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U-hd mars, portmanteau, and other appliances neceslarv'for a larger craft, but no .» in this «»- ulw * rudder which a canoe has no business with, as the paddle answers the purpose much better.—Mat^ . . y ram-B •. Azisg CAST-IRON.-Cast-iron will not bratc. f well tinned It can beb.irnt with brass m the manner described by " liluo HuIn." if Reciprocity ■will inquire he will find It was done so.—N. I..

r^l-VENEERS FOR 1UKJIONIUM FANS.-In response to the hint conveyed in " Eleve a most welcome letter. I beg to inform " Valve." that he will mm"n-a tdimculiylu obtaining beech veneerssuch ashe requires. I have mysell used sycamore instead "£ecb. and find It answers admirably ; it can be readily procured at any good tlrobor yard. 1 heuse of^eamore was first suggested to me by <■ .M«v«: MdUke all his suggestions, it provetl a really good mV, M It U a wood "which is most easily worked, and therefore well suited for an amateur s use.-rBF.MOLO.

fiMfl-WEIGHTOK FRUSTUM. — To "BEK- . VARDIN" —Upon second working out of ihls problem I fi«d the weight of the whole frustum as .onr'ln bv mrself ft fortnight ago to be wrong. As "appears we have worked It out by the same formula :—

n*

J (R3 + r-2 + Rr)

3 tHe same result ousht to be obtained, when correctly calculated. Nevertheless if the values as given are substituted in the sftme, we receive :— J = 4 X 31416 (4 + 1 + 2x1) = 18M61 X 10 = v = 125604 cub. ft.,

therefore its weight

= 125-664 X 4401b. = GSMK-lGOlb. Or, reduced to tons

55392-100

= = 3468 tons,

2210 whereas your result appears (agreeing very nearly with Mr Wilson's to be 17 28 tons. I should feel obliged if you can tell me what causes the difference --A.

TOLHAUBEN.

Wj v-WEIGHT OF FRUSTUM.-My diagram wis sink "pat .he top of centre column, p. 18*. and ^solution at bottom of third ditto. 1 think mine . onrYec"except two printer's errors, and simpler ihan other*. Yolbauscn puts letters for known quau

"S^L CLEANING OF DIATOMS. - The fila

Jentous matter that has tried ■• Beaton 6" patience

TM much in attempting to remove it from his diatoms

U probablv the remains of some confervo.d growth

e-athercd with the diatoms, and which acid will not

futlreWremove. The best plan that I have yet met

with to get rid of it is to put the boiling of diatoms

into a stoppered bottle holding about 6 or 8 ounce'

adding clear tillered water until the bottle U about

•half full; Insert the stopper and shake the bottle

vb-orously for several minutes. This proceeding will

break up the flocculent mutter Into small particles.

which when the bottle Is left to nand. will not subside

80 rapidly as the diatoms; and much of It may be

poured off with the water after about an hour's Bub

sldeuce taking care not to pour olT too closely.

Repeat the process a few times, observing to shake

■well after each addition of fresh water.-VI. Tl.

r-T.-tO 1-CANOE STRAKES.-Thc strakes are put together with copper nails and washers (otherwise known as burrs or rooves), the edges of the planks mu«t be champered off sufficiently to fit them (no one can tit a sharp edge to a flat surface)I j the allowance for overlap to seams is gtb of an inch, which la sulliclcnt. No caulking is necessary to seamswhen planks are properly put together—Maty.

I2638.1-M AKING BU TTER.-In France they bury the cream in thick sacks under ground about 6ft for at hours, and when they take It up it is sweet butter and butter milk, which is then washed well In salted water.—Scorpio.

[2610.]-GIRDER PATTERNS.-To bend the pattern will not do much good, for the moulder would ram it ont of shape, f iitems are commonly made straight. When the mou'i'er rams it up in tho sand he applies a •traight edge a ng the pattern, then kuoeks it down at the ends to s it his requirements. In well regulated foundries the foreman sees it Is done right, it is one of those thing, whero one ounce of uracil ce is worth morethan a pound of theory.—N. L.

[2645.]-IMPERFECT TWO MANUAL ORGANRccJ stops arc usually troublesome, especially the »pper notes, which in some measure accounts for the extra tuning »hc clarion requires. Reed stops will have a settling point in spite of the tuner. If Antidiscord" will first tune the reeds with the wire, and use the organ a few hours, until the reeds are thoroughly settled; tune again ;say next day) with shades, which must be soldered on the pipe tops for the purpose, a satisfactory result will be had.—T. Iaylor, Leicester. [2640.1-GILDING PLATE-GLASS.-I would advise " Blackburn" to prepare size from ionic of the cleanest filtered w-<ter boiled in a small pan. and.a lew shreda of best Isinglass dropped in and kept boiling uutit the same is dissolved, Remove any scum from the top of size, and it is then ready for use. See ■that the gleBB, brush, and size is clean—perfectly so. When this Is done apply the size with camel-hair tool, and gold-leaf to follow at once. Put aside till dry, and piece np Imperfections, as stated above.—Painter. [2618.]—CARDING KNGINE.-I presume your correspondent wishes to know which ts preferable, the band strickle or the roller. For my own part, 1 think that both claim a share of our patronage. The hand etrickle is a very easy, cheap, and (with care) an cthclent way of grinding; yet however careful the person may be, be cannot avoid putting it on heavier in some places thou others, therefore the roller is a useful—1 may say indispensable—commodity for keeping the wires perfectly true-the one great desideratum in grinding. The system 1 adopt, Is to have the cards ground every morning with the hand stricklo, and the roller put on once a week, and I find it to act better than auythiug I have yet tried.-Tut; Harmonious

COTTON SrtMSEB.

[2O50 1-MAP PROJECTION. —There Is a Bmall atlas, published by E. Staudford, 0. Charlng-cross, called, ■ Au Elementary Atlas," chiefly for map drawin". &c, by the Rev J. P. Faunthoroe, B.A., i .U.G.S., which contains a concise dissertation upon map drawing. The price of this book I do not know exactly, but should say it Is about 2a. 6d.—F.R.G.S.

[•6511-LEOLANCHE BATTERY.-" Telos" will dud several communications by VT. H. Stone, and one from A. J. Jarman, page 38, present volume, which fully answer what ho requires, but is he sure his porous cells require recharging? Unless they have been in use some years they should not do so. Let him take the porous cells and put them Into clean water a few hours, and then try them, as the salammoniac fills up the pores of the porous pots by crystallising upon them, which only requires to bo dissolved to be as good as new. Would "Telos say in what respect the patent cells In his possession differ from those of ordinary make 1 I would draw his attention to a communication by " Sigma' in the number for April 15th. page U, upon whose opinion I place the highest value, as I have proved it over and over again.—A Good Boy.

rjonT—CANOE BUILDING—The planks composing the skin of the boat, are first built up from the keel, after which the ribB arc put in to strengthen and keep the skin In shape; the strakes, while building, are kept to curve by means of sticks, termed Bhores, to shore the plank np or down, whichever is necessary; the planks are gummed together with copper nails aud burrs.—Maty.

r26761-MODEL STEAM ENGINE.-In reply to '•C R. I enclose the following sketch of a model vertical engino. On referring to the figure, B is the.

[graphic]
[graphic]

boiler, C the furnace, E the cylinder, D the feed plug (out of sight), G the crosshcad, F flywheol A tho axle and crank, T the exhaust steam lrom cylinder. On filling the lamp with methylated spirit the steam will soon bo raised, which will be indicated by a Blight escape of steam at the safety valve. (Never use aueogluc without a safety valve as the consequences may be serious.) The action of working is as follows :—The steam enters the steam hlock K at E, and up a hole drilled through and out at the hole F into a corresponding one in the cylinder, whlch;oscillotcs on an axis just above the steam block. On the down stroke of the cylinder, the cylinder being at a reverse angle to t— that on the steam entering it, the

steam rushes out of the cylinder at H.»''a c"capei» into the air at B. 1 hope "O. R " will understand my explanation aud my drawing.—Anon.

