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silver, and how it ia melted or cast ?—Another Flautist.

[3847.]—HANDR AILING.—Could any brotherreader kindly Inform me which is the best practical work on handralling ?—J. I».

[3S4S.] — SEWING MACHINE—Will "Practical Stan " give mo n little assistance? I want to make a sewing machine, and propose using a shuttle, driven in a direct manner from a cam. What I want to know, 1« 1. Is there any stand in the motion of tho shuttle, oris it a continual motion, same as derived from a crank, and If so, what is tho best form of cam? 2. Best size of shuttle, and how to make it? Are they bent out of sheet steel and brazed, or how? 3. How much is the stroke longer than the shuttle? 4. At what time in the stroke of the needle should the shuttle Btart to go through the loop >— Jacquard.

[3849.]—STUFFED CANARY.—Will somo brother reader inform mo how to clean a stuffed canary which has got dirty by being left without a glass shade': —


[3850.]-THERMOMETER.—I have trot a thermometer, which by accident got knocked down, the fall causing the mercury to separate Into several columns. I have, by gently tapping it, caused some of them to unite, and by applying neat and raising the mercury to the top of the tube, others have united: but 1 am afraid of breaking tho tube by this latter experiment. Will some one tell me how to cause them to unite, or if I shall have to send it to some competent person, how much will it cost repairing ?—Thermo.

[8851.]—HARNESS.—I have got n sadile and bridle, that have got very much soiled and dirty through carelessness and neglect, will any of tho readers of the English Mechanic be kind enough to tell mo tho best method of cleaning them ?—Equestrian.

[3862.]—BRASS INSTRUMENTS. — Would Rome brother reader inform me how bends of brass musical instruments arc made; I have something of the sort to make in zinc, but don't know very well how to set about it?—Clutha.

[3863.]—THE TELESCOPE.—Is there any subscriber who will favour me with a reply to tho following: —In looking at Jupiter with a 3in. retractor, I found the belts brought out more distinct than with a 3 75in., which is in the possession of a frieud. The eye-piece used on both occasions was a 4in. Huygheuian. My reason for asking is this; the proportion of lightgrasping power between the two instruments is as 9 is to H'(XV25, therefore it (the 375in.) should show the contrast between the brighter part of Jupiter's body and its belts more apparent, ana with greater distinctness due to large aperture. On testing the instruments the same evoniug, as to spherical abberation, we found the 37fdn. to have been over-corrected. The method used was the one given in Proctor's " Half Hours with the Telescope." A word to those gentlemen who arc possessors of telescopes and microscopes; tho eyepiece of the microscope can be used with the telescope, and is found to have a largo field of view, and necessarily to have a small amplification I have used the two eye-pieces of my microscope with tho telescope; they had a field of 1° 5o'and2° 15"?—William Bagulev.

[3854.]—SCRIBBLING LONG FLEECE WOOL.— Can auy brother reader inform me, what kind of scribbler is best adapted for scribbling long fleece wool, without oil on the wool, as it is liable to lap round the cylinder ?—Eddy.

[38860—PJAJTO FELT.—Would somo kind reader inform me how piano hammer and damper felt is made, or if I could see it made in England ?—Tim Bobbin.

[3850.]-J. A. LEY'S TRICYCLE—What would a good strong, but light tricycle, made for two, on Mr Ley's (or any other) principle suitable to go a long distance, with wheels of about 4ft. (iin. cost, speed being a great consideration. At the same time, perhaps, " G. A. L." or some other kind brother, would inform me wbat speed could -be obtained with one having such wheels, if worked by cranks and levers ?— W. B.

[3857.]—PICTURE MOUNT.—I wish to know how to cut a picture mount, any shape, and also how to gild it, and the tools required. If one of your subscribers would kindly inform me how to do so, ho will gr mtly oblige.—Poor Jack.

r385S.]—HOLE IN KARTHENWARE JAR.—How ca i I drill a hole lin. diam. in the bottom of an ear'henware jar—an ordinary large brown pickle jar? —H JosEPn.

[3-59]-FLORENTrNE BRONZE. — What is the met lod of bronzing some ornamental pieces of bras* wore a copper colour, 1 think the gasiittors call it Flor -mine bronze ?—H. Joseph.

L^SbO.]—COPPER COIN.—Can you, or any of your

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answered. I should very much like to see it an swered as, also I hnvo no doubt, would many others .'—carl J. II. Cottheson.

[3863.1—FASTILIES—Will any render give me a recipe for making pastilles for burning in a sick chamber ? -W. R. C.

r3S(H.]—EXTRACT OF DANDELION.-Wouid anykind reader tell me how to make extract o( dandelion, same as sold by druggists?—A Toor BlackSmith.

[3Sf>3.]-LABEL MATRIX MAKING—Conld any of your readers Inform me how the gun metal matrix, as underueatli die of an embossing press is made for stamping up brass or paper labies. I have the steel dies by me ?-W. H.

[38(1«.]^" LATHE AND ITS USES."—Would any reader tell an amateur the dimensions of universal cutter. Vol. V., page 202, Fig. 256. aud if the cutterspindle works on Bteel bushes ?—G. Flackdem.

[38070-LATHK DIVIDING PLATE.—4 description of a dividing or counting index, to prevent errors in using the dividing plate, is earnestly requested.— R.

psfiS.j-WATERFROOFING CLOTH.—If some of your numerous correspondents will give me directions how to make cloth waterproof, I shall esteem it a favour?-A. S. A.

[3Sfi9.]-WEIGHT OF WATER —Being a country man, and living in the country, lam obliged to recourse to a well for domestic supply, and I have been often surprised to Bee such a vast difference in the weight of a bucket of water at the bottom of the well, which Is 90ft. deep, to what it Is at the top; would some of your talented correspondents explain this, and give me a simple rule to work it out?—Countryman.

