure for these parasites? 3. What is the best preventive aaaiust their future generation? 4. vt li:it isthecau.se of their being so seldom felt durln? the day. but chiefly towards evening ?—A Ctbeat Si'F

"rjrOO.-^CONTlUVANCE FOB HOLDING IRON KODS ^-Cnn any of your correspondents favour me with a .ketch of a contrivance for holding round iron

rods — in. thickness. The rods aro passed up a holiow

spindle into the machine for turning. I want a contrivance at the end of hollow spindle, to lock and unlock as Uie rods are drawn in. Tho pioces turned off rods at each stroke will be about Jin. long. The roils vary a little in thickness, The lock must take up as little space as possible, but must be very strong. The machine is self-acting?-kaymond.

n:?61.] — EMIGRANTS INQUIRIES. — Will the ieirnei "F.R.G.S." please say whether the climate o: Natal is usually much hotter in summer than in Knzland, aud whether or not dangerous wild beasts and anakes mi^ht be met with there in the woods. I have read denials of this, but tho statement* ot paid advocates, and otherwise interested persons, on all drawbacks, are, of course, won hless, and their silence .■onfirms belief, hence I have been led to believe those drawbacks exist there, though 1 only doubted it before. The productions of Natal indicate a hot climate. Dangerous animals, including the Hon, aefni to have been common theie some years n^o. What will bo the best mode of my getting the lliCiiakic there if I go?—Kmiguam-.

(The English Mechanic can be had in postal districts at Natal, postage 2d.]

fSToe.]—PAINTING AND DECORATION.—Can any of our readers recommend a good book on ornamental painting and house decoration? If so, I should esteem it a favour.—C. If.

fTliere is a series of articles now being in.se.rted in the Building San on this question,]

[3763.1—THE-INE.—I have tried several times to isolate the above from various samples of tea, but have failed. I proceed as follows :—Make an aqueous infusion from a sample of good tea, and when oold, precipitate the tannin with plumbic acetate; then remove the esc* ?s of lead with sulphuretted hydrogen, filter the !*ojution ind neutralise the excess of acetic acid contained in the nitrate with ammonia. I now evaporate the solution to about one-sixth of Its original volume with heat, and leave the residue to . evaporate at the ordinary atmospheric temperature. < Ity this process I obtain the long needle-shaped crystals,hut not thoroughly isolated, for with them I get a gum-like residne, which I can collect and roll up like a pill. Will *ome oi your chemical correspondents kindly point out Tvhere my manipulation is defective, or Inform me of a process by which 1 nay obtain my obtain my desire in a more effective manner?—A A. Attwood.

[3-64.]—EBONITE.—Can some one of your readers give me any Information as to tho manipulation of ebonite? Is it possible, without injuring the quality of the sub-tnnce, to convert a sheet into a cubieul block, and if so, how is this done !—S. T. P.

[3765.]-NAVAL ARCHITECTURE.—WIH »omo one give me some information as to joining the evening class for studying naval architecture at South Kensington ?—G. E. J.

[3?06.]-CLKANlNG AND REFILLING BAROMETER TUBUS —Can any of your numerous readers inform me the best metho t for cleaning the inside of barometer tubes and refilling them with mercury ?— Watchmaki-r.

[3767.1-FLY WHEEL ARMS-Why are the arnisof a fly wheel made gradually smaller as they recede from the centre of motion ?—C B.

[W68.J-POISONING BY CANTITARIDES.—Will any of your medical readers kindly advise what course should be therapeutically pursued to neutralise the exhausting and debilitating effects presumed to have i-nsued from surreptitious' administration of cautuarjdian poison I—1.1. D.

[3769 ]-STREET TEK ESCOPES.-Will "fl. F.' CiiaO). inform mo in what localities in London I should be likely to see a "Btreet telescope?" I am curious to see one. "G. K." should say where he resides, and he would probably meet with a friendly possessor of a good instrument ?—F. Fotiiergill.

