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and properties that are tbe very foundations of its development in the higher centres. Some eminent physiologists now maintain, on the strength of these experiments, that the accepted doctrine of reflex action is quite untenable, and that the spinal cord is really endowed with sensation and volition ; and certainly these adapted actions seem to give us aU the signs of being felt and willed, except telling us that they are so. Before accepting, however, this explanation of the obscure by something more obscure still, it were well to realise distinctly how dangerous a practice it usually is to apply deductively to the interpretation of »imple pheuoniena ideas pcrtainiug to the more complex, and how essential a principle of the method of iuduction it is to follow the order of evolution, and to ascend from the interpretation of the simple to that of the complex. The explanation sivonrs of the old and evil tendency which has done so muoh harm in philosophy, the tendency to explain the facts of nature by what we feel to go on in our minds; because we know that most of our actions take take place consciously and voluntarily, we can hardly help thinking that it must bo the same in the frog. Might we not, however, as well suppose and hold that positive attract« negative and repels positive electricity consciously and voluntarily, or that in the double decomposition of chemical salts one acid chooses voluntarily the other base? It is most necessary to be on our guard against the danger of misapplying ideas derived from internal observation of the functions of miud centres to the interpretation of the functions of lower nerve centres, and so of misinterpreting them. Assuredly we have sad experience enough to warn us against involving the latter in the metaphyseal haze which still hangs over the functions of the supreme centres.
All the conclusion which the facts warrant is that actions for a definite end, having indeed the semblance of predesigning consciousness and will. may be quite unconscious and automatic ; that the movements of the decapitated frog, adapted as they are to secure its well-being, are no more evidence of intelligence and will than are the movements of coughing, sneezing, and swallowing in man. In the constitution of the animal's spinal cord arc implanted [the faculties of such movements for self-preservation, which it has inherited as a part of its nature, and without which it could hardly live a day; accordingly it nets necessarily and blindly; though it has lost its foot, it endeavours vainly to act as if its foot was still there, and only when the irritation continues unaffected by its futile efforts makes, in answer to it, those further reflex movements which are the physiological sequences of the unsuccessful movements: it supplements one series of reflex actions by another. But although these purposive movements are not evidence of intelligence and violition in the spinal cord, it is another question whether they do not evince the same physiological properties and the operation of the same laws of evolution as govern the development of intelligence and will in the higher centres.
I have taken the experiment on the frog to exemplify the proposition that designed actions may ho unconscious and automatic, because the phenomena are more simple in it than in man, and more easy, therefore, to be uuder?tood; but the proposition is equally true of his spinal cord. In its case, however, we have to hear in mind that faculties arc not innate to the same degree and extent as in the lower animals, but have to be acquired by education—to be organised, in fact, after birth. It must be taught, just as the brain must, before it can perform its functions as an organ of animal lifo; and being much more under the control of the more highly-developed brain, feeling and volition commonly mingle largely in its functions, and its independent action cannot be so plainly exhibited. But when its motor centres have been taught, when they have gained by education the power of executing what are called secondary automatic acts, it is certain that it can and does babitually execute them independently of consciousness and of will. They become as purely automatic as are the primitive reflex acts of the frog. To the statement, then, that actions bearing the semblance of design may be unconscious and automatic we havo now to add a second and most weighty proposition— namely, that acts consciously designed at first may, by repetition, afterwards became uncon
* Two lectures ilelivered at ilie Koynl ''ollece oí Physicians in 1870. By Hesiiy Maudsibt, MIX. К.К.С.Г.. I'rofeewr of Medical Jirbprudcu« iu University College, London.
acious and automatic, the faculties of them being organised in the constitution of the nerve centres, and they being then performed as reflex effects of an external stimulus. This, as we shall see, is a most important law in the development of the higher nerve centres.