[•■67U1-CURLING IfOllSE HAIH.-The hair must first be'washed in lime and water to cleanse it from the filth and impunities that adhere to it then dried, afte-wards it is spun into a rope of one fold J dia when that is done the rope must be tw sted very hard till it is kinked from end to end, so that it appears1J dia (it Is the kinking that makes the curll, it is then put in an oven on a wooden frame and roasted or dried for 21 hours at a heat about 212°, but experience is the best guide. Feathers are washed in I me and water, then soda and water ; alter being drained and dried they are smoked with sulphur fumes, and well beat with canes —W. vv> . . .,

r2882 1-TO "OM1CRON."—Ihave never been adouble star measurer, and my micrometer would be quite unTqial or want of power, to cope with so minute, an obiect all 1 can say is, that with a power of 450, I caSi occasionally a momentary black separation between A and B I Caneri, ou March 29 and 33, which „ the better "air of March 31 and April 4 ,vnviqu Ite evident I believe B lay in the a p quadrant: the dst nee 1 estimated about 0"7. but this would be worth, of very little confidence, probably it might be less. I have never looked at I Herculis, since the re-appearance ot the companion, in weather fine enough to show it with any certainty.-!. W. Webb.

r-.i-«7 i-DUSTING BRASS MOULDS.—Charcoal will do if you use facing sand, but It makes the cast",es look blaek, like iroS, different places use different stuff,. The commonest are common flour, potato flour, an 1 peameal, if the castiugs are heavy it is a good "c-,„m weak facing sand to face them, say about helialf of the, "aldust that is used for Iron,; for cores dM sand, and loam work, nse'charcoal blackwash thesamiat lur iron, only thinner, just blaek water merely-N- Ij

[oiw.i.]—TURBINE—In answer to "Simpleton," I would advise him to write to Messrs. Williamson, Bros., Canal Iron Works, Kendal.—PaACTtCAL.

[2605.]—GEOGRAPHICAL.—The most likely place to obtain the information desired, will be iu some "local history.'* I have consulted "Words and Places," by the Rev. J. Taylor, which Is a standard work upon this subject, but have not as yet found any mention of these names—F.R.G.S.

[26V6.]-CLEANING FLAGS.—Rub the flags with turjicntlne, and it will dissolve the tar.—Scoano.

[2097.J—CANARY.—I hope "Minnehaha " has not joined the Society for the Expression of Cruelty, and placed the bird in a draughty situation—always productive in delicate lungs, of asthma. &c. Remedywarmth, and a cover to all cages, invalid or not, at night. By care, my birds live long, one 24 years. Give plenty of groundsel, called poison by some new beginners.—Henry Allen.

[3708.]—CARBONIC OXIDE.—Carbon should bo put into a retort, or glass flask, fitted with a bent tubo, some crystallised oxalic acid, and pour upon It five times its weight of oil of vitriol. On applying heat tho mixture is resolved into water, carbonic acid, and carbonic oxide ;paBS the ens through a strong solution of caustic potash, the carbonic acid will bo entirely absorbed, the carbonic oxide remaining unchanged. Another method is to heat finely-powdered, prusslate of potash with nine times Its weight of concentrated oil of vitriol; carbonic oxide is given off. which may bo collected over water. I presume "Carbon " has some knowledge of chemical experiments, If not he can hardly ensure success.—R. Hoddeb.

[3708.]—CARBONIC MONOXIDE—I beg to Inform "Carbon " that carbonic monoxide can be prepared In 4 other ways besides tho two he names. (1.) By heating oxalic acid with hydrle sulphate.

S COHo + Sk °lH0;1 = c°s + c"° + OH» +

S«0, HO, The oxalic acid is resolved, by means of the hydrio sulphate into Its constituent, carbonic dioxide, carbonic monoxide and hydrle oxide. Tho dioxide may ba separated from the monoxide by passi ng the mixed gases through a solution of potas Bic hydrate, which absorbs the former.

f2.) By heating potasslc ferroeyanide (yellow prussiate of potash) with hydrle sulphate Fc'(Cu"')24KCn + 0SviO,Ho. + 70H, a SSv'OjKO,

+ 35TM0,(NvH40), + SviOHOjFeo' + «C*0 That is, potassic ferroeyanide, hydrle sulphate aud water give potassic sulphate, amnionic sulphate, ferrous sulphate and carbonic monoxide. CI) Heat Iron or zinc with any carbonate. Tako zinc and potasBic earbouic

COKo, + Zn = OK5 + ZnO + CO Which give potassic oxide, zincic oxide (whicb two substances form, when amalgamated, potassic zinc K-ZuO,) and carbonic monoxide.

(4.) By taking the elements of water from hydric formjat. This Is done by adding hydric sulphate (which has a very great attraction for water; aud applying heat Ho C + SriO,HOj = CO + SviOjHo, + OH, Ho

In this reaction, as also In the reaction of the first method, the hydric sulphate remains unaltered. Chloride of tin can obtained from Jackson and Townson's BO, HNhopsgate Within, for 4d. an ounce.— , Edward Heard, A.a.

[Sii'.'J]— TURNING.—An amateur never will fiad a coarse sharp new tile remove the scale from his castiu"S which ought to have been first pickled, but from his description, I fancy that the castings arc not good, . and that the Interlorof the metal Is full of the oxide of zinc, which has a much worse action on the tools than any sandv surface. The rest of his question is . obscure.—<!■ 'ionKE.

[3710 ]—ARITHMETICAL QUESTIONS.— Every circle is cqunl to a parallelo, ram whose length is equal to half tho circumference, and tho breadth equal to half the dlnmeter; and as the area of a parallelogram Is found by multiplying the length by the breadth, it is evident that the area of a circle will be lound by multiplying half tho circumference by half the diameter and as 3 1416 is the circumference when the diameter la 1-, therefore If hair 3 1416, which Is 1 57"8, be multiplied bv -5(half of 1-, the diameter), the product will be -7851, the area of circle whose diameter is 1'.— J. Sharp.

[3711 1-CUSTOMS EXAMINATION PAPER — •' it P" should obtain tho Report of tho Civ 1 Service Commissioners, or obtain the Information from some friend who has passed the examination. Further information will be gladly given.—R. Uoddek.

[3717 l-COPPER AND SILVER COINS—In answer to my friend Mr. Samuel Smith, I beg to inform him that his large silver coin Is very similar to an Indian rupee, though, not having studied foreign coins very much, 1 cannot speak possibly ou the Buhject. Mr Batty, whose speciality is tho knowledge of tokens, will no doubt be ablo to give some information concerning the copper one.—Henry W. Henfrey, M N.S., fto., &c.

T3718] - TALL CHIMNEYS. — St. Rollox's Chemical Works, Glasuow.—Heigt (total) 447ft. (in height (above surf see), 432ft. 6lu.; diameter at base 45ft • diameter at surface, 40ft.; diameter at too lift Bn.: thirkucssat bottom, 3i bricks; thick, nes's at top. H bricks; internal Hue 200ft. high ; perectly vertical.—"Engineer and Contractor's Pocket Book for 1858." I have a working drawing of a. ■ himney nbout 120ft. high above surface which I e?n leud"Gninsboro,"ifho will promise to be very careful if it nud return it soon— .1. K. P.

T.17181-TALL CHIMNEYS.-Tho dimensions of •he tuilost chimnev iu tho world, that at TownseudChemical Works,Glasgow, are as follows i-IIei-it iiSft., outside diniu. at bottom 32ft, and at top Lit. ^in -.thickness at bottom 7 bricks, aud at top 1J bri'.ks. lUoSt. Rollox Chemical Works stalk is lisle, high,.

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214

ENGLISH MECHANIC AND MIRROR OF SCIENCE.

[may 20, 1870.

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and 30ft. outside diam. at base ; the rest of the sizes I do not know.—It. H. M.

[3720.]—BONK BLEACHING.—" O. S." will find Irving his bones in turpentine bleach them entirely, blit make them more brittle by во dissolving the albumen. For small pieces, take a common fryingpan and provide a lid to it, say a piece of sheet iron or tin plate, which havo handy to apply instantly in case the turpentine takes Are, which would be bad to allow to proceed for many reasons. The time for keeping the bones in the turpentine depends much on their condition, and experience alone would teach.— Q. Yobke.

[37No.]-CÜRIOÜS CHUCKS, BY " W. J."—I have never seen one of these chucks, but I have no doubt but that the tiree pinaoroatchesinthecentreare forced out by a spring on thennsorewing of the half of the chuck (a cut for whtoh I perceive in the engraving), and thus admitting the piece of iron, Ac, which on being «screwed forces the said catches by the hollow in the centre of the »aid half bolng formed in the shnpe of a cone, and thus rendering it a true centre chuck.— A Guernsey Amateur.

Г37йв.] — GENEVA CYLINDER. — In reply to "Cyl," the callipers need ore similar to the smaller pair of comp asses that have a tailor handle, usually contained in a superior case of drawing instruments; only where the points draw out tobe replaced by the pen or pencil, a screw with a not on one end of it passes through holes in both the legs. The legs are flat Instead of triangular, and spring like a pair of sugar-tongs where the compass opens and shuts with a joint. I do not know how any other tool could be roadoon take these heights, or how it could be ueed supposing one made. "Cyl" could take his height on a »Up of paper, or wood, or wire, and send it through the post to the tool shop, stating at the same time it was the height from the 'scape wheel to the end of the pivot.—Nobody.