[.C70.]-SILVERING DIAGONAL PLANES—I can endorse all Mr. James Gray says iu No. 267. page 164, with reference to his difficulty in silvering diagonal planes. I have failed in exactly the same manner, after trying many strengths and temperatures of solutions, and under a variety of chan<^es in the method of manipulation, but always in vain, for I never could get a film other than what ho describes. I understand Browning's formula is also most uncertain with amateurs, in spite of the usual precautions with regard to purity of chemicals, Ac. Cau any reader iu the chemical line give a hint or two ?—Interested.

[3771 j-FAULTY ENGINE.—Will any of your readers tell me what is wrong with tho engine which Me enclosed diagrams have been taken from (A taken from the erauk cud, and B from tho back end). The

by a pair ot mitre wlieels from the crank shaft. I may state that the engine only Indicates abeutlilb. on the vacuum gauge. Any hints how to nnderstuud the diagram properly, and to make the engine work better will greatly oblige.—Nimkod.

[3772.]—KAPPER'S FIRES.—On page 17 there is a drawing of Kapper's improved fires, given by a Mr. Geo. Huart. Would he be so good as to give us a little more explanation as to Figs. 2 and a, what cokes they use, and how they hammer the iron, as he says it is more for beams? He says theieis no turning the work on edge. G. H. will greatly ohllge by giving us a little more about the said tires.—Bender.

[3773.]-! PLATE PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA.— I should be glad if "Mus"or somo other correspondent would, with your permission, give a detail sketch with measurements of the above, stating what size, with probable cost of lens, and any other information he thinks an artisan would require in constructing one, Bo as to obtain good results. 1 should like to know If this is the most suitable size Jor a begiuuer, and for future use ?—Snatch Block.

USEFUL AND SCIENTIFIC NOTES.

HONK Y.—From, Queensland we have tin interesting note upon honey, which in that colony, and indeed throughout Australia generally, forms an icdustry of considerable value. A centrifugal machine is used for extracting honey from the combs, the caps being first removed by a sharp kuife, so that in less than a minute every particle of honey is taken out. The combs are then turned, and the cells Oh the other side treated in the same manner. The advantages claimed for this process are. that the larvse, which aro ireqaently very troublesome, remain in the comb, and that when the latter is replaced in the hives, the bees readily use it over again.

THE SUNTLOWER.—The following description is an extract from the Agri- Horticultural Society of the Pungal on the sunflower :—It la an annual plant. Its need has an edible kernel, and*affords 15 per cent, of a mild nil. which is equally good for food or for burning. If the onter skin is removed it would give a still larger proportion of oil. Although little cultivated an an oil-seed, it deserves to be better known, especially na its seed is very useful for nourishing and fattening poultry. It Is said to increase the number of eggs. The roasted kernels are used instead of coffee. The foliage, which U abundant, and may be partially removed without injury to the seeds, forms a good fodder for cow.". The steins, which will do for sticks for peas or beans, may be burnt, and their ashes abound in potash. Sunflowers n quire good and fertile i-oilif they are to produce much weed, but they will j succeed in very indifferent soil, or even in very moist I ground. Their cultivation is very similar to "that of Indian corn. They may be sown from April to May I in lines or broadcast. It has often been said thatlarge 1.plantations of sunflowers are useful fn marshes or places where malarious fever is common, as this plant Is a decided remover of malaria.

CONGRATULATIONS.

Siscf the alteration in our form we have received from all quarters thanks and congratulations. We have, in fact, only received one letter expressing anything like sorrow or disappointment. "Weneed scarcely say that our circulation, since the commencement of the present volume, has increased several thousand copies weekly. Anyone may verify this statement by inquiring of any of the principal booksellers or newsagents in any of our large towns. It is not, however, merely in our large towns where our iuilucnce and circulation has increased, as may be seen from the few extracts from letters given below, which have been taken at random from a host of communications of the same character :—

EXTRACTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE. "I beg to congratulate you ou the enlargement of the English Mechanic, and also ou its great improvemeut iu every way. I also beg to assure you that I shall always tako great pleasure in answering all questions In numismatics that appear iu its columns."— Henkv VY. He-nfiiev, Markham House, Brighton.