[SS7i.]-SPRINGS AND AXLES FOR WAGGONS. —Would some of your numerous correspondents kindly give me a simple rule for finding the size of waggou axle bearings, to carry various weights ; also the size of springs to carry various weights .'—country CarPenter.

[3S7l.]-TfIROTTLE VALVE.—Would nnybrother reader kindly give me illustrations and particulars of a throttle valve for an engine 1 h.p.; the engine I have fitted up myself ?—Grocer.

[3872.]—YACHT BUILDING—Will "Boat Builder" kindly fulfil his promise, and give dimensions and kind of wood for the following parts of a 9 ton yacht, to be fast, but at the same timo safe? Keel, stem, and stern-post, timbers and plauking. Does ho approve of the deep and narrow form, depending on ballast for stability, or the broad beams aud plenty of bearing. A few sections like what were given for canoes, would greatly assist, as I am totally igaorautof tho subject? —steersman.

[3873.]—BOOKBINDERS' GLUE.—Would any of the correspondents of your excellent journal, kindly tell me the kind of glue used by bookbinders ; if it is the same as joiners' use, and where 1 could get a cheap book on bookbinding, giving price, stationer, &c. .'— Aristotle.

[3874.]—CONSTELLATION. —Would any of the astronomical correspondents tell me the name of the cluster shown in the sketch; it haB lately disappeared in the west, but doubtless all the astronomers of this


paper know it; also, will any of them give mo a sketch of the Pleiades, as I could not see them in the Bpot indicated in " F.R.A.S.'s " map ?—Aristotle

[SS75.]-BLEACHING POWDER.—I should esteem it a favour if some of your correspondents would inform me the method of making the commercial "bleaching powder," on a large scale ?—Gratus.

[387ii.]-TOOLS FOR TURNING PIVOTS, fee I shall be very much obliged if some of our friends will bo kind enough to explain and describe the latest modern tools for turning pivots, cylinders, Ac, and the probable cost?—Watch Jobueu Of An Old Stamp.

[3877]—RE-TINNING CAST IRON HOLLOW WARE—Will any brother roadcr be good enough to inform me how to re-tin east iron pans. Arc, and say what ingredients are used .'—one In A Fix.

[38?8.]-DAlLY TEN O'CLOCK TIME SIGNAL. —Will auy reader who understands tho working ol the telegraph system kindly explain how the daily 10 o'clock time signal, which is sent through all telegraph olfices, is given? Are all the wires at this time in connection with the clock at Greenwich, or is the signal left to tho tender mercies of telegraph clerks? Does the movement of the needle take place when the Greenwich clock 1b at the stroke of ton 1— Investigator.

[3879.] -GINGER BEER.—Would some one oblige me by giving a recipe for making ginger beer aud glnge'rade?—A. B. C.

[3S80.]-VENEERING—Will one of your subscribers kindly inform me how to veneer a table, Ac, aud the tools required ?—II. E. D.

[3881.]-DYKING AND COLOURING GRASS, LEAVES, &i-.—I want to know the best way of dyelug or colouring grass, leaves. &c, so as lo give them a natural appearance. Perhaps there is some ehemic il, by steeping them iu which, would cause them to retain their colour when dry ,' I have tried a good many ways without success ?—Taxi.

[3882.J-DOUBLE MOTIVE POWER.—When two motive power?, such as a water wheel and a steam

engine, are used in connection with each other for driving machinery, do the two motive powers communicate their motion to the same shaft, and If so. by what arrangement is one motive power prevented from overrunning the other, when its velocity may" exceed it? Anv reader who will reply to this, will much oblige ?—F,nquirer

[8883.]—OXYGEN.—Will any of my brother readers kindly tell me whether they have practically tried the following, taken from a first-rate American paper, If so, whether it succeeds: "Manganite of soda is alternately exposed to the action of steam and atmospheric air. Oxygen is absorbed from the atmosphereand ia then discharged by tho steam: when tho oxygen is expelled, the steam is shut off. and a current of air is passed through the pipe, which restores to the manganite of soda, the oxygen it had lost, and it is then in a condition to be again acted on by the steam. The manganite yields 14J per cent, of its own weight of oxygen. AVhat is the manganite ?—M P. C. S.

[3881.] — CANADA.— Will "F.R.G.S." please say what he considers the best yvork on Ontario? — M. P. C. S.

[3885.1-CANOE.—Would It be possible to make canoe in three Beparate water-tight compartments, for the convenience of trausport ?—G. B. D.

[3SS0.]—WATER ANALYSIS.—Will Mr. Davis, or some other correspondent, tell me how to prepare the standard solutions for testing water; also, whatquan tity of any solution to use to a giveu quxntlfy of water? lloyv to estimate the quantitv of organic matter by means of the permangauate of potash solution.—

[3887.]—SEWAGE.—Can any one tell me the names of" any pamphlets treating upon the utilisation of sewage?—Sewkr.

[388S.]-ALARUM FOR DUTCH CLOCK.—Will any brother subscriber inform me how to make an alarum to a common Dutch clock, not having a Btrikiug part .'—amateur Horolooist.

[3889.]—PREPARING CANVAS.—Can any reader of the English .mechanic give me the recipe for the composition used by artists'colourmen to coat canvas forod painting?—Animal Painter,

[389».]-TO PRACTICAL OPTICIANS—Will some fellow reader kindly answer my request in No. 360 of the English Mechanic, page Ml, Query 2105? Surely there are plenty of practical opticians, readers of our paper, that'ray question would be no puzzle to? —L'ocvkieh.