[3?39.]-CHLORmEOFTIN.—"Amator Sclentia;" may succeed by asking for muriate of tin, salts of tin, or butter of tin. He can easily make It by dissolving tin in hydrochloric acid, (best in a copper vessel), having the tin in excess. On evaporating the liquid the salt crystallises out in prismatic needles.—R. UODOEa.

[37*1.]—TURBINE.—Aturblnowas afewyears since at work at the paper mills, Chafford, near Tunbridge Wells, A letter addressed to the proprietor. Turner, Esq., willno doubt enable "M.R.C. B." to have a view of the same.—K. Hoddek.

r37«.]-SILVER COIN,—In reply to Mr. Nash, his coin is an English silver balf-groat, or twopence of James I.'s 2nd coinage. The observe legend is

I. D. G. ROSA. SINE SPINA (James, by the grace of God, or a rose without a thorn). The reverse inscription is TVEATVR VNITA DEVS (may God uphold them in union). A common coin, worth about Is. It is described In my "Guide to English Coins," part

II, page 7«. Some half-groats of Charles I. are exactly like it, differing only In having " C." Instead of "I.' In the obverse legend. See page 81* of the same work.—Henky W. Hem'hf.v. M.N.S.. Ac., Ac.

[37«.1—PROVING STEA.M BOILERS.—There are two methods of proving steam boilers without unseating them, each of which is effectual, and at the same time safe to the operator. In the first case, by cold pressure having drawn the Are and allowed everything to cool down, run the boilerfull of water and put extra weights on the safety valve la order to prevent all escape; then disconnect the feed pump from the pipe, and attach an ordinary boiler-maker's force pump, and pump up the pressure until you find your steam gauge indicates at least 2 or 3. times the pressure you are likely to require under steam. Of course I am here taking your own figures— 101b. on the Inch—and unless your boilers are very old indeed, you ought to pump thorn up to, aay 501b-, good new boilers being generally proved up tM laolb. Having got the required pressure, let some one go into the flues and see if there is any leakage; if not, your boiler may be worked with safety, but if there is, have in a boiler-maker to set you right. The other way is to fill your boiler quite full, fasten down the safety valve, attach a pressure gauge, and then light a flre underneath. As the water expands by the warmth you will find the gauge will indicate the pressure, and when It is high euough examine the boiler carefully In the same manner as before directed while the pressure is on. I need scarcely say that the heat must not be carried far enough to generate steam, or the result, may be very serious. In the latter plan the boiler must be, as I have before said, quite full, or the experiment will not succeed.—T. S Cohibbee.

[3751 ,]-ASCARl DES.—Worms are mainly occasioned by poor living, too much fruit sad sugar, eating under-done meat, Ac. Certain unhealthy states of the constitution favour worms, as indigestion, Ac. Cure: —The best is an injection oonsi&tiug of tincture of pcrchlorlde of iron } dr, infusion of quassia 8oz.; inject a sixth part every night, or take a dose of cammony powdered 6gr., rhubarh 6gr., jalap (ige, calomel 4gr. Belter still, and more simple, a doseofrhubarb and masmcsla, about 30 gr. of the former to 2Л of the latter. To prevent their re-nnpearance, eat good wholesome food, and live innhealthy,well-ventilated house; take plenty of exercise. The canse ol their beiug felt more at the closeof theday is nodoubt due to thelrbeing carried down with the contents of the intestines,—if

HODDER.

[3751]-ASCARIDES.-Get a bottle of Cina AnthtlmmUca from anyjbomoeopnthtc chemist. Take 2 pilules 4 times a day, (not within 1 hour of meals) till rcalieved, then less frequently.-J. Nash.

[3751.]—ASCARIDES.-" A Great Sufferer" has my sincere sympathy. Man y years ago i was nearly frantic with those tormenting pests. Having a " Graham's Domestic Medicine" to Mud, I consulted Its pages, and followed the advice there given—viz., to ose un abundance of salt, and to take a teaspoonful of salt every day In water. It is a aontentu remedy but I strongly recommend "Л Great Sufferer" to persevere in taking it, and 1 am certain that the Ascarides will soon cease to trouble him, a« they do not relish thesalt nt all. I hope to hear that he is relieved— An Initio.

[373S.}—TURBINE WHEEL.-" A. B." must give some data to start upon—say height of fall or quantity of water available—as the speed and size of the wheel dopend upon these entirely; for the greater the fall, the less quantity of water required, the smaller the wheel, and the gi eater number of revolutions ; and Inversely, viz., the lower the fall, the greater the body of water, the larger the wheel, and the lesser speed obtained,—Senex.

[37fil.]—EMIGRANTS' INQUIRIES.—" Emigrant" couches his query in such peculiar languago thai "the learned E.R.G.S." has nearly determined to let him gain the Information he seeks from some other source. "F.R.G.S." has a " doubt " whether the use of such an unsought-lor expression was really meant as a sarcastic rnily on the part of the writer or not, tnd therefore "Emigrant" gets the benefit of the doubt. To his question I answer, the noxious animals, Ac, he mentions are to be met with In Natal—ride "African Hunting from Natal to the Zambesi," by W. С Baldwin ; Bentley.—F.R.G.S.

[3768.]—THEINE,—A. A. Attwood should try again. He may next time succeed, or he may,after evaporating, add alcohol, and crystallise from the aluohollc solution. I have obtained them many times by tho above process.—R. Hoddek.

[3767.1-FLY wnEEL ARMS.—They arc properly made so, as the thick part is w here tho strain comea The arrasare merely so many levers for transmitting to the heavy rim and back again the balance of work that the engine does at one part of the stroke over and abeve the resistances, and at another part of the stroke—viz., the dead points, work accumulated in the rim of the wheel, ready to be given back again when the engine power falls short of those resistance». -J. K. P.

[8768.]—POISONING BY CANTHARIDES.—Camr phor is the antidote.—J. Nash.

[3769.]—STREET TELESCOPE.—He may see a "street telescope" of 5ln. aperture in the Marylebonc-road, near the l'ortland-road Railway Station, on any fine night when either the Moon, Venus, Jupiter, or Saturn are conspicuous objects, and [also occasionally pick up some astounding bits of astronomical information. The old gentleman who exhibits the instrument informs me that the moon is the best paying object (excepting a good comet). Double stars and clusters do not "take." Nor the spots on the sun; they are not big enough to satisfy his customers. I have »Дао seen " street telescopes" in Harapetead-гоаД, near AiauthtU-equare, also near the Elephant ami Castle, and in tho Wnltechapelroad, but do not know if they are to be seen regularly.—G. F.

NOTES AID QUERIES.

[3774.]—LOOSE PULLEYS, Ac — What is tho best way to hush cast-iron loose pulleys or other cast wheels that have got worn iu the holes on the shaft; would It do to bore the bole larger and fill round the shaft with some composition? If so, what is the best composition, and how prepared?—Wb. Coblett.

[3775,]-EMERY GRINDSTONES.—A few replies have appeared, but none satisfactory to me. Will some one who knows give the best for sharpening reaping machine knives, Ac, how prepared, and where the emery may be purchased, and whether fine or coarse? —Wm. Coblett.

[377в.]-СА8Е FOR FERNS AND MOSS.—I wish to make a Wardian case for ferns and moss, about 3ft. long by 18in. broad, would some brother reader give me a handsome design, with instructions how te stock it, and what sort of soil to use; also treatment for the plants ?—Scolopeudbidm .

[3777.]—EAR BORING.—When a boy I was induced to have my ears pierced, and for soire time wore earrings, I have now abandoned such a foolish practice, but the holes in my ears are plainly visible; can any one advise me how to make them less conspicuous ?— Eepentakt.

[377S.]—LIGHTHOUSES,—Where can I obtain information on the subject of lighthouses, their history, construction, and management, as I am about to prepare a little lecture with diagrams .' — Ky i>.

[3779.]—BOILER.—Having a boiler with safety valve 3in. diameter, distance from fulcrum to centre of valve 8¿¡n., length of levers from centre el valve, 20in., weight of valve and lever 71b. Hoz., what will be the weight required at the end of lever for 001b. per square inch?—One In Need.

[3780.]— FOG HORN.—Would the "Harmonien» Blacksmith " have the kindness to iuform me Imw tiefog horn is made, and if it would do to be blown by steam? A sketch with dimensions would greatly oblige, and nodoubt would conler a favour upon more than one brother reader.—E. A.

[3781.]—PHOTOGRAPHY,—I should be glad if a brother photographer could inform me how to construct an exchange box for the dry process, explsininp It with diagrams; and also give his experience in working a vertical developing bath f—P. Makin. [3782J-POWER OF BOILER—Will "J. K. P.," or any other kind brother reader. please favour me bv giving me the following explanation:—1st What power could I obtain from a boiler, having the same dimensions as in the drawing? tnd, Also what thickness plates should I require for the above?—Hydkadlican.