"What a vast improvement in a few months! Tlicn *' dodges " and '■ fads " were repeatedly solicited a* well as inserted; now the " Notes and Queries'' are sifted and classified, trivial correspondence expunged, muro and better original matter inserted; in fact, something like a revolution has been effected."—James Bell.

"Not only the biggest but the best scientific paper published."—St) Busbar.

"I need scarcely say I wish you suoceBS. The marvel to me is how it pay*. The secret exists, I Buppose, iu its immense circulation,"—Kappa.

"Too much cannot be said or written in praise of the Ksci.isii Mechanic."—J. B. Cockbumn, 4, Mossstreet, 1'uisley.

"I look on 'our' Mechanic a* the leading st ionttfic periodical."—W. Baouley, 4, Garden-place, Tutbary-street, Manchester..

"Thesuccess of our Mechanic is now so com|>lci<» that it will be a bold venture on the part of auy ono to attempt to surpass it."—J. 11. JonNgTONE, 17, Crown street, Aberdeen.

"I believe tho English Mechanic serves it* purpose better than any similar paper in existence."— It. A. Scott, St. Neots, Hunts.

"I certainly must congratulate you on the progress of the English Mechanic, and think it worth tlirt-i: times its price."—R. VY". Paramer, Steam Saw Mills, Margate.

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BOMESTIC^ RECIPES.

SCOTCH ITROSE.—This favourite Scotch dish is generally made with the liquor in which meat has been boiled. Put half a pint of oatmeal into a porringer with a little salt, if there bo not enough in the broth, of which add us much a3 will mix It to the consistence of busty-pudding, or a little thicker. Lastly, take homo of* the fat that swims on the broth, put it on the crowdie, and eat in the same way as hasty-pudding.

MADRAS DRY CUtlRY.—Cut one pound of meat into small pieces, slice one onion and fry it in butter to alight brown, then add onetablespoonful of Madras curry powder, one teacupful of water, one breakfastcupful of gravy, the juice of one lemon, and a little salt; stew all together till nearly dry, aud send it up quite hot.

FOR PREPARING INDIAN MEAL.—While the maize is yet green in the car, it becomes by b->iliiia" a delicious vegetable for the table; aud wheu ripe it is capable, before it is ground, of being prepared lor food iu a great variety of ways. It makes its appearance in every form,—from gruel, stirabout, and pancakes, to bread in twenty different shapes. In no form iu which it is ever "used in America is it eaten cold. Wheu wanted in the shape of bread, no more is baked than is neeessary for the time being; it is never baked in large quantities, aud iu the shape of loaves, as ordinary flour is baked into bread. Nor is it mixed with any kind of dour or meal. Indian corn tsalways best when used by itself, with the exception of such ingredients as eggs, butter, milk, sugar, etc., which are frequently added in its preparation, to give it richness and tl ivour. It is really never so sweet as when made In the simplest way. In preparing it for their own nsrs.tho negro womeu generally mix it with water and a little Halt, the dough which is thus formed being made up into a roll about the size and shape of a sodawnter bottle without tho neck. This is enveloped in the hot ashe?i of a wood lire, which is the simple process by which it is baked. When ready, it is taken to tho pump, and, whilst yet hot, tho ashes are washed ofTit. When they wish to be a little particular, they protect it by wrapping it in leaves before covering it with the ashes. The bread produced by this means is, whilst warm, exceedingly sweet. Indian meal should never be ground to line. It should not have much salt, which spoils its native flavour. It requires a hot oven, or, if baked apon a girdle, a hot, clear fire. It takes longer to bake than wheaten flour bread; and, if boiled, much lougcr time than oatmeal. For boiling, the more coarsely it iu ground tho better, if it is long enough boiled. It is sufficient that it is husked. For hominy (a good substitute for rice) the corn is simply hulled or cracked at the mill, and any inevitable meal is afterwards sifted out; or the skins are got rid of by pounding the corn iu a mortar and sifting it—a tedious process Indian corn roughly ground may be used lor ion:--meat, instead of bread-crumbs. It makes tolerable gruel.