[3891]-SLIDE VALVE.—Could someof my brother readers inform me on this Bubject? \ have the Idea of a new slide vnlvo for steam engines, and 1 want to know what is the smallest size eagine that I could experiment upon for satisfactory results to be obtained from it?—Slide Valve.

[3892.]—DISSOLVING PLUMBAGO.-Will any chemical brother reader kindly inform me of a solution or solutions to dissolve plumbago, and oblige—A Sister Reader.

[3S93.]-PRECIPITATING GOLD—Will any correspondent tell me how I can precipitate gold from its solution in turpentine ?—J. SI.

[3891.] — IRISH RING MONEY. — I enclose a drawing of an article met with occasionally In Ireland, and known as "ring money." It is like a link of a golden chalu, Rnd may have beeu one. One in ray possession is worth about 17s. 0d., and is of pure gold. Somo have been tound as heavy as Jib. Can H. W. Henfrey give date.'-DAOKOSEN.

[8895.]—CANARY.—Can some kind friend inform me by what menus I can eradicate parasites iu a canary. 1 have tried a hollow perch, but to no effect; for althomih it destroys a great many, yet they breed quite as last in the bird. Is there not Borne waBh that would have the desired effect?—Pakeak,

[38911]—LADDER PROBLEM.—A man has to paint a spout 22ft. loin, from the ground. A ladder is fixed 21ft. from the base of the wall, and the head of the man, when standing 5ft. from the top of it, is exactly level with the spout. Find the length of the ladder, and the height from the ground where it rests against the wall. —Ignoramus.

[3897.]—NAPOLEON.—Will any coin collector inform mo whether a gold Napoleon of 1848, in the time of the revolution, is valuable and rare; and if so, of yvhat value ?—H. B.

[3S98.1—WALKING STICK AIR-GUN. *c—Will some of my brother subscribers kindly give me instructions for making a walking-stick air-gun ?—W. Jones.

[3S99.]-TELF.SCOPE.—I wish to construct a telescope capable of distinctly defining the features of a man at the distance of five miles; could any one answer the following? How many lenses shall I require? The focal length of each lens, andthokiud? I mean, whether convex or concave 1 Walter Jones.

[3900.]-ASPHALTE PASTEBOARD FOR ROOF ING.—The gutter of a return building In my lions being In very bad repair. 1 ain told I must get a new one. This in zinc will not last long, and in lead will cost £110s. Now this Is a heavy pull from the purse of a working man, and the thought struck me. would this new nsphalte pasteboard I have lately heard of, be available for the purpose? 1 shall take it a great kindness if some of your readers can enlighten m*1 on the point, and if they would also inform me how it is to be laid ou ?—A Dublin Printer.

[39010-SLATE CISTERN.—Can any subscriber inform me lioyv to prevent tho slate of a large cistern from splitting. It is coming off in great flukes from the overlapping sides?—Salmo Salab.

[390J.1-RAD RHEII.—Would any brother inform me through your columns, the mode of restoring the colour to rail rheii, of which I have a large quantity, which has completely lost its colour ?—AJAx.

[3903.J—GRADUATING BRASS CIRCLE.—Would some one be so kind as to tell me bow 1 could beat graduate a braes circle to 30' ?—Scorpio.


r:«X>4.] - SLATER'S SPECULA— What kinrl of specula are Slater's, for I see that one jjpntlenmu jays that ho qt>t a 61 n. for 159. 6d."; are they finished,or to what sta^c are they brought ?—Scorpio.

£39O$0-THE ROCHELLE SALT SYSTEM.—Mr. Oray (p&£P 163) gays, that be silvered a flat by the ilocnelle salt nystem. I tried it on some pieces of glass for experiment, but fouud that it did not do it the same war as Browning's at all. In the Koohelle ©alt system, it is silvered on the- back, like a looking$?!»*«, and so tboro is the double reflection, whereas, in Browning's plan, it is at the silver you look directly, and do not sco the glass at all. Is the silvering on the back my fault, or that of the system? —Scoario.

rttO&i-KJtt'AIRIKG INDIA-RUBBER COMBS. —1» there any cement which will unite a broken black india-rubber toilet comb. The composition of which these combs are manufactured, becomes very brittle- If there is not a suitable cement known, would it bearTivetting' ?—Inquire a.

£3907-3—(UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS.-"Will any one of your readers, who may bare a calendar of Che University of London for 1870, iuform me what are special Latin and English subjects for the Urst B.A. examination iu 1871.— Xanthos.

[390*.]-OLD COPPER COIN.—Thanks to Mr. IIcofrey for information. Perhaps he will be kind emou^rh to tell me what thin is, and what it is worth. Oblong-, approaching to oval; obverse, female bust, head to right; inscription, AVSTINA. AVGV. Reverse nothing is clear, but there is a ridge of metal across, sloping from right to left; weight about 3 oz. —J. Nash.

[3909.]—COPPER COINS.—"Will any reader inform me what the coins are of which I send sketches, and

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C. Lmsi.—See recent back numbers.

U. Letts.— Ont of print. Stamps credited as requested.

Cosmu -ncvEN-^s.—F. W. Breurer, is the Secretary of the

Aeronautical Societv. His address is,—Maidenstonc Hill.

BUckneath, S.E. *■ S'MPATiii^ca.—The "risings in the throat" of the young

lady my be tymptoms of nervousness at vour approach.

heroaiiy.hriwever. such matters can only be satisfactorily

attended u> by a medical man. Edw. Mauon.-uuct returned. At the Patent Office.