Let ns now go a step further. The automaticacts, whether primary or secondary, in the frog or in the man, which are excited by the suitable external stimulus, may also be excited by an act of will, by an impulse coming downwards from the brain. When this happens, it should be clearly apprehended that the immediate agency of the movements is tho same; it is in the motor centres of the spinal cord; the will does not and cannot act upon the nerve fibres of each mnscle individually, but simply gives the order which sets iu motion the organised machinery of the movements in the proper motor centres. This is a consideration of the utmost importance, for it exhibits how great a part of our voluntary acts is really the automatic action of the spinal cord. The samo movements aro effected by the same agency in answer to different stimuli—in the one case to an external stimulus, in the other case to an impulse of will ; and in both cases the mind is alike ignorant how they are done. Bnt while the automatic acts take place independently of will, the will is absolutely dependent on the organised experience in the cord for the accomplishment of its acts; without this it would be impotent to do a voluntary act. When, therefore, we have taken out of a voluntary act the large port which ig due to the automatic agency of tbe motor centres, it clearly appears that we have subtracted no small proportion from what we are iu the habit of comprising vaguely under mind. We perceive, indeed, how indispensable an exact and faithful observation of the functions of tho spinal cord is to a true physiological inquiry into mind, and what an important means of analysis a knowledge of them yields us. Carrying the knowledge so gained into our examination of tho functions of the higher nerve centres, we observe how much of them it will serve to interpret. The result is that we find a great part of tho habitual functions of tho higher centres to be similarly automatic, and to admit of a similar physiological interpretation.
There can be no doubt that the ganglionic nuclei of the senses—the sensorial nuclei—are connected with motor nuclei; and that we havo in such anatomical arrangement the agency of a number of reflex movements. Most of the instinctive acts of animals are of this kind, the faculties being innato in them. In man, however, who is actually the most helpless, though potentially tho moot powerful, of all living creatures, when he comes into the world, the sensory and associated motor nuclei must be educated, just as the spinal centre« must. To illustrate this sensori-motor or instinctive action, we may tako the results of Flourens' well-known experiment of removing the cerebral hemispheres of a pigeon. What happens? Tbe pigeon seemingly loses at once all intelligence and all power of spontaneous action. It appears as if it were asleep; yet, if thrown into the air, it will fly. If laid on its back, it struggles on to its legs again; the pupil of the eye contracts to light, and, if the light be very bright, tho eyes are shut. It will dress its feathers if they arc ruffled, and will sometimes follow with a movement of its head the movement of a candle before it; and, when a pistol is fired off, it will open its eyes, stretch its neck, raise its head, and then fall back into its former attitude. It is quite evident from this experiment that goueral sensibility and special sensations are possible after the removal of the hemispheres; but they are not then transformed into ideas. The impressions of sense reach and affect the sensory centres, but they are not intellectually perceived; and the pioper movements are excited, hut these are reflex or automatic. There are no ide:is, there is no true spontaneity; and the animal would die < f hunger before a plateful of food, though it will swaliow it when pushed fur enough into its mouth to come within the rau^e of the reflex acts of deglutition. Here again, then, we have a surprising variety of adapted actions of which the body is capable without the intervention rif intelligence, emotion, and will— without, in fact, mind in its exact sense having any part in them. The pigeon is brought to the level of the invertehratu, which havo no higher nerve-centres than sensory ganglia, no centres of intelligence and will, and which execute all their i varied and active movements, all their wonderful
displays of instinct, through sensory rind ns*v ciated motor nuclei. They seek what is good fol them, avoid what is hurtful to them, provide for the propogation of their kind—perform, indeed, all the functions of a very active life veichoejü knowing that they are doing so, not otherwise than as our pupils contract to light, or as our eyes accommodate themselves to vision at different d" tances without consciousness on our part. X. highest specialisations of this kind of nerve-fu.: tion are displayed by the ant and the bee; wonderful instinctive aots show to what a degareç of special perfection sensori-motor action may be brought.