[3783.]—TO "FOR1UNATUS.""W 111 " Fortunutus" be kind enough to say if the mixture us well as tho ointment for which he gave recipe in Reply 1871. p. SU, of No. ¡ML is for external application only; and if not, in what quantity, and how often should it be taken ?— T. B.

[3784.] -TO WATCHMAKERS. — When a pivot is broken off.

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deep, and both being lin. diameter, according to m rough sketch which I have enclosed ?—Flat Ano Coscavb Valves.

[3787.]-TEMPERING BUFFER SPRINGS.-I ebould be glad if you, or any of your correspondente, could inform me of a method to temper worm or hufler springs, those that are tapered at the ends ?—C. Y.

[37*80—BONE BREAKING.—May I ask one or more of your medical correspondents how it is that men employed daily breaking and reducing to powder with a bummer, large quantities of boues for rnauure, wit ¡i flesh and blood adiiering to them in a state of decomposition, do not suffer In health; surely they cannot derive any benefit from the minute particle« they inhule. To one unaccustomed to the work, the smell ie most offensive, but those employed do not, apparently suffer auy inconvenience, but the real stingo is when the vitriol is poured over the bones ?—С. T.

[3769.]—AVIARY.—I wish to make an aviary about 3ft. high, and would feel obliged if some kind reader will iuform me how to set about it, and the approximate cost?—A Lover Of Birds.

[37900-TH E VELOCIPEDE ROUNDABOUT.— Can anyone inform me whether the velocipede roundabout u patented, and what It would cost to make one, say for 24riders?—As Old Subscriber.

[The description given in our pages about twelve months sioco, was that of an American arrangement. An "Old Subscriber" may obtain a number If he likes.

[37910—CLIMATE, &c, OF OUR AFRICAN ANT> AUSTRALIAN COLONIES.—I observe with much pleasure "ours " is to be enriched with geographical nut.es by'* F.R.G.S.," and have no doubt but that many,, like myself, will feel greatly interested in this feature of our valuable paper. I fear I must seek out a milder climate belure the return of another winter. What I want from " F.R.G.8."is some information ou the climate of our different Australian and African <■ ilonles, with the advantages offered by each to a person of delicate constitution, but I hope as yet without disease. At same time a few facts as to the social and commercial state of the colonies brought under notice will be highly esteemed? I may mention I can carry with me a moderate amount of capltaL—NaoNata.

[37920—SEPARATING CHALK FROM WATER. —Can auy reader of the English Mechanic give me the construction of Dr. Cask's apparatus for separating chalk from ordinary pump water; and whether such, apparatus can be adapted for private houses? The water filtered through the chalk hills of Kent give a proportion of 1*02.17gr. of carbonate ol lime in solution to the gallon, thus impairing the quality of the water both for cleansing and iuiusing purposes.—J. Grayling, M.D.

[3793.]—COOKING BY GAS.—Will any of your numerous readers inform me whether the meat cooked in a gas stove (say roasted) is considered as wholesome and good as if roasted before a tire or baked iu the ordinary oven; also the beet shape for usefulness, and whether gas at 3s. 2d. per luOOft., or coals nt 23s. per ten, ie the most economical ?—J. M. 1>.

[3794.]—TO "NOBODY."—POLISHING STEEL.— I returu my sincere thanks to " Nobody " for his great kiuduoss in replying so minutely and clearly to my query reacting a Geneva cylinder, А В and also for the excellent diagram

m accompanying it ;1 shall now be able \ to proceed without difficulty. 1 '<■ should feel greatly obliged if he would I help me out of another dilemma— I; polishing steel. I use oilstone dust I and red stuff, but cannot'succeed in U^ imparting that beautiful black polish TM which is seen in a good watch. Anything ii;it X attempt is of a light grey eolour, and covered with minute scratches. Again, in trying" to polish pivots, I cannot prevent rings from forming. I use a brass centre, is there anything better than that; I notice iu balance staffs, two different shapes for the pivot« A and B, asper sketch. W ill " Nobody " give me his opinion which he thinks the best shape, and how tbey uru una. . Cylinder.

[37950-VULCANISING RUBBER,—I see in your issue ef the 29th inst., information respecting the system of vulcanising rubber, for which I was just «bout to write, The above not being sufficient, I beg to ask a few more questions. 1st. In what state shall I purchase the rubber, nnd where can It l>e obtained; also the very lowest price per pound, taking a quantity

/

obbor, to be of tlie A 1 quality? 2nd. I want fctlie rubber into an iron mould previous to vulBPg it, would a cast Iron -team chest with loose §0 to put the mould and rubber in and close the ■ up: if so, please saybow manypounds' pressure . Main should be put la and for what length of e, as f want the rubber stiff, and nt the same time atretch freely? Information will be thankfully received from'■'Dentist," or any other experienced friend,—X. Y.

[7T96.1—PROBLEMS.— I. N T Is the diameter of a circle, the centre of which Is M. Through it, a fixed point on this diameter, a straight lino is drajrn cutting the circle in O and S. It is required to prove Unit

tan. 1T M O, tan. } T M 8 = constant. II. In a spherical triangle prove that

a aa. (B — C) 6 sin. (C — A)

tan.i 1- tan,J — + tan.i

2 sin. B, sin. C 2 slu. 0, sin. A

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c sin. (A — B)

a sin. A tin B

in. Solve n* — J m r + O

108 where

m = oi + cl — a* M —a» c« — el n , and n = 4 f(2o» —6> —c!)(2i» —(« —cJ) (2ot_ai —tl)j

IV. Find the equation whoso roots are the differences of the roots of

pxt + j*l + n + i = O. V If two diagonals of a spherical quadrilateral be quadrants, prove that the third Is also; and state the well-known theorem of which this is the reciprocal.— Header.

[3?97.h-TELESCOrE STAND.—lam under great obligation to " F.R.A.S." fur his admirable letters on the telescope, also to " Hipparchiu " (p. 505. Vol. X.), a-id to Mr. Purklss (p. 604, VoL X), for their letters; but I want a little more detailed information about the construction of a good stand fur a refractor. Will ouo of the gentlemen above referred to oblige me. "Hlpparchus" refers to the Varley stand—what Is it like? Be also mentions "the simple apparatus for moving the telescope in right ascension, recommended by Lord Rouse—where can I find a description or illustrations of tbiB 1 I have a stand of the ordinary construction, but want some means of getting a slow, steady motion, both for finding and following stars ?—

TUHTON.

[3798.]—TUBE FOR 9n«. TELESCOPE.—Will any of your correspondents who have mounted specula, Inform me what thickness of sheet iron it is necessary to use for the tube of a 'Jin. telescope of 13 or 7ft. focus? —C. S. G.

[3799 ]—BRASS COINS.—Can any ol my brother readers inform me what coin this is, of which I seud a drawing half size .' It was found by me at Dalkcy,

[graphic]

eo. Dublin, near a Danish castle. I observed one nearly the same in one of the recent numbers of the E>glibei Mechanic. Made of brass and very thin.— V. IV K.

fS«oa]—PHOTOGRAPHY.—Can any of your subscribers inform m; If :i good vignette carte-de-visites cna be taken in a room with an ordinary window, about 4ft. wide, and facing the north ; if so, what apparatus would bo best lor the purpose?—Would-be

AN Aim ST.

[3S01.]-LEVER ESCAPEMENT.—Allow me to thank '■ Nobody " lor his instruction for Geneva cylinder; would he now kindly give me plain instructions to plaut a lever escapement, In converting or new work, proper dimensions, Ac. ?—Gracchus.

[M02.J—TO "8IGMA"—I beg to thank "Sigma" for bis kind answer to my query (gliding battery), but would he give me plain instructions, quantities, .vc, how to work ray battery successfully, how to suspend the sulphate, Ac.? I don't think he uuderstoou quite the kind of battery I have. First is a copper call, inside that stands a porous Wcdgewood pot, then suspended by a cross piece of wood in that, the zinc pole, set screw, lee., fastened in the pole.—Owe In A Fog

STILL.

I.M03.]—PRIMKOSES.—Can any of your g ardenlng correspondents tell me how to change the- colour of primroses?—J. D. Morgan.

FiSM.]—WATCH CLEANING —Would any oorreapondent oblige by telling on who does not know, bow to lake to pieces, clean, and put together again, one of those old watches; also a list of the tools required? This query appeared about a month ago. but 1 have seen no answer to it. A paper how to doctor disabled watches, like the oue we had on clocks, would bo very tiseful.-J. D. Morgan.