Cannot say the cost. T. J. 0'Coss<n._We think it wonld, but could not say

certainly without seeing it. Thanks for your kind efforts

in our behalf. Jau.tdick,—Sec recent back numbers. c- *X."KD*;«-—An index is published to each of the first 10 Vols.

A*uT'.7At «.e Go'cran>ent Patent Office, Southamptonbuilding, Chan eery-lane.

I>OVH7'~iWe ,caDn/10t »y- As a rule we distrust quasimedical works, which cod by recommending some particular medicine. We do not know of such a work as you require.

Ij% Diabi.e.—Consult « phvsician.

N. G. Laitboueae.—iUadthe first Article of Faith in the x*rayer Book and you will find that" Sigma's " views are orthodox and your own unorthodox.

Thk "Sixpenny Sale Column" is the only phru iu which cun appear queries sent by J. Blumrteld. ami Aqua,

Gordon Doi*ur.AS.—Send the information to us.

J. ii. G.—Severn 1 replies containing formulae for the manufacture of a hard white metal appeared in a recent back number.

L. Dfc—We donot kmjwiiuy ni'jre than that it is a French pitent. ou

Mai-rick Ashtok.— We do not exactly mike out what y u wish us to do. We should think your protege's bcstplae wouid be, if he could afford it, to become a pupil of som marine engineer.

I!. Hall.—The numbers c\xx be sent for four stamps.

J. W. (Cravfordi.—Your questions will probably bo dealt with by *' A Practical Mau " us he goes ou. See his letter this week.

W. M. B.—Try henzine.

Wm. Tki.l.—No more space fi>r designs of crossbows nt present.

J. Cooi'RR.—We should be glad to receive the information respecting carpet looms.

J. P.—The number is exceedingly scarce, but the offer of a good price through the "Sixpenny Sale Column" might procure vou a copy.

A New Svbscridkb would pardon any apparent discourtesy if he knew the unreasonable requests of many correspondents for information, in some cases many times previously given.

Benjamin'.—Many recipes for joining broken glass, china, 8oc., have been given in back numbers.

Siii.i. A Brick, and as soulless.

James Shaw congratulates the English Mkciianic ou taking up " Cotton Spinning," as that branch of iudustry is one of the bulwarks of our commercial success. Slot Cutting.— "M. R. C. S," says he has much pleasure in reporting that the tools iudicuted by "J. K. P. p. 112, hnve proved quite successful for the purpose of slot cutting, and he cordially thauka" J. K. P." for his advice, and other kindness. R. G. B.—You ask too much. The list would he a long one, and theu only of service to the inquirer.

B. II., Kochdale.—Other lelUrs ou "Cotton Bpiuning" coming before yours have had the preference.

An Initio.—The letter is in type, but the sketch of the "Bookbinders' plough " got luat. "Ab Initio" says Mr. Benrdsley has an undoubted rii*ht to think as he does, but not to occupy our sp.-icc with such absurdities.

Bfrsardin.—Boring Insects, Algebra, &c., next week.

Silver Coin.—"A Beginner" may possibly flud a purchaser for his coin, qy. :175'), p. 19'), by corn muni eating with Mr. 11. W. Hcnfrey, Markhaui House, Brighton.

W. REEVE.—We l*ave agaii: and agaiu stated that we cannot recommend the goods of any particular manufacturer.

K. G. B.—See other replies on " Ascarides."

A Four "years' Sudscriubr.—It is a self-made professorship. You may call yourself "Professor of the Concertina" if you like, as any fiddler may call himself professor of the violin.

A Belfast Sidscrikkr wants to know if the earth is round how can the Suez Canal be level? It is not level uny more than the Bedford Canal is level, or the sea is level.

J. M. O.—An interesting subject, but we should prefer it discussed in sujh a paper its the Lancet.

A Dri'mmkd-oit Correspondent (II. II.).—We beg to inform '■ H. H." that I. W. Wolfe, who sometimes sigus himself E. G. Wolfe, and who sometimes gives his address asover Winsford, Cheshire, and at other times Townfields, near Middlewich, Chester, is the veritable correspondent who made so many mistakes in our pages as " Pax Dei," and who afterwards wrote under the nom de plnme of • Lynx." He copied from books so inaccurately that we were obliged at last to take no notice of his .letters, a quantity uf which we have by us unused at the present time. (See letters from Saul Uymea, pp. 3G0 and -U\'i, aud by "F.R.A.S.," page 279, Vol. X.) We consider it a compliment to be abused by so characteristic a correspondent.

W. S.—We cannot insert " low-priced" advertisements.

J. II. Thompson.—Recipes for making blacking were given on pp. 28 and SI, Vol. X. Consult indexes.

Augusti's, who wrote under Notes and Queries, No. 218, is inquired alter under " Addresses Wanted."

A Thomas.—" A Thinker's" velocipede, p. do, is evidently not patented. We cannot, answer the other questions.

TnoMAs Baskebfield-.—On slide valve next week.

C. II. W.bigos.—On mathematics next week.
J, R. S. C—On Caterpillars next week.

J. R. W.—The correspondent ought not to have heen troubled. Ask for information through our columns.

Convkxitv or Water.—Next week.

Woods For Cabinet Making —See Unruly, Ilorley, and Co.'a advertisement in this week's uumber.

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1S-»:1 J. Howard, Cromwell House, Northampton, hand *isnnl lamps

1M1 T. J. Ony. t52, Goswell-road, apparatus for facllitatinn travelling ou itw>t

1S-15 W. K. Lake, Southampton-buildings. London, improvemmitsin oaddle-whisels*—A oommunioatioB

13W J. Nicholson. Shoreditch and J. W. Jones, Stok« Newint;ton. fftiitontrigs for windows, doors. &e.