'■ I congratulate you. Sir, on tho Improved appearance of iln' English Mechanic, in fact, it is a most voracious mon»ter, tbiswf ours. Long may Its health and appetite improve! I wonder what other journal will it gobble up next!"—C Fallon, Bath gate, Kdiuburgh.

"I congratulate you on the great improvement in the appearance of your journal, aud on its intrinsic, value and interest. I file it each week with undiminished satisfaction."—C. F. Jebben, Bradford.

"I have taken a great interest in the journal, and particularly since the management was transferred to the new Editor, uuder whom it has much improved.1' —isaac K. Clayton, Stalybridge.

*' I am delighted to see such an improvement in our Mechanic from what it was eight or nine months since, when I begau to think it would come to jri icf." —II. D. Foot, The Parsonage, Lytchett Sinister, Poole, Dorset.

"An exceedingly valuable work for all classes of society."—J. H. Morgans, Parklands, Clifton.

"Allow me to congratulate you on the improvement of your excellent English Mechanic, which is becoming a great favourite here."— W. Wilson, Surveyor, 9, Orange-street, Canterbury.

"The various and multitudinous contents of tho English Mechanic make it, as I think, tho most interesting and valuable scientific publication extant."' J. H. Sv.mes, Torquay.

"I am quite purprised at tho wide circulation our paper hits attained, 1 frequently receive communications from places thousands of miles distant. 1 have just received one from the Antipodes respecting the geometric chuck."—George Plant, Alsager, Cheshire.

"I have just heard that a wealthy and influential gentleman near here made the remark that *h<; could not live without the 3lECHANic,'a proof positive. I think, of how much it is liked."—J. M. Puocrou, 11, Holt-street, Wrexham.

"I beg to assure you that your valuable paper is much read and esteemed here."—E. Halmijhaw, 9, Grove-squnre, Gomersai, near Leeds.

"Your English Mechanic is most flourishing! What a good thick handful of useful matter it is 1 "— Kev. E. LuKiN.Stctchworth, near Newmarket.

11 The last real Improvements, commencing with Vol. II., seem to leave nothing farther to be de-lred !>v correspondent* or subscribers.'*—E. A. Crouch, 2.19, Brooklyn, New York.

"May 1 just add that I derive such hours of pleasure from our Mechanic Us I have never before eujo^cd ;" —C. E. C.esak, 3, Raglan-terrace, Highbury.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

'," All communications should be addressed to the Editor of the Englirh Mechanic, 31, TavlBtockstreet, Covent Garden, W.C.

The following are the initials, &c, of letter! to hand up to first post, Friday, May 6:—

J. Taylor, p. V., J. G., Ashworth Bros., T. Brown, J McG., G. 6. R.. W. G., A. T-, J. and II. S., T. J., Dioptrics. C. E Gordon, R. A. Proctor, J. A. Sales, Elliptic, J. P. H , J. A. F., Rev. E. J., Capt. 0. U.S., Iiopeful, Jas. Melhune, R. W., Jas. Manscrgh, W. Soper, J. Scott, Junr., Pisa, J. Beardsley, Geo. Plant, W. B. D., R. Thoma-, J. Grylls, W. M. B., J. T., J. E. T., Rev. R, C H.t S. Taylor, Veritas. S. T. P., J. B. and Son, R. T. D., Charles Kennedy. J. T. W., H. S.H..C. B., n.N.HenrrevwithMS.,E. E. L..J.B.H, W. C, W. Pearson and Co., Marine, Sidney Beddell, W Pickering, jun., S. Tavlor, S. Bruce. W. Tavlor, J. Williams, P. M«kin, W. Corhett, Beta, J. H. Twitchcll. J. T Tlatley, J. N., Valex, Photo, Loder, J. L. Hawking*, .'uvenile, E. Y. Herbert, Harmonious Cottnn Spinner, MA., One in Need, E. A., Jas. Linton, H. G. Salop, J. Steel, Exchange, R. A. Proctor, W. Rees, F. T. Kcnbest, Arthur W. Blacklock, A. Stringer, J. Dyer, C. andC.