[;*05.]-REDNES8.—I am troubled with a very red face, especially while in a hot room, aud It burns very xa ucb, if any kind reader of our journal would name the cause, or if thero Is any remedy for it, would greatly oblige? I take scarcely any malt liquors or spirits.—Rougk.

r3-06.]-FOLI8HLNG FACETED GOLD CHAINS. —Would any of our Birmingham or London readers Kiy how the pollflhiug is done, such as the secret link pattern chain -. the squares are so equal, like the squares of the diamond; I think it is doue with a revolving atone, but what kind of a stone I am unable to say /— T. G.

[3*07.]-PAINTING STONES IN JEWELLERY. What method U used in giving thut brilliant colour to pale st<me< to make them a deep colour -, there Is some kind of paint used besides tin foil .'—T. G.

[3808.]—TO "SENEX."— Has "Scnex" seen my suggestions for attaining nn increased amount of power from an ordinary four-armed turbine, suited to low water falls, illustrated in the latter part of the late Ptuny Mecluinic? Will ho be kind enough to give a calctilatiou of the power attainable by it, as described; and what power he finds, attainable from a current of 200 cubic feet per minute by it, fall 7ft., diameter of table 14ft.? What I mean by no pressure, is no peud head of water required, but a sufficient amount that may flow from a conduit or rivuleL—J C. Siiewan.

[3SCJ.] —MODERATOR LAMPS —ADDLEPATED NONSENSE.—Can you or any of your correspondents

f;ivi: me the address ol a manufacturer of moderator amps I I congratulate you aud my fellow s ubsoribers ou the sterling merits of your magazine, if I might suggest one improvement, it would be the consignment to the waste paper basket of the letters of those gentlemen who, too lazy or too conceited tost udy what they talk about, have the assurance to ask us to join with them in dissent from Newton, Hersohel, aud a few others of similar calibre, aud in pronouuoing them cnoots and swindlers. It is not fair to call upon us to expose their addlepated nonsense. In order to disouss the matter with suob smatterers, one must first teach them the sciences on which tho subject depend*, of which they are sublimely ignorant, aud next a little modesty, a quality with which they are less acquainted still.—F. II. N.

[3810.J-PATTERN OF CYLINDER, Ac—I should be very much obliged if nnv pattern-maker would oblige me with a sketch and how to make a pattern for a steam engine cylinder, which, no doubt, would be serviceable to many leaders, and how the piece of girder is mndo mentioned in the Wliitworth scholarship— AM ATH.lt.

[3811.]—GUI ACUM.—Can any brother reader tell me what the medicinal properties are of tho gutacum plant, and whether infusing or distilling is the best way to obtain all the medicinal properties of herbs; and how much water Is used per oz. of herbs, so that a wineglass full oan be taken three times a day.—Fox.

[3812.J-CONDENSING ENGINE.-Can any reader Inform me why all condensing engines make such au unpleasunt noise upon finish of up-stroke of air-pump, and a remedy for It.—A Vert Old Subscriber.

[8813]—CLEAN CASTINGS.—Will any reader suggest a plan to get clean castings, free from sullage and airholes, which look very bad after being cleaned up and polished, and which is a great annoyance to oue who wants bis work to look welL—A Very Old Subscribeh.

[3814.]—HENDOZA PULLEY.—I would feel very much obliged if any of your readers could give a sketch and particulars of the manner of constructing and working a kind of pulley used In the jenny mule in spinning. It is for driving the spiudles as they wind on the thread, and has a double or rather a continuous groove for a band, the object being probably to give more bite on a small diameter. It was called (if not still in use) a Mendoza pulley.—J. B., Bath.

[3815.]—FAST ENING EMERY TO LEATHER.— Could any reader inform me how to make emery stick into leather to go round two pulleys at a good speed? 1 have tried gluo and white lead paint, but both wear olf very soon.—A. T.

[3316.J-PRESSING LADLES OR SHOVELS IN lO SHAPE.—Could any of your numerous reuders Inform me if there is any machiue In use for pressing ladles or shovel plates into shape. If ho could favour me with a sketch, I shall feel greatly obliged.— SnovEL Plater.

[3817.]—STEAMING WOOD.—Will any reador of the English Mechanic give mo the practical way 00 steam wood for bendijig; how long to be out down before it is steamed; and how long after before it is fit to use? The wood will be ash, elm, and oak — W. li.

[381R.]-TO "SIGMA."—Will "Sigma" please say If lie considers a quart cell of his battery to be equal in power, quantity, and constancy to a bichromate or Bunseu's of the same size, and also If be thinks such a battery capable of exciting au intensity coil ?—W. Barber.

L1819.]—CHEAP GAS.—Can any reader tell me of a plan for lightening my gas bills (which often come very heavy to myself and a widowed mother) by (for instance) causing the gas to pass through a reservoir filled with some hydrocarbon on its way from the meter, and thus causing au increase oflightwith less gas? Any information given in this journal relative to increasing the light of our London gas, at the same time (if possible) reduciug the cost, would, I an sure, prove acceptable to hundreds of its readers—Cheap Gas.

|3820.]-AQUATIC BOTANY.—What aquaticplanU of an interesting obaractcr are suitable for a gloss basin loin, diameter, to be placed in centre of room? —Oceola.

[SMil.J-WHEKL-CUTTiNG.—TO " J. K. P."-Our kind and practical ooriespoupeut, "J. li. P.," Vol. XI., page lit, Informs us that ho has been cutting some sieel wheels sin. pitch, Jin. deep, and through cost steel Jin. thick. Will lie have the kindness to give us a sketch of the teeth, for I have not seen any

12 that would work well whoso depth was above — of

15 5J •the pitch—viz., — outside the pitch line, and 6j

15 within the pitch line (that would be), tho working

depth —of gin. I think be would not clear well at

15 the points of the toolh, being so very deep.—.1. K. EngLand.

[3322.]-FORCE PUMP FOR BOILER.—What would be the size of a force pump to supply t>.c boiler

of an ongine with a cylluder 2Jin. diameter and Sin. stroke, the water to come from above? I should like to see a print of one as simple as possiblo, Ibe print in No. 267 being too complicated aud not sufficiently explained to my unprofessional eyes.—A Guernsey Amateur.

[3823.}-SLOT CUTTING.—To •' J. K. P."—Two

weeks ago a slot-cutting tool was shown In "our

journal." Several amateurs, including myself, could

not understand the shape of the tool and cutting

edges, and we should esteem it a favour if "J. K. P."

would give another illustration if it is for the lathe.

I give the result of my attempt at slot-cutting in the

lathe. Having a Jin. American twist drill, with 1 in.

of the fluted part only left. 1 eased off the back

along the two flutes, and sharpened edges to cut,

drilled a Jin. hole through strap iron Jin. thick,

entered the altered drill, fixed iron In tool bolder of

Bllde rest (lathe 5iu. centre), and with a speed

ordinarily Used for cutting wrought iron, cut a slot

by feeding up to tho cutter at tho rate of lln. in. 5

minutes. There may bo nothing new In this to

"J. K. P.," but numerous amtaeurs will doubtless

gladly avail themselves of this plan unless a better

can be shown. The drill I think originally cost Is.,

and the alteration may be made In to minutes.—J. F.

[3824.]—GOVERNORS.—Will any reader say what

Is the greatest variation of speed allowed by 1 be best

steam engine governor, aud give description of

governor. I presume there must be an Increase of

I speed before tbe governor ean act, and speed then

I rise in proportion to the work thrown off the engine1

I If, when the engine carries its full complement, a

| shaft runs at the rate of 60 revolutions per minute,

I how many revolutions per minute will the said shaft

be allowed to make if more than half the conipio

{ raont be thrown off .' also can the principle be applied .

to govern water wheels—Expectant.

[88*5.]—FROM" BOTHER WOOD" TO "JOHAN XES—1 am verysorry that tbe reply to Johannes should have been lost on its way to your office; bat if he will have the klndnes to Inform me how he is preceding with his gas works, and what information he now requires respecting the, I will endeavour to set him right—Rotherwood .

[Rolberwood's reply referred to above, did not reach ns, which we regret for the sake of Jabannes.—Ed. EM.]

[3826]^THE TELESCOPE. — Will "F.R.A.S." kindly give mo a description of a pancrattc eyepiece and tuoe, and how it is fitted to a Newtonian reflector. Also, If the lenses of tbe Ramsdon eyepiece are the same diameter ?— E. M. U.

[3827.]—NITRATE OF SILVER STAINS.-How can I effectually remove nitrate of silver, aud status of developers from deal floors, &c.? I have tried cyanide of potassium, but it only takes up too newest spots—Old Scrub.

[3828.]—KID BOOTS.—Could any kind reador give me a good receipt for preserving the new and soft appearance of ladies' kid boots, as most of the recipes have the effect of making the kid hard.—Old Scrub.