1317 C'W. Harrison, Westminster-chambers, lraprovnmontfl In applyiot; electricity or eleetro-magiiBti-in on board ships iu ordor u* prevent inorustation or fitiiliuic of their hottomt

131S K. Smith, Birmingham, improvements In locking or securing nun for screw holts

1310 W. K. Rendle, 6«, Welbeclc-street. Cavendish-square, glazed structures for horticultural, purposes

I3fi0 F. Perry, Fenohurca-Btreet, and .1. I. Benrrough, Hackney, Improvements In the preservation of meats

1351 W. B. Newton. (H. Cnanewy-lane, Improved mrvohluery for pointing aud finishing nana.— *, communication

1.152 E. P. H. Vauithan, 51, Chancery-lane, improvements in tho construction of and mothoiis of working gas engines.—A Coinmuuic^tLou

larii. L. \V. Weeks, New York, U.S.A.. manufacture of ball float*

1854 G. W. Wlgner, l, a ilnt Swlthlu's-htne, deodorizing and purifying sewage

1855 L..O. Deachamps and S. 1). Oudit. Paris, Boulevard do Strasbourg, No. S3, an Improved tool for cutting net, lace, and other like fabrics

1358 J. F. ttogors, Feathers tone-buildings, Holborn, an Improved fuso

1357 W. E. Newton. 63, Chancery-lane. Improvements in the construction uf steam valves or cocks.— A communication

1351 J. H..TohriRon, 47. Lincolu's-iun-nelds. an improved construction and arrangement or/irr.ite bar*.—A communication.

1359 A. Campbell, Glasgow, a now dip or smear for destroying vermin In sheep

1340 J. H. Johnson, 17. Liucolo'a-inn-uelds, improvements lu projectiles.—A communication

1301 C. Churchill, Pamiey-crescnut, Hackney, an Improved window fastener. —A communication

1382 G. Fawcns anrt 'i. Lunge, North Shields, improvements In the coatings for iron ships

1S/7 K. A In?1ellf)ld. M. Grove End-road. St. John's Woii improvements In uteerin* tt'li-Ules for vevtela

)a-28fl Johnson, 1, Hsaei-strMot, West Ham, Essex, and K.J. Lecky. 21,Stock Orclmrtl-vUlas, Caledonian-roa^I, London, locking screw holts aud nuts

132« B. H. Chiimerny, nriissel*. Improvements in eocks

1330 H. Altken, Falkirk, disintegrating, or pulverldlng lumps or clods of soil in agriculture

1331 W. Hunt, Ciistleronl. near Normauton. a new or Improved detergent compound to be used In the manufacture of soap

13(2 J. Jones. West RrotnvrieU and E. tt Dinn, a new alloy for the hearings or brasses ofdhafts. ami axles of carriages

1333 B. J. Edward*, 8, The Grove, Hackney, liondonrapparatns for nhotographic prlnliu?

l»3i W. Dauxdrtleld. Uhalford, Improvements In walkln?stie'TS mid sticks for umbrellas

1335 VV. it. Lake. SoutriHiupton-buildings. London, improvpni"nts In apparatus or machinery for making gas from liquid hyilrocirbons for illuminating purposes.—A communication

*I33*i \V. K. Lake, SoiiLhinnjjtnn-btnldlngs, London, improvements in the process of brewing ale and othcr.malt liquors.— A communication

1W3 H. L.w, 15. E*sf>r-street. Strand, improvements in meters for measuring lluids

1301 W. Daniel! and H. Lun-i, Holborn, an improved electromagnetic entclne

I3fl5W. E. Gedge. 11, Wellington-street, Strand, an improved machine applicable to agricultural work of every kind.—A oommuuieatlon

13-W 4. W. Elliot, Toronto, Cana la, removing snow from railroart tracks

i:wr T. Perkins, Httchin, apparatus for ploughing or culti • vating land

1303 VT, Young, 03, Hichmond-roacl, Bayswater.improTemt'nts in erates. packing case«. mid boxes

isra J. Millar and J. Miller, juu., 33, Clifton-road, PeckUam elastic fabrics suitable for gtusotti

1370 T. C'lles. and W. Henderson. Oastlo Oary, Somerset, machinery for scutching flax and other fibres

1371 J. Heddle, Leith, preparing, elarifying, and preserving vegetable juices and oth.-r liquids

1373 A. McAlister, West India Dook-road, Improvements In ham mocks

1373 E. G. Peaenck, 14, Union-street, Bath, improvements in apparatus for refrigerating and for heating purposes

1374 J. A. Gardner. Bristol, apparatus for signalling between passenger*, guards, and drivers

1375 W. E. Nowt-ou, 09. Chancery-lane,construction of vowels, and In the means of propelling the same.—A communication

1378 J. Dodd. Oldham, improvements in machinery for spinning and doubling cotton

1377 T. B. Gilbert, Gipsy-road, Norwood, improvements iu ttre-escipea

1378 It. Mellard, Kngeley, pressing machines applicable to pressing cheeie

1370 P. Pmioiit, Rouen, composition Tor pr<«erving the surfaces of waits, metals, wood, and other materials

I3v) C. it. blmey, tiuudorland, improvements in it tilling boxes

1381 J. J. Hignette, 75, Rue de Turbigo, Puris. improvements in apparatus for dressing, glazing, and pearling grain

1332 H. Orinson, Stanley-bridge, Olielsea, improvements In wKi-ralng aud veutilatlng hi^rtiriilturnl buildings

1333 VV. H. Lake, .Southarnpton-butldtn^s, improvements iu sewing machines.—Acommuntca-tion

138*F. N. Meixner, and J. VYatmoitgh. both of Manchester, improvements In hollers for domestic and other purposes.