The Sale Am> Exciianak Columns.—Correspondents nre respectfully requested when sending their advertisements to consult the scale of charges prefixed to each of the above columns. Several announcements have been received lately accompanied by an insufficient number of stamps. In all such cases stamps and advertisement are at once n Turned to the senders. This of course causes delay and disappointment, for which, however, we are not responsible.

Caution.—R. Passmore, of Sid month, complains that he sent .*..*» -2«. fid. to a T. Norm for a lathe, and got a miserable mandrel for bis money. On demanding either the lathe or his money, lie is treated with contempt.

RoTir>:awooD.—Not received. Should be glad to have it

J . King.—No room.

J. S. A—At the Patent Office.

II. M—See back numbers.

Mr. RoBr.aTSON.—Letter forwarded.

C. Slagg.—Not suitable.

J. Smith.—Write the Secretary of the Society of Arts,

John-street, Adelphi, W.C. A. Tolhauseh, 18, Waterloo-road Manchester.—We do not know the number of copies of the English Mechanic which circulate! weekly in Manchester. As John lleywood, of 143. Deansgatc, takes more than 1*^00 copies of "ours" weekly, we should say that at least four times that number sell in Manchester and the neighbourhood.

J. L. Ewen.—Returned as requested.

Falcon.—Search at the Patent Office. Second query inserted iviih this signature. Do not assume the name of one of our frequent correspondents, as it may lead to confusion.

Sans Aide.—Only a portion of our space can Ik devoted to mathematical queries, and we therefore endeavour to make the best selection. In the present instance you doubt our judgment, but you must give us credit for good intentions. Thanks lor good wishes.

A Constant KRADKa.—We cannot give an opinion. The value of an "old dictionary" is probably, like any other thing, "just as much as it will bring."

George Tkupleton.—We do not consider ourselves hound to officiate as "referee," or to decide disputes. We are .ilwavs ready to answer, or to lay before our readers questions of practical interest; besides, your query only "supposes " a variety of circumstances.

J. Kntwistlk,—■There is no such member of Parliament.

!'. 1'oTHKRGlLL.—W cannot insert queries containing lists of books like yours. An inquiry at some London bookseller's, will procure you the information, nnd save our space.

One In A Fix.—You or your friendj had better consult a lawyer, or better still, get some mutual friend fairly to represent your position to your master. The latter can of course be compelled to act up to his covenants in your indentures

Nimrod.—Send us the information about the China grass.

W. Freeman.—No stamps enclosed for exchange.

W. R. T. And Others.—Mr. Geo. Plant has written us to say that he will at once get the necessary drawings ready to accompany a description in our pages, of his geometric chuck.

W. II. 8.—The manuscript did come to hand.

Arm Egyptian.—Many answers have appeared on removing paint, and on the preservation of rabbit skins, in buck numbers, some very recently. We cannot be always repeating.

A. Linton.—A good grammar and a dictionary. De Lille's grammar is a goouooe; can be procured throagh any bookseller.

Dispute.Bicycle.—Can you not write to the company whose advertisement appears in our pages, without occupying our space witn so trivial a matter?

W. p. Morgans.—No charge of any kind for inserting queries or letters.

Cantab.—See back numbers.

E. Willahs (Leicester).—We cannot say; we hare, however, little faith in any snch apparently philanthropic announcements. If the advertiser you refer ton-ally desires to benefit suffering humanity there are many cheaper and surer ways of doing it than by advertising his panacea "free gratis for nmhinir." for one stamp.

J. 11. Morgan.—The photos, did not come to hand. We have written to the Post Office authorities about them.

C. Randall—We said, say " yes."

VST. Robinson.—No stamps enclosed.