[3829.]—SOLDERING— How can I solder metal feet to oylinder bottom, which aro of east iron, so aa they will hold firm; aud what must I use for it when the cylluder gets heated by working; will it effect the soldering ?—TnoB. Stringer, Jun.

[3830.]—WIRE COVERING.—Tho wire covering machines hitherto illustrated do not suit my purpoM?. Will aay reader give a design for one for covering fine oopper wire with cotton. The machines gtveu in back numbers do not, moreover, provide for drawing off the wire when covered in a regular and even manner —

POMPET,

[3831.]-PLANT FOR STARCH AND CORN FLOUU MANUFACTURE—Can any of your readers give me particulars of the machinery or plant used iu the manufacture of the best quality of starch, corn flour, arabica, and maizena foods, with description of the proco>ses, or refer me to any work treating ou tho subject— Hotspur.

[3832.]—BURNISHING PLATE,—Can any correspondent give me instructions far burnishing silver spoons ana forks that are badly scratched, and describe the tool to be used ?—G. II.

[3833.]—TO "BO ATBU1LDER."—I should be greatly obliged to "Boatbullder" if he would send me a drawing, say about lin. to the foot scale, as 1 am one who contemplates" attempting this pretty art?*'—J. F. O'brien.

[3834.]—DUMB BELLS.—Will some reader kindly tell me of u good rcllabln book ou dumb bells ami Indian clubs. State publisher's name and price? An answer will oblige—An Apprentice.

[3835.]—CLEANING COLNS.- Can any fellow-subscriber inform me how to clean old coins so us to discover their inscriptions, &c—J. Nasb.

[3836 1-SCREW PROPELLER.—Will some brother reader kindly tell me the shortest aud best method lor calculating tbo pitch of a screw propeller .' Perhaps Mr. T. Brown will kindly assist.—T. J. O'C.

[3837.]—TO "ADEPT.'—I nn much obliged to "Adept" for his answer to my query. 1 am just, finishing my sound-boaid and wind-chest, so could not make the change he advocates. I shall therefore have to rely upon my pedal organ for bass. Fcrhiip-i he would give mc an idea as to what pipes I should use, what scale, and whether metal or wood? Would It be an improvement if 1 inserted a viula di gamba or hautbuy in plaeo of the 12th aud loth ?—Geo. M. Little.

Numismatists are reminded by the Atheturiim, to be quick iu securing specimens of the Kouuialu coinage, Ik cause the Porte has protested against it as being iu dehtnee of the tirman of Investiture, bearing, as it does, only the effigy ot tho Prince win,cut any recognition of the suzerainty of the i'urtr.

A Rum of money subscribed in Germauy for presentation to Uarou Liebig has, by Ills request, been devoted to the fouudatiou of a prize, to be called. tfie Lieblg Medal, ami to be given from tlrae to time for sm-ntltic investigations iu subjects connected with agriculture.

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Hermann.—Refer to the page qnoted.
Sam Mcxdt.—A postage sump will not do.
Snakkstone,—We know of none. Some good information
was given by a practical man in our Jast Volume; see
Index.
T. H. S.—See recent hack numbers.
A. Solomon.—Directions have appeared in back numbers

ffor making inks of all colours. Wm. Batey.—We do not favour private communications. Can you not make your directions plain to " Little Charley " by means of a sketch? Then all will benefit, and not he alone. J. P. Smitii.—Consult the first elementary engineering book

you can pick up. Ao.rAMBUl.AToa says he has invented an arrangement whereby he can walk on the water without ihe use of balancing poles, inflated bags, sx., and he waits an enterprising person with money to insure its immediate introduction. He must advertise. J- ,1 —Your letter, in fact, was so badly written that we could not make head or tail of it, and hence its nonappearance. Equatorial.—Your letter contains nothing new. We have given enough space to the subject by inserting Mr. Beardeley's letters. J. it. James.—In due time.

0. 11. S.—We have a partiality for the arts of peace, hence the delay in publishing articies on war vessels. Besides, as a rule, we have more respect for facts than notions, and particularly in matters relating to vessels of war. We edited for some years the Mechanic's Magazine, which at the time devoted much of its space to gunnery aad war vessels. In fact, we took the management of that publication, when Mr. E.J. Reed left it to become Chief Constructor of the Navy. The number of projects suggested for building and improving iron and iron-clad ships "was amazingprojects which are now sleeping in oblivion. Let it not be supposed we eschew notions when they may relate to war. But as our space is limited, and the demands on it are numerous, we prefer verification to speculation. W. Morris says he can endorse the statement of " F.R.A.S.," on page 159, that "there appears to be a recent fasbion with people who have nothing else to give to offer prizes." He says he was sufficiently lucky on a recent occasion, to win a prize, but by some means or other it never came to hand, though he has written several letters about it. He, however, consoles himself with the thought that if it came to hand, it would not, in all probability, be worth the carriage or houseroom. Edward Malbos.—Our former decision must be adhered to with regard to your letter, simply because it is beat for all parties. We cannot reply to your first query. With regard to the stone-breaker, you would have to be careful that you did not add anything'contained iu his specification. G. Edwards.—The drawings and description not good

enough. J. R. T.—As you expected. "The Editor's capacious waste basket has swallowed up your letter.'' One Beardsley at a time is enough. K. B. Saul.—The reason was that we could not even read your signature. Names and addresses should at all events be readable. But some of us are so familiar with our writing, and particularly with our own signatures, that we fancy others must be also. This is a mistake. 1. Y. in a letter suggests that " a mode of propulsion for the velocipede might he applied after the principle of the oar, but with the fulcrum differently situated, the free end having a purchase on the ground. A method of guidance may he made hy the feet, and other means." Suppose it I would act, what on earth would be gained? W. T., Delta, And T. Savaoe—No stamps enclosed. R- T. S.—A good suggestion. Thanks. Trust.—It is somewhat beyond our province to point oat or

to recommend any particular manufacturer's goods. J. R. T.—The insertion of your letter would ooly advertise the journal, wliieh has for months been trying in vain to get a circulation. It is well known to be a s'ignal failure, and we are not going to assist it by holding a controversy winch it is so desirous topruvokc; besides, we believe "J. IV. T." is too magnanimous to strike a man when he is down. Q. YoRk'e.—Your writing on one side of the paper is sufficient. It Is well-to put the number and the title of the query . answered. Thankis.

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e cannot give more space to the suli

J. H. Twitciiell

jeet.

TnE " Sixpenny Sale Column" is the only place in which cm
appear queries sent hy Joseph Tavlor. Photo. MA., Oxford
J. Brow H. H. Fry, A Brass Moulder, Amateur (Welsh
books), J. IS ash (second query). Colour.
Juvexile had belter consult n good optician. We can hardly
trouble '• F.R.AS." with manv of such queries; they take
up tune which is valuable to him and our readers.
James Liston.—We have no space for problems of the kind

you send.
Mechanic —See back numbers.

E- G- F. —H'e very much fear no such scheme will ever bn
round practicable. Lnokineat the size anil power required
to move the spring of an ordinary barrel organ, we cannot
but remain incredulous.
Damiel Keat.—See pp. 210, 460, 475, Vol. X.
A New SuRscaiBta—Buy the indexes.
PoMPEY.-Your second letter warrants the appearance of t lie

query; inserted aecordinglv.
Stitcher.-- Practical Man'- will doubtless deal with the

subject in due course. T. Dionet.—See replv to " E G.F." Charles Notes.—" Feu Follet" is either unable or unwilling to reply, or he would not have neglected the query, which has now been asked three times. Abolish Mechanic.-We cannot ask for directions to

enable you to manufacture a patented article. Lpsii.on.—We have the numbers; thev were sent to You last week addressed Mr. R B. Iitine. which appeared to' be your name from your signature. Perhaps they may he lying at your post office. FALSTArr.—A good series of articles on painting and decoration is at present appearing in the Building Nebs. Inquire of F. J. Cov, who advertises in our pages. THANErUL.—If you turn to page 143, von will see that another querist has anticipated you by'asking "Fortunstus" the same question. His replv is not vet to hand, and You had better watch for it than write grumbling letters without cause. VENTRiLOOnisH (F, Manheerman) —A natural gift, only to

he improved, and not acquired, by oractice.
Arch-druid.—We know of none, and surely with our back

numbers you cannot want any.
A Morayshire Man.—Thanks. Next week.
Thomas J. O'connor (Wexford).—Many thanks.

THE ENGLISH MECHANIC LIFE-BOAT
FUND

Subscriptions to lie forwarded to the Editor, at the office, 31
Taviatockstreet, Covent-garden, W.C.

Amount prevlD^sly acknowledged £179 14 4

F. Weatherhogg 0 10

Sara Mundy 0 3 0

J. C. Shewan (3rd dona tion) 0 10

New Subscriber 0 0 8

English Meclmnic 0 0 C

E. M.B 0 10

£180 1 4

THE INYMTOR.