1385 P. Jensen, SU, Chancery-lane, the writing ball, being improvements tu means for writ ing and telegraphic purposes.—A communication

1388 J. vvarne. Binckfriars-road, improvements iu apparatus or vesselsfor cool ing

1387 L. Turner. Leicester, manufacture of elastic iahrles

1338 A. Fisher, juu., Paisley, [apparatus to be used In dyeing yarns

1380 J. B. Handy aide and T. K. Yarrow, Glasgow, improvement 3 in springs

1398 B. Hunt. 1. Sirio-s'TOGt, Liucoln's-iun, improvetneata in shirts.—A communication

1391 It. U. Murray, Walsall, improvements in castnug mould boards

1393 a Wtoksteed jun.. Swaffham, apparatus to be employed In the filling of water carts with water

13P3 G. G. De Byron, Now Y"ork, improvements In apparatus for washing and rnning

1391 G. W. Hemans, Victoria-street. Westminster, a process for the recovery, pnritk\ition,| and revlvifycation of sulphuric acid spent and d-Jtertorare/i in the refining of petroleum,.coal, and ahaleons.—A communication

1395 H. A. Bierttiitiffei. Aibau>-ijtrnet. and \Y. J. Lovelay Keoningtou-road. inaohmorv rorthaplnz wood

1390 A. S.G. Sauer and L. Oaehal, of 0, It Ia das Pilles du Calvalre. Paris,a liquid for raising pasto nTnd dough

i;i97 W. Gilbey, Pantheon, oxionl-street, au Improve! fastener t > boxes, packing and other c is**s

I31MT. I'Hwcett. Saw Mills, Dewabury, York. Improvements in sfwing iii'tohinery

1399 it. L Uattersley, Keighley. beaming warps or supplying warp in the weaving or fnhncs for which some of trie warp tliroads require t' be ofa diit'errfiu teu^iun to the others

1100 J. II. Banks, Brookatreof, Knutsford, iu inuin^uro of school furniturn

1(01 J. H. Johnson. 17. Liucoln's-lnn-fieldi . improvements in bearings, sliJen, and packing** for steam engines|ii)d other miichinery.—A cocimuuuMiion

H<)2 A Pocock, New City Ohnmbers. BIshopsjate-street, apparatus Tor enabling invalids and other persons to .drink In a recumbeul position

1-W3J. Yates, Birmingham, improvement* In taps or stopcocks

140* J. Needham, Over's tone-road. Hammersmith, construction of slnps and other uivigahto vessels

1403 A. W.C. Williams uad C. M. TalootU, OUy-road improvemetirs In lawn mowing raich'nis

llOJ D. Smith, LiviTp"-'(, improvement* In furnacos

1407 T. Page, iniui-oviniants 1x1 a:»,'aratas tj he used in auhaqueoua operatious

PATENTS SEALED. 3-207 G. K. Mather, appvatua for outline or giving form to

wo^d ', .

aviO W. H. Tocker. improvements in loch*
woa J. G. Garrard, Improvements in the construction or

buffer* adapted for railway carriages
S*i7 W. Niell. improvements In blast ensine*
J*WJ. Oppenhetmer.nxtag and staying teleirraph posM
Mil3. J. Mackle, construction and propulsion of floating

SS13 J. Crofts. K> Dawson, and J. King, apparatus for comb

in* wool or other fibres . _ ,.

Ml* T. Marshall, composition for the prevention of fouling of ships' bottoms . , ,.

xrciO. B DWdelsward, apparatus for tho removal of dross out of blast furnaces 3324 0. Faure, improvement* in galvanic bnttcries R32QG. Tetrie, improvements in the preparation of for the mannfseture of manure , ,,

.UW1R, Clew«, improvements for weavlngtcxtlle fabrics JU1D. Morgan, lubricuing oil or grease S390 M. Henry, improvements in upparatua for moving or transporting railway carriages.—A communication

MO* T. BJehardion, desks or tables for schools and other similar purposes

S.VJ3 J. F. Alexander, Improvements In undulating propellers for steam ships.

*vu J. Henp, improvements applicable to earth closets or commodes and urinals

,17115 J. Bourne, appnratua for the production of heat, and the generation and application ef motive power derived therefrom

;i733 W. B. Newton, improvements In Adjusting and packing the rail* of railways.—A communication

3T3S W. E. Newton, OS, Chancery-lane- improvements in forming the Joints of the permanent way of railways.—A comrnuniciition.

571 A. B. CMlds. machinery for cleaning, scouring, and decorticating wheat and grain

KWi J, J. Aston, Improvements n machinery for propelling vessels on the water 607 O. Fowler. Improvements In smelting iron ore K7 R. F. Fsirlie, improvements in W)ipp18 Tor rail or tramway locomotivepnirines and carriages or vehicles

837 W. K. Lake, improvements in wheels lor railway engines nnd carriages.—A communication

Si7 J. H. Johnson, improvements in locomotion.—A communication BMQ V. Delacroix, an improved metallic manometer 8810 K. Ogden, Improved deodorising compound to he employed in chambers or receptacles containing dead bodies

Wil r. K. Lundy and J. L. Dunliam. new or Improved means of communication between passengers In cabs, private carriages, omnibuses, and other vehicles

33+) W. BaylinsnjKt M. Bayliss.ilmproved means for making cast-iron earth screws for the lower parts offence, telegraph, ami other posts or supports

SMS. H. Wilson, lubricating apparatus for steam engines, steam hammers, and other mechanism • 3-fW '*• Betti, improvements in steam bollera 3393 T. R. Hetheriiigtnn, improvements in machinery for preparing, spinning, and doubling cotton