Unlike the bee and the ant, man must slowly learn the use of his senses and their respondent movements. This he does by virtue of the fundamental property of nerve centres, whereby th« react in a definite way to suitable impresskoi organically register their experience, and so » quire by education their special faculties. Tfe it is that many of the daily actions of onr Hi which directly follow impressions on the take place in answer to sensations that an perceived—become, so to speak, iuitinctii-e ¡tac of them being not a whit less automatic thjttss instinctive acts of the bee, or the acts of the pijR deprived of its hemispheres. When we move ate in a room with the objects in which we are qria familiar, we direct our steps so as to avoid thea. without being conscious what they are, or whs. we are doing; we see them, as we easily discover if we try to move about in the same way with our eyes shnt, bnt we do not perceive them, the mind being fully occupied with some train of thought. In like manner, when we go through a series of familiar acts, as in dressing or undressing ourselves, the operations are really automatic; once begun, we continue them in a mechanical order, while the mind is thinking of other things -, and if we afterwurds reflect upon what we have done, in order to call to mind whether we did or did not omit something, as for instance to wind up our watch, we cannot satisfy ourselves except by trial, even though we hod actually done what we were in doubt about It is evident, indeed, that in в state of profound reverie or abstraction, а person may, as a somnambulist eometimes does, see without knowing that he. sees, hear without knowing that he hears, and go through a series of acts scarcely, if at all, conscious of them nt the time, and not remembering them afterwards. For the most disliuetdisplay of sensori-motor action in man, it is necessary that his cerebral hemispheres, which are so largely developed, and intervene much in the functions of the subordinate centres, should be deeply engaged with their own functions, or that these should be suspended. This appears to be the case in those brief attacks of epileptic unconsciousness known as the petit mal, in which a person will eometimes go on with, the work he wag engaged in at the time of the attack, utterly unaware of the momentary interruption of his consciousness. There are many instances of this sort on record, which I cannot stop to relate now ; they prove how large a part sensori-motor functions, which are the highest nerve functions of so many animals, play in onr daily actions. We ought clearly to opprehend the fact that, as with the spinal cord, so here, the movements which take place ia answer to thu Btimulus from without may be excited by tlia stimulus of the will descending ft via the hemispheres, and, that, wheu they are so excited, tha immediate agency of them is the some. The movements that are outwardly manifest ore, as it wer», contained inwardly in the appropriate motor nuclei; these have been educated to perform them. Hence it is that, when the left corpus striatum is broken up bydisease, tbe right Cadoo! do its special work; if it could, a man might write with his left hand when his right hand w&> disabled by paralysis.
Thus much, then, concerning oar sensori-mote acts, When we have yielded up to the spinal corail the part in our actions that properly belongs to it, and to the sensory ganglia and their connected motor nuclei all the part thatbelongs to them, we have subtracted no inconsiderable part from phenomena which we are in the habit of lie uating mental, and including under mind, wo still leave untouched the highest function the nervous system—those to which tho he spherical ganglia minister. These are the tions of intelligence, of emotion, and of will are the strictly mental function?. The ЧЧ? л at once arisca whether wo have to do it^tf^, supremo centros with fundamentally Л' properties and different laws of évolutif
those which belong to the lower nerve centres. We have to do with different functions certainly; bnt are the organic processes which take place in them essentially different from, or are they identical with, those of the lower nerve centres? They appear to be essentially the same : there is & reception of impressions, and thore is a reaction to impressions, and there is an organic registration of ihe effects both of the impressions and of the reaetious to them. The external stimuli do not, it is true, ascend directly to the supreme centres as they do the spinal centres aud the sensory centres ; they are transmitted indirectly through the sensory ganglia; it is through the seoses that we get our ideas. This is in accordance with the anatomical observation—which, however, is disputed—that no sensory fibres go directly throngh to the hemispheres, and no motor fibres (tart directly from them; both gensory and motor fibres stopping at the corpora striata and thslami optici, aud new fibres connecting these with the hemispheres. But this does net alter the fundamental similarity of the organic processes in the higher centres. The impressions which are made there are the physiological conditions of i/leas. The feeling of the ideas is emotion; for I hold emotion to mean the special sensibility of the vesicular neurine to ideas. The registration of tbem is memory; and the reaction to them is volition,. Attention is the maintenance of the tension of an idea or a group of ideas—the keeping it before the mind; and reflection is the successive transference of energy f rpra one to another of a series of ideas. We know not, and perhaps never shall know, what mind is ; but we ure nevertheless bound to investigate, in a scientific spirit, the laws of its functions, and to trace the resemblances which undoubtedly exist between them aud the functions of lower nerve centres.
(To be continued.)
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. By A. Totjiattsen, Jro. (Continued from page 124.) "T is not every kind of tar that destroys
the durability of the fibres, for the Archangel and Stockholm are said to preserve the rope, so that in the execution of important works it is recommended that the ropes should have been recently manufactured, and be made of the best Petersburg hemp, with Arohaugol aud Stockholm tar.
The tar applied to ropes made by the warm register is more fluid than in those made up with the yarns cold, and therefore penetrates every fibre of hemp completely. Again, as the heat drives off both air and moisture, each fibre is brought into closer contact by the twisting and compression of the strand, and the strength of the rope is greatly increased. Another advantage is derived from the warm register, as ropes made by the same are almost impermeable to water, so that it is absolutely necessary in places where they are exposed to the wear and tear of the weather to have them made by the new process.