S. Bknnbtt, who takes in the monthly part, complains "that * Astronomical Notes fur April,' arc handed over to the first of May." The best way would be to take in the publication weekly. There are comparatively tew monthly parts published.

Minn Eli Au A.—Erratum too slight for notice.

Hkywood — Your suggestion may be adopted when we make gome other improvements.

J. H. W. — The Architectural Exhibition. 9, Conduit-street, has just opened. The conversazione will take place on the °.lLh inst.

J. T. Miller.—It is just as you mifdit have expected. The successful man is envied -rnd then misrepresented. ■ R. W.— Mr. Burgess' letter on the Workmen's luternat-.ai il Exhibition in No. 206. p. 181. Ui.kd.—l'es, in u week or two.

J. H.—The Dialectical Society meets fortnightly, at 1, Adamstreet, Adelphi. The annual subscription is 10s. There will be no difficulty in your getting nominated, if vou like.

Jahes Ward.—Thanks for your good winhes. Since the commencement of our present volume, the circulation has increased several thousands weekly.

Marink.—Yes.

H. Dolan.—Most of them are in print.

W. M. Thorpe.— We have no wish for a discussion on loss of power by the use of the crank. We are aware that the crank is a favourite object of abuse with some mechanicians, but we have not seen many successful attempts to do without it.

Alvechprch.—We never heard of such a feat.

J. Hoops.-Rivington and Co., Waterloo-place, Pall Mall, 6s. fid., or small edition, 3s. 6d.

Pompet.—We illustrated several wire-covering machines in last vol. AH queries respecting addresses of vendors of chemical apparatus, &,&, must appear in Sixpenny bale Column.

H. W. S-—A popular error. For a good account of its origin, and information on the whole subject, sec No. 232.

Llah.— We have repeated your advertisement this week. We hardly expect to be called on to give reasons for our rules, but we may repeat what we have stated many times, that we do not give the addresses of our correspondents, for three very good reasons; first, because many of them object to it: secondly, because in many cases we don't know their addresses; and thirdly, because the English Mechanic is the proper medium for all intercommunication.

W. K. S — We considered the two queries unnecessary, especially the second. The other query had already been replied to by several cnrrest>ondent*.

The Sixpenny Sale Column is the only place in which can appear queries sent by " A. B. (glass pens), John Brown, "A Bird Fancier," "Strong Bow," " F. W.," "Constant Subscriber, Bath (also see bark numbers), " Over Sixty," J. Bell, "Inquirer." Samuel Hill.

Electro.—The latter phrase,

W. Hall—It was a printer's blunder.

The Form Op The Earth —We will try to find room for Mr. Beardsley's concluding letter next week.

J. H. E.—Yes, we saw it. Threats are geuerally the offspring of wrak and mean minds.

F. R. A. S-ItisaU right.

W. Stevens.—Wo will forward a letter to "A Practical M mi." We studiously protect the incog, of correspondc nts who desire it.

A Brick.—Your correspondence is labour lost. Try and work to more advantage in future.

W. WiNDiiAM.—We have no model of springs.
J. R. B.—A good suggestion—shall have attention.

THE ESGLISH MECHANIC LIFE-BOAT
FUND

Subscriptions to be forwarded tn the Editor, at the office, 31,
Tavistock-street, Covent-garden, W.C.

Amount previvisty acknowledged fil"'-1 6 10

A Country Lad 006

H. Chapman 0 1 fi

Claudius 0 2 0

J. D 0 10

E. A. Crouch, New York 0 Z (\

£170 U i

TEE INVENTOR.

IN" obedience to the suggestion* of a number of readers, we have decided on appropriating a portion of our space to a condensed list or patents aa nearly as possible up to the date of our issue.