3358 w. R. Lake, improvements in machinery for distributing type.—A communication

as*! S. L. Irf)omis. a new and Improved apparatus for tightening and holding window *a*hes

3301 Sir J. Macneill, improvements In lucifer match and fusee boxes or coses

33811W. E. Gedge, an improved system or hydraulic traction on railways and other roods.—A communication 33*7 H. C. Lohnftz, Improvements In motive power engines 3307 JjJ*arnhu,1improvemeuts,1nconnectins|iiu'l disconnecting carnages and waggons

SHI T. Hrown, improvements in the construction and arrangement of machinery or apparatus for drilling or baring rorks.—A communication *4M|A. Barclay, improvements in condensers 3470 J. F. Crease. Improvements in thr construction of tank filters

347* J. Forbes, Improvements in desslccatlngmalt, grain, and

other similar substances

.US2 H. C. Ash. improvement In the manufacture of churns

swrt T. R. Orampton, improvements in hunting powdered fuel

T8610 H, M. NlCaoUi, apparatus for cutting continuous paper

into sheets

S«5I W. Foulds. improvements in apparatus for heating feed water.—Communicated 306.% .1. Smiles, Improvements in breech-loading nre-arm« i*4|W. Richards, improvements in breech-loading fire-arms and cartridges

lOi y. Hocking, anew or improved means of securing or fastening the leaves in music, periodical*, and hooks

S20 O. A. Bnchholz, Improved; machinery for manufacturing ttemotlna and flour

1 332 G. B. Harding, an improved device for imparting to toothed wheels and racks, and to mechanism connected therewith, a vartithlB reciprocating motion

A33 W. B. Xewton, improvements in springs for carriages and other purposes—A communication . dSO J. 8. Johnstone, a new improved motive-power engine

"M G. Brown, improvements In velocipedes '755 W. H. Samuel, Improvements in friction lights and in apparatos to l»e employed therewith 7RS J. Watklns. improvements in die* or tools used In drow798 J. Uavln and W. N. Davie, Improvements In the construction of two-furrow ploughm lng metallic tubes

W10 W. H, Lake, improvements In anchors.—A communication Z. Qll J, A. Lund, improvements in keys for watches.


"Exchange" advertisements are inserted at the rate of threepence for the first twenty-four words, and threepence fcr every succeeding ten words.

Spanish Fowls' Eggs for pigeon". Ajrentleman has a Bitting from first-class birds, which he will exchange for pair of fancy pigeons, either jacobins or tumblers.—H. Canning, Harpendon, Herts.

Butterflies, moths, ejjjfB, or breech-loading double barrel gun, for anything useful, good bicycle preferred.-jAttBBGHBHAaD, Builder. Lyndhurst.

Eighty Scientific And Musical Articles for exchange; for list and particulars enolo*c stamped and directed envelope to Jabez Francis. Rochford, Essex.

About 15 cwt. Black Waggon Grease in casks about3cwt,each, for first-class bicycle (Mln.) or offers.—B. G., S8„Cutle-place. Belfast.

Exchange for a bicycle or tricycle, a six chambered new Brkbch-loadtng Revolver, and 100cartridges, value £3.—CM..the Nursery, Lewlsham-road, 8.K.

A fine old Violin And Bow, and a 4 keyed ivory

mounted boxwood flute, raluo 30s.. for set of Mln. and SOIn. bicycle ironwork, spring not wanted.—Samuel Ashmas. Wine-street, Frome, Somerset. A good Bicycle wanted, a flrat class concertina

cornet, flageolet, self Mling portable air swimming belt for a good one; all the articles in first-class condition, w-.rth any one's while to see them.—G. Collins, 0, Park-grove. flattersea-park, Batter sea.

A powerful Stamping or Punching Press, to be

exchanged for anything useful of the same value.—W. Swbit. 15, Canterbury-road, KJttmrii.

Black, Trained, Retriever Dog. and kennels,

b««ks. skates and a number of other articles for books or scientific artlclos.-T. Cowan, Becfcenham, Kent. Last 4 Vols, of English Mechanic, well bound,

first volume of BritUh /in>l F->r>!^,i Mt-thaiv* unbound offers requested.—William Jonbs, 30, Limekiln-street)

100 numbers of English Mechanic, and compound

microscope for bound music for organ or harmonium or these and other articles for Tassell's" Popular Educator." (last reissue)-—J. Habwood. 33, Newark-street, Leicester. A first-class aflin. Bicycle, for one Mln. or401n.—

H. WlDMAN, 131. Queen's-road, Hay ti water, W., London.

A Saloon Pistol and Brougham Telescope, nearly new. for a mod«*i steam engine H. cylinder, sin. stroke, and boiler.—Wm. Prkbman, Sepham, Seven Oags.

Blackie and Son's "popular Encyclopedia."

IS Vols., royal Svo., over 5.W pages, engravings, cost £7; for sewing machine or printing press.—X., Whitmiuster, stonehouse, Gloucestershire.

Boxwood Harmonium, one stop, good condition,

worth £.% 5s., violoncello and how. worth £i. for a good lock stitch sewing machtnc for domestic use.—B. II., J, Day-street,


Violin And Case, value £2. bicycle springs, value 10s., a lot of type, leads, rules, reglets, side sticks, &c.,50s.— £. Muggins,5. Lowmore-buildings.

A burnished coffee "Hob Roy" Lamp, with tin cuisine complete, only been used 5 times, for English silver coins, or ids. flu.—H.. R. Uarbutt. West Mount, Uttoxeterroad, Derby.

A good Cornet for carpenter's plough and irons. »nd ea*h fillister, in good condition.—C. Widman, 111, Queensroad, Rayswater.