The dimensions of ropes are generally'stated in terms of their girth or circumference, and worked to about one-sixth of their breaking strain. The weight of hempen ropes (in lbs. per fathom) is approximately found by multiplying the square of their circumference by 26.
Flat ropes, made by placing four round ropes Bide by side, and stitching them up by machinery into a flat band, are now used for many purposes where great lengths or depths, such, for instance, as in raising coal from pits, have to be attained.
They possess great strength and flexibility. In some cases, if ropes were applied they would be cut to pieces in a very short time, "and the weight of chains might also be inconvenient ;it is in such instances that wire ropes are used, and have proved to answer the purpose very well in working inclined planes, &c. On the DnrhamSunderland railway, train" are drawn np and let down an inclined plane of 4£ miles length by means of an endless wira rope, made of three pieces.
The two practical rules for computing the strength of ropes are sometimes enunciated to be :—
To find the breaking weight in tonB of a rope made of common hemp, multiply the square of the circumference (in inches) by -288; conversely to find the circumference (in inches) of a hempen rope whose ultimate strength is given; extrac
Rigidness Op Ropes And Strains.
Till now we have considered ropes and chains to be perfectly pliable, which, however, in practice is not the case; for daily experience shows that any ropo of ordinary dimensions requires a certain amount of force to be applied to twist it in any direction, and this foroe is called the stiffness, or rigidness of that rope.
It is obvious that this foroe will chiefly depend on the intensity of that force W stretching the rope, on tho radius of curvature, and the thickness of the rope itself. Again, it will depend on the material of which tho rope is made, on the number of fibres and twists given to the same, as well as whether the rope is new or old, tarred or unlarred.
Amontonf and Coulomb (celebrated French engineer, born 173(5 in Angouleme, and received tho first prize of the Paris Academy of Sciences for his "Tlieorie des Machines Simples ;" died in 1806) were the first who investigated this foroe, and the experiments of tho latter, which follow, led him to the mathematical formula :— 8»
(1.) Bn = (+ J> W)
Whereby S is the registry of the rope, S the diameter of the same, r the Tadius of curvature; n an integer; a co-efficient, both varying with the quality of the rope, and b a magnitude merely
* "Molesworth's Eugineeriu Pocket
V iz., Prof. Ru hlman's " Mechnnick," p. 250.
approaohing value by I—I whereby J" is the of the rope whoso rigidness is reaccording
The power n varies from to finality and strength of the rope.
The same found also that ropes, when moist, possess less rigidness when of large diameter, and greater stiffness when of small dimensions.
But although rope made by the warm register is both stronger and more durable, it is less pliable, and therefore the cold-registered [rope is more generally used for ctane-work, where tho rape must be wound round barrels and passed through pulleys, as in these cases the radius of curvature is very small.
A formula more applicable to practical purposes is one proposed by Eytelweinf and symbols lically demonstrated by
S' 1 S = B —W r r being tho radius of barrel -f- half the rope's diameter.
When S and r are given in metres and W in kilog., R = 18, and then we have S* 1 S = 18 — W r Redtenbacher proposes to use when S and r are in terms of centimeters
S = 0-20 — Wa
If instead of a rope, a chain be wound on a barrel of radius r, then the friction acting at the links has to be added to the stretching load. If the diameter of a link be represented by S, and the coefficient of friction by/, then we may write for the statical moment ot rigiduess S,
S»- = if iW.
For the statical moment, however, of the force P, overcoming this resistance of the chain
Pr = W(r+l/o).
Nevertheless, as the cliain has to become straight on the other side, wc may assume the momout of the whole to be
Pr = W(r+|/J) , which may, for practical purpose!, be written P = W(r+/o).
WeisbachJ, who made several experiments on the flexibility of wire rope?, found
W S = (0-49 X 000238 — kilog. r whereby r was given in metres.
Experiments made in Germany (Froiberg§) have shown' that the rigidness of wire ropes, in being drawn over barrels is almost overcome by the following formula :—
I) = 0-24 S* V whereby D is tho diameter in feet, S the diameto of the wire used in millimetres, and H the number of threads the rope is composed of.
By means of tin's formula wc may now "ive an example of its application.
Example:—What is the intensity of rigidness in an nntarred rope of 0023 met. diam, wound round a barrel 0-28 met. radius, and sustaining a werght=400 kilog? b
OurFormula 1 gives: (0-023)
S = 18 x x 400 = 12-96 kilog.