Iir obedience to the aim mentions of a number of readers, we ha»-edecidod on appropriating a portion of our space to a condensed list or patent! as nearly as possible up to the date or

our issue.

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APPLICATIONS FOR LKTTBR* PATENT DURING THE WEBK ENDING M*Y 9. 1A70.

1280 A. Barlow, Alhlon-road, Dalston. and H. Br owne textile fabrics for book cover*

1201 P. J. Llvsey, Manchester, machinery for prlnMng upon spools used for holding thread and like materials.—A communication

lmiJ.A. Emslte.Tarbert. Argyll, and J. T, Ensile. North shields, apparatus for lilting, forcing, or conducting liquids. ga«es, or atr

12fl3 H. Belmont. Romford, apparatus for cultivating land

1204 T. Bradbury, Shrewsbury, and J. Bamford, Manchester, comiiiumciting between passengers, guard, aud engine driver

«» J. Ormerod Whaley-bridge. Chester, looms

12M 8. Taylor, Birmingham, rack pulleys for the cords of window blinds

1207 E. P. North. Birmingham, supports for supporting and adjusting umbrellas

1208 W. II. Preeceaud W. E. Langdon, Southampton, working railway signals

1249 J. Tirauoff, S. Petersburg!!, apparatus for preventing railway carnages running off the line

1270 A. M. Clark. 6a, Chancery-lane, improvements in traotion and locomotive engines.—A cunmnnicatton

1271 J. Guy. O. J. Guy, and F. S. Guy,South-street,Flnsbury, copylag letters

1272 G. Wright. Maaboroygh. brick -making machines

1273 A. M. Clark, M, Cnnncery-lane, steam carrlnges for common road locomotion.—A communication

1374 W. Woodward and A. Woodward, Manchester, apparatus to be used in connection with retorts for thu manufacture or gas

1275 C. P. untthews, Grantham, preparation to bo applied to the tnsldes or casks

1870 W. N. Hut-ohinson. Welloshoume, Devon, Improvements in the ex-luting iron rails of railways and tramways, and in the construction of rails for future lines of railways and tramways

1277 W.o. Rawlins and A. Knowles, Liverpool, improvements in reversing gear for engines

1178 O. Exter. Munich, Bavaria, an Improved brake applicable to the rolling stock ofrallways

1x79 H. Kimsey, Nottingham, improvements in wheels for carriages

1280 B. Walker and J. p. A. priaum, Leeds, machinery for puddling

1281 J. Campbell. Belfast, Improvements in drawing flax and other librous substances.

1282 P. M. Blyth, Norwich, harvesting machines 12S3 B. Burton, 40, Le idHnhaU-atreet. hreecn-looding lirearms and cartridges therefor

I28i G. Ingram, 37, MarylebonoToad, regulating the lift of carriage windows

1285 J. li. Uickmott. Carlisle, raaufacture of gas And coke

1280 W. R. Lake. Southampton-butliiiugs, improvements In stouiu engines.—A communication

1387 A. V. Newton, Ot), uhancery-iane, apparatus for cleaning gram and seeds.—A communication

1288 J. 11. Johnson. 47. Liucolu's-lnn>flelds, treatment of maise.—A communication

1289J. H. Johnson.47, Llncoln's-inn-flelds, improvements in safes, chests, bank vaults, and other like pjlructure*.—A communication

PATENTS SEALED.

32! - TM W*,ker TM* A- Walker, an Improved gn m-ter

Si'. » ^,Jrkl^l!,■ »PP*ratns for ploughing or eulUvatiav leil holder '0e!,, * "pecU1 *nd K<5aeri11 P'P«. card, ot («■»

3223 K. ThnmaH, mln-rs' aafety lamp*

«h? IV-n°n,1«vv»nd. improvemenu m balanoe^ f .P welching wTl.i >tl In?<!n Q- B,n,°n. »nd T. Whltahoa.1 and If. W nhiir head, machinery for combing woaL cotton, flax, and other Bbrou* »ubstAnco*

32A2 0. Sinipfoo. andL. Strauss, arrangemgnts «r apparatus for wittnlmwing b«Torage« or other UqaiiLi from o.*«k<

32M J. M. Rowan and T. U. Horton,lmprorenienCi ln»teanienjrliiev and boilers ^^

XK>7 V. Wilson, improvements In locks'and Is'chcs I2.V* H. Rochatte, lmproremsnU in breech-loading flre-ArnM wft)» central perctiwlon 32(11 fl. Shaw, Improvement In ntaehlnery f>-tr eut'lng aoan. 3268 T. Snow, an Improved column for exhiblciug notlcoi a* railway atatlon*

3273 h. H. Hannaford, Improvementa In spparwtu* for working, locklng.and controlling railway switches

3374 W, E. Gedge. composition to be nsed si a coating for pre•crying metal.—A conimunieatlsn

3275 W. E. Geilge, machine for cutting, drilling, and shaping wood mid moUls.—A communication

3280 P. Olarbour and W. K. Tesle, improvemenU in mlolnj lamps

3292 C. D. Abel, a new or Improved process forrcnnlnr and deailvenug lead.—A communication

3310C. Chin/, linprovetnoots in the boilers of hot-water apparatus 3-V.7 K. K. Miller and A. B. Herbert. Improvements in pump* 3*ii C D. Abel, improvements In the means and apparatus for utilizing Atreams, motive power.—A communication

3110 J. Fletcher, sen.. J Fletcher, j tin., and W. Plelcher. Improvements ]u mortar mills and other machines of the lite nature

3118 G. B. MoFarland, a new and improved convertible doiihlc-centre rotary engine

3*129 T. Parry, and J. Mo Hardy, an improved drag or brake applicable to wheeled vehicles

3718 0. H. Roeckner, and W. H Northoott, improvements lu the process and method of disintegrating wood 408 J. Thompson, an Improved spindle for door-handles 711 J. Jeavons, improvements in the manufacture of armour plates

3203 C. Brakcl, Improvements in obtaining and applying motive power ssv, O. hVJse, improvements In pistons for steam engines 3240 G.I). Edraeston, improvements iu hammers to be worked by steam or other elastic fluid

3209 W. E. D ibsnn and F. Dobson, Improvements in shawls mad'! on lace machines 3371 H. K. Minns, improvements In letter pillar posts 3281 T. A. Dillon, an improved safety lamp 3232 W. Klohardson, improvemeuts appilc.tbla to valves of steam engine cylinders

3283 H. H.Grierson and J. M. Klgby, improvements in machinery for cutting or dressing stone 3290 P. Brampton, improvements In locks 3-W2 W. Sngley, a new or improved friction engine 3317 E. Basin, A. Jtuiz, and E. Le Pelietler, improvements In spuming looms 3M0 H. Byk, roflnlng and bleaching pariffln 3013 W. McGee and W. McUee, doubling and winding Bbrous materials 707 iJ. vf. Spenoer. improvements In llmokllnji 7*> J. T. Walker, horseshoes

781 W. K. Lake, an Improved machine for forming trenches orditohea.— A communication am J. H. Johnson, improvements in crimping machines 850 O.J. Byre, apparatus for producing muti/H po*«r 870 W. B.. Lake, Improvements In turbine water whssls.—V coram 11 nl cation

»7t W. 1*. Lake, Improvements in the preparation of ammo* niated sulphuric acid for the manufacture of manure.—A co.n municatlon

885 W. it. Lake, Improvements in the valves of steam engines. and in tho mechanism Iwr operating the same.—A oummiuiioati> n

899 H, Smith, improvements In machinery foe doubling and winding cotton.

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WHAT STRIPES THE SUNBEAM.

B* i Fellow Of Tue Rotal Astkosomicai

Society.

(Continued from page 1'.+.)

AS wo have seen that it is to the joint research of the two German philosopher?, Bimsen and Kirchhoff, that wo owe our fir?t knowledge of the chemical constitution of the Sun, so it is to the combined investigation of two eminent Englishmen, Mr. William Hnggins, F.R.S., and Dr. W. A. Miller, F.R.S., that we are indebted for nearly all that wc know about the chemistry of the stars, nebuLre, and comets.