APPLICATIONS FOR LETTRTH PATENT DURING THE WEKK ENDING M.\Y 2, 1S70. 1109 T. Wright and I. Fox, Nottingham, manufacture of laee mardo on bobbin net or twist laoe machines

1200 U Schtul, Warrington, improvements in treating human excrement

ISO! R. Blrkin.Jnn., Newdigat*-street, Alfreton-road, Nottingham, manufacture of ornamented net or lace

1202 Sir W. F. Cooke, Branksea Lodge. Tooting, and G. Hunter, Abe.rdovey, Merioneth, stone-outting apparatus

1208 H. Fletcher, Upper Baker-street, Regont's-park, boot and iihoe heel* and tips, and shoes for horses

1201 H. Y. D. Scott, Baling, improved mode of manufacturing cement

uirt H. Y. D. Scott. Ealing, mortar, concrete, and bricks 1200 J. rainier. 10, Royal Promenade, Bristol, gas cooking stoves

1207 A. Browne, 85, Gracechurch-street, construction of mnliitnlniljir steam boilers.—A communication

1208 T- Wngley, Manchester, looms far weaving

120V W. E. Gedge.ll. Wellington-street, Strand, rolling mills or machine* for manufacturing bar iron.—A communication

1210 H. Atkinson. Wharf-road, City-road, breech-loading unfile guns.—A communication

1211 W. Hart, Norwich, heel* for boots and shoes

1112 E. Wtgzell and J. eolltt. So werby-bridge. York, Improvement* fn steam engines

1218 F.J. Ortner, 78. Great Titchnold-str-et. Portland-place, arrangementof pipes fordrawing liquids from casks

1214 E. Vlmeux. 1. Station-road, High-street. Cl«i<hama musical instruments

1215 O.Wood, Birmingham, apparatus for absorbing the over* flow ofoil in lamp*.—A communication

1210 II. E. Curtis, LlansanlllYaid, North Wales, oscillating cylinder engines

1217 J. Burnley and W. Nichols, Leeds, steam boilers and furnaces

1218 .1. Underwood, R, Archway-road, ntghgate, closing necks, mouths, or openings of bottles, jar*, and u( her vessels

1219 W. R. Lake, Southampton-buildings, improved prucesa for cleaning wool or hair.—A communication

1220 it. H. Kay and A. T. Richardson, Mobberly, manufacture of crape

IMi W. Germain, Brighton, improvement in or an addition to earrings

1222 w. J. Blinkhorn. St. Helen's, Improved spool for lookstitch sewing machines

1*23 J. Lee, Hipperholme, near Halifax, apparatus for obtaining motive power

I22i P. Mnith. J. H. Leather, and E. P. A. Marrlner, Keighlev, apparatas for preparing wool for comhmg

1225 R. B. Harorl and J. B. Holden. Jersey. State of NewJersey, (J.*., mechanism for transmuting power

1228 A. V Xttwton. 60, Clianc ry-lane. apparatus for starting treadle motions, applicable to sewing machines.—A communication

1227 C. w. Alden, Charlestown. Massachusetts, U.S., improvement* In pipe wrenches.—A communication

122* M. .l-[r«rs..nt Hni'li-nd. apparatus tor preparing and combing wool or other flhmus auhuaiioe*

182*1 T. Tiiorpe, Manchester, improvements In the manufacture of piled fabrics

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PATENTS SEALED.

8151 J. C. Mewbnrn, a new or improved photographic process for preparing printing surfaces.—A communication

S107 J. Hargreaves and T. Koblnsun, treatment of pyrites and in obtaining products therefrom

3I0S A. Thornton and R. Senior, of Heckwondwlke. Improvements tn carding engines or.'machlnery for carding wool

3100 W. Blrcli. improvements applicable to sewing machine-* :u;a C. G. Gumpei, improvements in ships' rudders and m

Steering gear therefore

3177 W. Conn- li. improvements In waW>r-clo*cts

3l8o C- E. Cawley and J. Newton, tmpruvament* in tramways, and in carriages to run thereon

3182 a. Leo tit. apparatus ror cooking and lighting bv gas MKt A. Grothe. apparatus for registering number of passengers travelling In public conveyances