0-28 x 0011
S = = 9-44 kilog.
0-291 This result is smaller than the first, and as it is better to calculate the strain larger than it actually lain practice, Formula 1 may with advantage be adapted.
Q1 Arnold's chronometer or free csenpe-
* J °TM the Bxi'1 of tho ba'ance is a small
stud a, which touches the thin spring at each
Kdlto^nT^L1 rHnm a ""rapilation by Mr. II. J. Brown
One pallet B, works in front of the wheel and the
93. Duplex escapement, for watches, so called
9G Lever escapement. The anchor or piece
97. An escapement with a lantern wheel. An
98. An old-fashioned watch escapement.
99. An old-fashioned clock escapement.
100 being a front elevation, and 101 a side eleva-
102. Balance-wheel escapement. C is the
103. A dead-beat pendulum escapement. The inner face of the pallet E and outer face of D are concentric with the axis on which the pallets vibrate, and hence there is no recoil.
104. Pin-wheels escapement, somewhat resembling the stud escapement shown by 92. The pins A B of .the escapement wheel aro of two different forms, but the form of those ou the right side is the best. One advantage of this kind of escapement is that if one of the pins is damaged it can easily be replaced, whereas if a tooth is damaged tho whole wheel Is rained.
105. A single-pin pendulum escapement. The escape-wheel is a very small disc with single ecceutric pin; it makes half a revolutioa for every beat of the pendulum, giving the impulse on the u origbt faces of the pallets, ihe horaont&l faces of which are dead ones. This can also be adapted to watches.
(To be continued.)
DRESSING MILLSTONES WITH THE
(Cotu-luded from page 179.)
FIO. 8 is a plan of the dressing apparatus as applied upon a millstone, and Fig. 9 is a corresponding vertical section. Fig 10 is an inverted plan of the bottom of the tool or bort holder and Figs. 11 and 12 are an end and a front elevation of the slide as fitted with a single tool; whilst Figs. 13 and 14 are sectional elevations of a modification of the slide fitted with two tools.
The framing of the machine consists of a central boss 1, made hollow to go over the head of the millstone spindle when operating on the bed stone, and this boss is connected by arms 2, to a segmental • ring 3, accurately turned, or otherwise made flat on its undersido to rest on the surface of the millstone 4, near the outer edge thereof, that being the part of the millstone surface that can be most relied upon as being truly level. To facilitate tho placing of the frame ou the st.me three adjustable claws 5, are fixed on the segmental ring 3, and citch upon the top binding hoop; accurate centering, however, of the frame ou the stone is not essential. Two of tho frame arms 2, are made in the same line tangential to the boss, and to them there is fixed a horizontal guide 6, made with V rails to receive a saddlo 7, which can be moved along the guide 6, by ineaus of a screw spindle 8. A horizontal arm 9, is fixed to the saddle 7, so as to stand out at right angles from the guide G, and this arm is) made with horizontal V rails to guide a slide 10, in which is adjusted the tool or bort holder 11. The bort holder 11, is a spindle screwed at its upper end to receive a nut, and formed at its lower end with a cross plate to fit a rebate m the bottom of the slide 10, and with a boss m which a socket is bored to receive three angular steel bits by which the bort is fixed. The three steel bits are shaped to build together into a cylindrical form a little1 less than the >ocket, and the bottom comers of their central meeting edges are hollowed to griip the bort, whilst they are adjusted upon it by screws tapped through the tides of the socket. With this simple con
etruction tho bnri ein be gripped in any position by the steel bits, nod the whole can be turned ia the socket so as to present the cutting angle of the bort in the most advantageous manner. One or two pieces of vulcanised rubber a are. applied between tho bottom cross plate of the tool 11. and the slide 10, and may be more or less compressed to modify tho elasticity of the tool by means of tho screw not which holds the tool in the slide. Ä handle 12, is jointed upon the slide 10, and by means of it the operator draws the slide along the guide arm 0, and so canses the bort to cut a minute groove on the surface of the millstone. The dressing for one sector of the millstone surface is done with the frame 12 3, in one position, the arm 9, being shifted or feil across after the formation of each groove by means of the screw spindle 8. Toothed feed wheels 13, are fixed on the ends of the screw spindle 8, and aro acied upon by feed catches jointed to levers 14, set loosely on the spindle and connected by moans of a horizontal rod 15, above. A handle 16, is set loosely on the rod 15. so that it can be moved into the most convenient position for the operator, who works the tool slide 10, with one hand, and the feed handle IG, with the other. The feed may be effected either when the slide 10, is at the inner end of its traverse, or when it is at the onter end thereof, the bort being moved in both directions along each groove; or the feed may be effected both when ihe slide is at the inner end and when it is at the outer end of its traverse, in which case the bort will be moved only once along each groove. VChen the dressing of one sector of the millstone surface is completed the entire machinéis shifted round, to bring the arm V, parallel to the grooves of the next sector.