Considering that onr own moon and the planets merely reflect to na the light of the Sun, it might, at the first blush, be imagined that nothing as to theiTowncbcmical constitution could be learned by a spectroscopic examination of them ; but, remembering what we bave previously said about certain dark lines which are very conspicuous in the Solar spectrum when the Sun is near the horizon, and which certainly have their origin in the absorptive action of the Earth's atmosphere, a little reflection will «uffice to show us that, if the Moon or any of the planets possessed a similar atmosphere to ours, this would intensify the absorption lines to an extent which would be very perceptible. As far as the Moon is concerned, the spectroscope only serves to add to the vast mass of negative evidence we possess, and to increase the moral probability almost to a certainty that she has no appreciable atmosphere of any sort or description whatever. An experimental observation of Mr. Huggins'e, as beautiful and ingenious as it was conclusive, may be held to have set this matter at rest. It is well known that the Moon, in the course of a lunar month, describes what is, in effect, a great circle in the Heavens. In doing so, she must, of course, pass over and hide the infinitely dist nt stars which lie in her path, so that they will disappear at her advancing limb, and reappear at the opposite one as she travels on. These phenomena are called occultations, and are familar to all who take the smallest interest in the face of the night-sky. In fact we give a list every month, in our " Astronomical Notes," of all occultations up to sUrs of the sixth magnitude. Now, suppose that the Moon had an atmosphere, we should see the star by refraction after it was actually behind the Moon • and it would seem to reappear at the opposite limb, from the same canse, before it had in reality emerged ; just as we see the Sun before it has really risen, and after it has really set. But the differently-coloured rays are differently refrangible—the violet the most, and the red the least {so that if the Moon had an atmosphere, the red end of the spectrum would die out first, and the spectrum would fade away up to the violet, which would be the last to oisappear. On the 4th of January, 18G5, then, Mr. Hoggins observed the occultation of the star с Viscium with the spectroscope, with the special purpose of detecting any gradual fading out of the pectrum, should such exist ; but, says that gentleman, " The advance of darkness upon the spectrum, since it occurred precisely in the direction of its breadtb, swallowed np the rays of different rcfratgibilitiea throughout the whole extent of the visible spectrum at the same instant."

Jupiter, however, shows lines in his spectrum indicative of an absorbing atmosphere, and one band, notably, does not correspond with any of the lines of absorption in the terrestrial atmosphere, and, therefore, is a sign of some gas or vapour which is foreign to our air. Saturn has, probably aqueous vapour in his atmosphere; and Mars seems to have a gaseous envelope exceedingly like our own. No intensificatiou of the atmospheric lines is perceptible in Venus at all.

Leaving, however, our own system, let ns see what the «pectros.ope has revealed to us of the constitution of those almost infinitely remote bodies which spangl» the dim depths of space,

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the etars. And here we mav say that no one ein ever view a fixed star in this instrument without the greatest astonishment a.', and admiration fur, the labours of those (amongst whom Mr. Hnggins is facile princeps) who have obtained such remarkable results as those of which we are now about to speak : the extreme relative faintnese of the spectrum of a fixed star; the difficulty of maintaining its imago accurately upon the slit of the spectroscope ; the ondulation and confusion of the lines from the twinkling of the object viewed, and other noticeable canses, combine to render the mere observât on of the spectrum of a star an undertaking of the most laborions and difficult nature. What, then, must we think of the task of measuring accuiately the position of lines in it?

In order that we may identify the substances to the absorptive action of whose vapour the dark lines in the spectrum of any given star are referable, it is necessary, as we have before explained, that wo should possess the means of bringing the spectra of the suspected substances into juxtaposition with that of the star itself. Tho little prism D in Fig. 8 supplies us with the means of doing this, as it enables ns to see at a glance whether the bright lines of tho incandescent vapour which we are producing in our observatory, concide with, or appear to be prolongations of, the dark on-s of the star spectrum.

When this is done, we shall be struck with the diversity which exists in the spectra of various stars. Hnggins gives a description of the spectra of the twostars Aldebaran and a Ononis for tho purpose of comparison, and has made a marvellously accurate drawing (too delicate and complicated for reproduction here) of the dark lines which they respectively exhibit. In one thing, however, they and other stars obviously agree, and that is in their light yielding a continuous sp:ctrum striped by dark lines or bands ; so that we can only infer that they are Snns.resembdn.' onr own in having brilliantly white-h't nuclei, the light from which passes through atmospheres containing absorbing elements. With regard to the two stars which we have just specially mentioned, we may say that the two hydrogen lines С and F (Fig. 7, p. 172) are present in the spectrum of Aldebaran, but absent from that of a Ononis; so that we see that the atmosphere of Aldebaran does (like that of our own Sun) contain hydrogen, while it has no existence in that of я Ononis. Four lines of calcium, also a solar metal, are present in both stars, as is our old friend sodium; in fact, Huggins and Miller have detected nine elements at least in Aldebaran alone. We have just said that hydrogen is absent from a Orionis. So far as we know, it is wanting in only one other star, |3 Pegasi. All the other stars which have been examined contain this element, which plays a part of such extraordinary importance in our own Sun's atmosphere. Sodium, magnesium, and iron also would seem to be present in a large proportion of the stars. Wc may well stand appalled at the grandeur of the conception thus realised, that the whole of the visible universe is knit together by the identity of the elements of which it is composed!

The next question which Huggins set himself to determine was, will the spectroscope throw any light on the cause of the diversity of colour in the fixed stars? and he ha 1 not long to wait for an answer. Commencing with that brilliantly white star, Sirias, he found that the dark lines of its spectrum were equally distributed all over it; so that rays of all refrangibilities or colours, being equably obscured, the light appeared to the eye to be colourless. Turning now to the larger component of that lovely double star, a Herculis, he found its spectrum crossed by numerous dark lines in the deep red, green, and blue, leaving the yellow and orange relatively free from shading; so that the light affected the eye as a

bright orange. Carrying on this same system of research, Huggins ascertained that in those pairs of stars conspicuous for the beautiful contrasts of colour they present, the same explanation applies —that is to say, that a star whose spectrum was thickly ruled with dark lines in the red, yellow, and greon. would appear of a vivid blue, while a corresponding shading at the more refrangible, or violet and blue, end of the spectrum of a star would cause it to appear to the eye as of a red hue. Father Sccchi, of the Observatory of the College at Rome, in his " Catalogo delle Stella di cni si ó Determínalo lo Spettro Luminoso," published in 1867, divides all the stars ¡Dto three groups: Firstly, the white stars, Sirius, Vega, ß, 7, I, f, £, and >; Uisaj Majoris, &a, having four well-marked black lines coinciding with the hydrogen ones. His next group comprises the yellow stare, such as Arcturns, Pollux, a Ceti, our own Sim, ¿EC; thirdly, the red and orange stars, a Herculis, a Orionis, Antares, ice,, the spectra of which are cut up into a series of bright and dark bands, increasing in intensity towards the red. Since then, Seechi has added a fourth group, consisting of small red stars, whose spectra present three bright zones increasing in intensity towards the violet.

And here, before passing to the next division of our subject, we must, parenthetically, tell the story of tho m rvellons result of the application of the spectroscore to the examination of an otherwise unaccountable phenomenon observed in the Heavens in the year 1866. On the night of May the 12th in that year, an Irish gentleman, Mr. John Birmingham, of Tuam, saw a perfectly new star, which he described as "very brilliant, of about the second magnitude," next to £ in the constellation Corona Bureaus (vide Vol. X., p. 65). This star was observed by Mr. Baxendell, of Manchester, on the 15th, and afterwards by numerous observers in various parts of the country. We have called it a perfectly new star, but in fact it was only so in the sense of its appearance as a large and brilliant object, where nothing but a star of the 95th magnitude bad previously been known to exist. It had arrived at its greatest brilliancy per ealtum, or by a jump, for there would appear to bo abundant negative evidence that it was not visible to the naked eye prior to the night of Mr. Birmingham's discovery of it, when it vied with the brightest of its neighbours in lustre. From the time that it was first seen it began steadily to decline in brightness until about the middle of August, when it had diminished nearly to the 10th magnitude. Four nights after it was first detected by Mr. Birmingham, Mr. Huggins and Dr. Miller examined it with the spectroscope. Tne results they obtained are so extremely remarkable, that wo shall give them, to a great extent, in Mr. Huggins'e own words. He says: "The light of the star is compound, and has emanated from two differentsourcee; each lightformsitsownspectrum. The principal spectrum is analogous to the light of the Snn. The portion of the star's light represented by this spectrum was emitted by an incandescent solid or liquid photosphere, and sullered partial absorption by passing through an atmosphere of vaponrs existing at a temperature lower than that of the photosphere." Omitting the description of this absorptive spectrum, which d>es not here concern us, we proceed to quote Mr. H.'s account of the other: "The second spectrum, which in the instrument appears to be superposed npnn tho one already described, consists of five bright lines. This order of spectrum shows that the light by which it was formed was emitted in the shape of gas." It only remains now to say that these bright lines coincided with those of the spectrum of hydrogen ; and tho reader, if he have thoroughly comprehended what we have said on pp. 146 and 127, will be able to draw for himself the true inference from these appearances. It is simple this, that we were looking at some sudden and

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