8185 F. F. Samier, and A. Antholne, metallic vessels, intended to prevent all liquid or solid imflammable substances from. Igniting

SIM H.J. n. King, apparatus for measuring, indicating, and regulating the flow or passage of llnuids

3101 J. MoUowall, machinery for sawing and cutting timber 31W W. (iardner, mechanism or tools for the manufacture

of parts of watches or timekeepers 8207 J- Turnbiill, improved cut-off gears for steam engines 8212 R. Douglas nud L. Grant, motive power engines 8210 J. C. Heywood. U.S.A., Improvements in weighing:

machines or scalos.--A communication :i!4fl M. luthill. improvements in horse gear 8200 G. Cherpit, coastruction of healde for looms 8518 Vf. R. Lake, improvements in harness for draught

nnimals.—A communication

8420 W. R. Lake, apparatus for making and breaking electromagnetic circuits.—A communication 8rt97 W. R. Lak»\ niaiiuiactureoi Jtteel.'and of steel bars, rails.

and plates.—A com munication 108 J. Greenshields. obtaining oil from cirhonsceons snb

stanoesi In utilising the bye products and residues, aud in

making manure aud moulder's blackening *ii C. Mahler, au improved windmill, which can a'so be used

as a water wheel >>r as a ship's propeller 0A5 E, Wood. Improvements In potters' glazes 744 W. R, Lake, apparatus for indicating a deficiency of

water in steam boltors, and for regulating the supply or water

thereto.—A communication

3204 C. Crockford. treating metallic ores and materials, a nd obtaining metallic and chemical products therefrom

3205 J. Ilsiden. lubricators

3205 J. M. btanley, furnaces and crucibles for melting: steel

3213 F. Taylor, sewing snd embroidering machines

8280 J. Truer and H. Tracy, improved stick or stem for umbrellas, parasols, fto

3381 A. Bouiken. improvements In terriers or ground auger*

3288 J. Ingietoti, improvements tn waU»ro!osets

3M7 W. (ioruian. umuufaoture of iruu and stool, and tn apparatus! he re ror

ar.i-N J. u.Jones, apparatus for breaking down coal

8848 W. and J. Edmondsou, and R. CuuluTe. machinery for engraving cylinders u»«d In printing

8855 T. F. Lynah, hottica for holding polsous and other preparations

XVH K. Wilson, hydraulic presses aud other hydraulic machinery

8873 J. I'homlinson. cements

33U0D. Hues, apparatus f»r lighting andextin^ui^hlng gas by electricity.—A eouiTnuntcation

3407 E. F. GoouAil, excise ink bottles and other ink bottle* and Inkstands

5517 A. Ripley, and J. WnrmiM. pipe wrench

8520 8. Chat wood and J. Oromptou , valve for drawing nfT comleused fluids Trout steam eujtiues, plpu*. aud otliwr ateam vessels

S5KI W. R. Lake, improvements in vices.—A communication

351* W. E. Newton, apparatus for folding printed she •* of paper as they issue from the printing m tciuiia.—A cotnii allocation

ae 10 B. B. De Morell, method of raising navigable vessels or other heavy bodies above the surface ot the water

521 a. II. Ellis, apparatus Tor washing, wringing, and mangling

553 H. Bessemer, appar*tus employed for the bettor accommodation of passengers ou board vessels and for lessening or preventing sea sickness

5.V) W. B. Leaohmau, hydraulic apparatus for raising nnd forcing water

500 J. Snxhy and J. S. Farmer, apparatus Tor working railway points and signals

502 A. V. Newton. 06, Chancery-lane, improvements in sewing machinei.—A communication

M>4 (J- W. Siemens, troattng iron ores

«2i G. H. Ellis, improvements in ladders

05s K. Slevcus, uieiisils employed with apparatus used Its cooking

(i'.ti J. Neilson, manufaeturo of hollow cast-iron cjoktusc utensils

786 J. I'olson. application ofmachlnery for treating grain

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