Two borls with their holders may be carried on the slide 10, as shown in Fig. 14; and this modification may be used when a deeper cut is required than that which a single bort will give, one of the twohorts being adjusted slightly lower than the other. When applying two tools in this way the spindles are fitted somewhat loosely into the slide 10, and small cushions 4 of vulcanised rubber are placed behind them, whilst email pinching screws о are inserted in front, and by taming those moro or less the two bort
points can be adjusted so as to cnt accurately in the same line. The two tools may also be adjusted to cut in two separate lines if preferred. A comparison with Golay's maohine will render obvious the superior construction of Young's, its remarkable simplicity, and its freedom from various drawbacks associated with the earlier machines. The dress or cracking which Young's puts into the millstone, consisting of straight horizontal cuts, is cleaner and neater, and has not the ragged or fractured appearance caused by th*e chipping action of tho rotating tool. It is especially superior in indicating and discovering any inequality or want of truth in tho grinding surface, doing this with a precision and accuracy not hitherto attained, and which necossarily arises from the machine being formed with a turned bearing ring, which reets on a large portion of the millstone surface near the outer edge. This is oonfirmod in practice by the machine discovering many imporfeetions of surface which tho proving staff allows to escape notice. Requiring no driving power, it can be worked whether the mill is running or standing. It requires no gearing whatever, and is much less dependent on individual skill, as it can be actuated by a lad or inexperienced workman. It cannot get out of order. It dresses the stone in less time than Golay's, and, as compared with ordinary handwork, requires the eervice of fewer stonemen. Immediately that the stone is set to work after being re-dressed, it grinds perfectly, making much fewer flour sharps, or middlings, and, in consequence, a larger proportion of fine flour. The bran is broader and better cleaned, and the flour of purer colour and more regular. The ainonnt of feed, or rate of grinding, is not decreased ; whilst, in cousequence of the ease and rapidity with which the operation can now be effected, tho millstones are sometimes re-dieseed after running four days and nights. This more frequent re-dressingis found advantageous where the mixture of wheat is soft and tough, but where it is dry the stones are rc-drcssed only after
running six days and nights. When the stone» are lifted for re-dressing they are found to be in perfect trim, having a beautiful straight level face, and with much of the former dressing still clear and distinct. One miller using Mr. Young's machine fonnd, on a careful comparison with the results of the ordinary handbill dressing, that ont of evcrv hundred boU of wheat (1 boll = 2401b.) he obtained a bag and a-half, equal to 4201b., more fine flonr, with proportionally less seconds.
A great variety of millstone dressing machin** have been brought out and patented since tin su to which we have referred, but they are all comprised in the "rotatory" and "rectilinear" classes, of which Golay's and Young's are respectively the chief representatives ; and they differ amongst each other mainly as regards minor details, a critical comparison of which would not only be tedious and uninteresting, but it is also incapablo of being satisfactorily made at present on account of the small experience as yet had with most of them.
Naturally, where several patented machines for the same purpose compete, questions must arise as te tho novelty and validity of each, and as to whether the more recent are infringements of the earlier patents. The main competition is practically between the two most successful machines, Golay's and Young's; and we believe that the great hindrance to the more general adoption of one or other of these machines has been the doubt whether Golav's patent is valid, and whether Young's machine, as has been openly asserted by persons interested in Golay's patent, is an infringement of ir. At the same time many of the most extensive millers in the United Kingdom have adopted one or other of the machines, convinced of the great superiority of the dress over hand dress. As regards the diamond itself, Golay does not claim to use the diamond except when acting with rapid blows, and clearly could not validly claim the plain, continuous, rectilinear cut of the diamond in face of the earlier patents of Childs and Knight ; whilst as both Youog and Golay are obliged to nee bort instead of the common clear diamond, it is plain neither of them is clear of Jobin's patent. As regards the necessary apparatus, Yonng's only resembles Go a..'* in having a horizontal guide and slide with a screw feed motion at right angles thereto; but in this respect both Golay's and Young's resemble Morissean's, whilst Young's arrangement is in fact more like Morisseau's than it is like Golay's. Wo will not take npon ns to certify bow the lawyers will decide the questions, but they appear to ns тегу simple opes, and plain common sense answers to them suiBciently obvious.
We have applied the term "bort" to the substance now used for dressing millstones, as being the best and most distinctive appellation without coining a new word; it is, however, also used to designate tho impure fragments and excrescences which are removed from the rongh diamond in the process of cutting, and which are not so hard or suitable as the stones originally found in a detached state.
CAPTAIN PETERSON'S STEAM LIFEBOAT.
IT is said the invention of С W. Peterson, of No. 7, Oakley-crescent, City-road, London, for the application of steam power to lifeboats, is destined to effect an important improvement in our lifeboat system, and consequently to increase very considerably the means at our dispostl for saving life at sea. The Committee of the Shipwrecked Mariners' Society, after examining the modols and drawings of the invention, have expressed themselves pleased with it, and are anxious that it should have an adequate trial. Captain Peterson is confident that his boat will be able to,put to sea in all weathers, and that, if upset, it will instantly right itself without losing its motive power. The advantage it will possess, both in respect to increased speed anil power, over the lifeboats now in nse must, of course, be self-evident, but the great thing is to pat the invention to the test. The cost of building a trial boat will be about £600 er £700, towards which the Committee of Lloyd's have subscribed £50, theSalvageInstitution in £5210s.,theShipwreeked Mariners' Society, £50, the Royal National Lifeboat Institation £100, Miss Burdett Coutts £100 and about £50 has been contributed by merchants and others, making altogether upwards of £400. The names here mentioned as subscribers afford a guarantee for the practicability of the proposal, and wo trust their liberality will at once be supplemented to such an extent as to insure the complete realisation of Captain Peterson's intentions. The object is one of such national importance that it ought to command universal sympathy and support, and to be received with special favour and interest by maritime communities directly concerned in the welfare and safety of our seamen. This being so, Captain* Peterson may reasonably expect such an amount of assistance—and that, too, within a very short time—as will enable him to put his invention to tho test.
We should like to know what Mr. Lewis, the zealous Secretary of the Boyal Lifeboat Institution, or any one else who has paid attention to tho subject, has to say about these lifeboats. If the thing be practicable, we see no reason why 4he English Mechanic Lifeboat should not be propelled on its beneficial errands by steam.
hours in ten ounces of cold water, and again dried and weighed as before. This loss represents sugar, theobromine, and other soluble constituents ; and it is evidentthat if sugar of adulteration be present, the loss of weight will be greatly increased.
4. The residue (from 3) is boiled for an hour in ten ounces of water, to which half an onnce of hydrochloric acid has been added, and once more dried and weighed. The loss in this case consists of starch, cocoa red, &c, and here the starch which has been purposely added is discovered.
5. Л few graine of the cocoa are burned on a crucible lid, and the colour of the ash is observed. If this be decidedly red, then ochre or tome euch colouring matter has been employed.
As we have already remarked, although the process cannot pretend to absolute truth, yeta very close approximition can be thus obtained, especially if samples of pure cocoa be first treated in an exactly similar manner. This we have done and the following results represent an average- of several euch experiments :—
Moisture ... ... 45
Soluble in ether (fat) ... 48"5
Soluble in water (sugar, &c.) 11-8
Soluble in acid (starch, &c.) 188
Residue insoluble (cellulose, &c.) 164
( Continued from ряде 175.)
LET us see how far this dreadful programme is in reality carried out nowadays, by glancing at the following results of our analysis. But before doing so, we will explain the simple process we have adopted for obtaining our results. The mode of procedure does not pretend to absoluto accuracy to a fraction, but will be found in practice easily performed and understood. It is as follows :—
1. Twenty grains of the cocoa are weighed out and dried for some hours at asteom heat. Tho dry cocoa is then weighed, and the loss of weight, multiplied by 5, gives the moisture,
2. The residne (from 1) is digested for two hours, with frequent agitation, in four ounces of ether, and the latter having been poured off as closely as possible, the cocoa is again dried, weighed, ond the loss of weight ascertained and calculated as above. Tho loss equals fatty matters.
3. The residue (from 2) is digested for six
* By J. Muteh, Ph.D., in the Food Journal.
It will thus be seen that, out of all the samples examined, the only one which answers to the analysis of pure decorticated cocoa is No. 21. Nos. 2 and 34 are, however, also good samples of cocoa, while Nos. 11 and 12 must be noted as specimens of pure cocoa deprived of its oil. No. 1 is a pure cocoa to which desiccated milk has been added, thereby slightly increasing the fat and sugar. The worst of all are Nos. 18, 19, 20, and 33, in which not only is the quantity of roal cocoa reduced to a minimum, but ochre, or some such ferruginous earth, has been addedfor colouring. On the whole, the picture is one not calculated to reassure the the cocoa-consuming portion of the public. We append recipes for the manufacture of cocoas which would be similar to three of tho most ndulterated samples:—
Now wo are brought faco to face with the question: Ought this addition of starch and sugar to cocoa to be regarded as nu adulteration? If, on the one hand, we take the word adulteration to mean the mixing of anything hurtful or deleterious, with an article of food, the answer most be ш tlie negative, because not only is the starch harmless, bnt it supplies a want in tho article itself, beside« diluting its rich and somewhat dyspectic qualities Indeed, this admixture bas been regarded by ал eminent food authority, as "a skilful chemical adjustment, made without chemical knowledge, as the result of long and wide experience." Bat, on the other hand, if we take adulteration to mean the mixing of anything (even if it should be beneficial) with an article of diet, without distinctly setting forth the fact, the present style of cocoa manufacture becomes a sophistication. With the greatest desire to let this matter down gently, as we have no wish to hold almost all the cocoa manufacturers in England up to public reprobation as sophitticators, we connot escape the fact thai many prepared cocoas are advertised as "genuine," nor can we help harbouring a shrewd doubt, that the comparative prices of cocoa and starch 1W much more to do with the " skilful chemical iijnstment," than a real desire to benefit the pubfc. We should advise the many respectable finas engaged in the cocoa trade to cull their coco» plainly and distinctly ^'<у>дгеаситоя«, or by some such term as would convey the true impression of their nature. This would be very much more sensible then denominating them "genuine,'' "soluble," or " homoeopathic," &o., when all the connection they have with solubility simply consists in the amount of soluble matter added as a diluent, and with homoeopathy in the small amount of real cocoa which they give at a dose. In a word, we are once more brought back to the neoessity for an " Adulteration Act," such as «re liare all along steadily advocated—namely, a law to compel everything to be sold under its own паше, with proper officers to see the Act carried out; but to hope for such a thing under the present regime, seems almost Utopian; and we have no resource but to follow the dictum of an eminent statesman, and to " agitate and agitate."
In our next article we will conclude the subject by giving directions, illustrated by engravings, for the detection of adulterations cf cocoa, by moans of the microscope.
THE PATENT LAWS.
A SHORT time since a meeting of tire Mancheater Patent Law Reform Association was held, Sir William Fairbairn in the chair, when the following petition te Parliament was discussed and adopted :—
"That your petitioners Icing persone engaged in various branches of industry and commerce in tho oity of Manchester and the turrounding distriot, formed themselves, with others, in 1860 into an association for procuring n reform of tho patent laws as then existing and administered, the evils of which and the remedies therefor, they set forth in memorials to the Board of Trade and petitions to Parliament in 1850,1851, and 1852, and, after incessant labour and expense, were the principal means of obtaining the Patent Law Amendment Act of 1852. That Act, although it did not adopt all the recommendations of your petitioners, provided remedies for some of the then existing evils, buch as granting immediate protection to inventors on application, a large reduction in the amount of fees paid for obtaining letters parent, and tho publication of all specifications and indexes thereto; but it left untouched many of the evils for which your petitioners pointed ont remedies, which had they then been provided for, would have satisfied the. public and prevented tho unreasonable outcry now raised for the entire abolition of the present patent laws. That your petitioners are fully of oj.iniou that the fees may be considerably reduced, as they consider the cost of obtaining letters patent should not exceed what is absolutely necessory for the maintenance of the Patent Office and printing the specifications and indexes. . That your petitioners, fully sensible of the/ advantages of a well-devised patent law, arei decidedly of opinion that any atcempt to abolish» these laws would prove not only highly injurious* to the best interests of the country, and destruo| tive to the inventive powers of the nation, bu would ultimately destroy tho high position country has attained in tho prosecution of. t]