Sheet Music, marked price £20, for useful articles or hooks. Jahr's homoeopathic works wanted.—J. Nash, High-street, Wincanton.

Engraving £1 Is., chessmen 10*. fid., and piccolo 7s. 0d.. for old or foreign coins, or stumps, send list.—J. Mash, High-street, Wincanton.

A Model Steam Engine, flywheel 81n. diameter, with circular saw, and a good single gun for a lock 'stitch sewing machine. o»- either for a slide re*t -sin lathe, or offers.— 0. Johnston. 4S, Vauxhall-road. Gloucester.

Handsome 3 fold Screen, covered with cbo'ce ohromo's, Ac., quite a novelty, open to offers.—W. Reed, 51, .Essex-street, Islington.

First-clnss Tricycle, value £fl. for watch and gold Albert chain; to be seen at G. Ponsfobd's, Coaohbuilder, Maryland Point,Stratford, K.

160 numbers English Mechanic, 5 Vols. "CasseH'n Popular Educator." well) bound, lady's Geneva wateh, for rntiRtcal on scientific instrument.—J. P., a, Corn wall-terrace, Brixton.

A first-class Distin Cornet, nearly new. in case complete for good tenor or ballad horn, or B fiat Euphonium,— W. svooDnotTSE, near the Market-place, Ambleside.

W. O. Nicholson, Briers', has two Copper KettleDBfMS, 30ln. and 23in in diameter, also a keyed bugle, and several other hrass instruments wliiett he would like to exchange for screw cutting or other tools, or open to offerB.

A capital Silver Geneva Watch, And Albert, cash £'5 is., nearly new, a piccolo eood.for a bicycle Win. front wheel, must be good.—W. R, P.O., Brink worth, Chippeuham, Wilts.

Bourne's "catechism Of The Steam Engine^ Greenwood's "Turner's and Fitter's) Handbook."!for a Boo 13ft. rrent rod and reel.—William Change, Patcly-brldgo, Yorkshire.

A erood complete Sin. centre Backgeared Bright Motion Lathe Heads, top speeds, for a good complete upright or locomotive boiler and engine l h.p., or screw cutting treadle lathe complete.—W- Robinson, Beaufortstreet. Toxteth-park, Liverpool.

270 Birds1 Eggs, containing1 many choice sorts, arranged in compartments in 2 cases, open to offers,— E, March, Wincanton, Somerset.

A superior Breech-loading Ghn. with case and apparatus complete, cost £35, for walnut piano of equal value. —Music, Rlpon-lodge. Grove-park, Camberwell.

Six lady's Fancy Skirts, a velocipede, also forgings. wheels and spring*, for another, a revolver a double gun, in exchange for a good single perambulator, garden roller, croquet set, side of bacon, hams, cheese, grocery, soap, or other useful household requisites.—W. Walton, 03, Ryelane, Peckham.

An Horizontal Engine and Boiler, fin. bore, lln. strok e, in working order, value £9 10s., for a good English concertina , or other instrument of equal value.—T. w„ 4, Warner-road,Camberwell. S.E.

Six Chambered Revolver, flasks and moulds,

all the parts of aufalr cane, nearly finished, for a slide rent. Sin, to din. high.—S. Stannale, Haughton-le-Skerne, Darlington. A 3nio. Bicycle, cost £8 K's., by a good maker, been very little used, for one 40in.—W. Miller, Wcsterham, Kent.

A capital Beam Engine, in tirst-nite going* order, 2in hore, and sin. stroke, and vertical copper boiler with brass steam and water laps, whistle and safety valve, iron furnace, will burn coal, &c, will be given for a gold, or a first-rate silver lever J plate watch or small lathe with slide rest.—W. J. 'Ion, High-street, Colchester.

One Wheeler of Preston Improved Detached Silver Lever Watch. In one of hiealtazon levers, for treatises of the Mteam engine.—C E. W., 7, High-street, St. Thomas's, Oxford.

Popular Educator, 0 Vols., Orpan Accordion, electrotype apparatus, and 1 Vol. " Natural History," for good bicycle.-F. S., Post Office. Guildford.


Advertisements are inserted in this column at the rate of Sixpence for the first sixteen words, and sixpence for every succeeding eight words.

ADDRESSES WASTED. Wanted, the address of any one making bicycles running round on platform— S. Yokes, Pocklington.

Will the gentleman sicrninp; himself "Augustus," under the head of Notes and Queries in the number oraith December last, kindly communicate his address to W. W., Office orthe Enolish Mechanic V

Wanted, the names of large compact villages or small towns requiring gas.—G. P. P. Hadham, Bishop Stortford."


WANTED, Miller'.* second-hand Machine Brushes. Send price.—J. C. S., is, Linton-streot, London, N.

WANTED, Canaries for breeding. — Charles Wells, at Mr. Dymott's, 25. Richmond •terrace, Spring-grove, South Lambeth, London.

WANTED, a good Mahogany Whole Plate Cam* Ka. no lens.—W. H. C.t Phillimore-gardenB, Kensington.

WANTED, Muspratt's and Plattner's treatise on "Thi Blowpipe."—Noah Coward, East Caradon Mine, near Liskeard.

Photography, second-hand 10ft. by 12ft. Double LS:<es by doss. Dallymever. Grub, or other aood maker — Canto, Cargo fleet Station, Mlddlesboro-on-Tees.

WANTED, a eecond-haud Boiler, either vertical or eire end about 2 or 3 h.p„ state lowest price.—J. PlOKABD Bto< ps, Burnley.

WANTED, the "Manchester Director V."

second-hand, Tor 1864.—JonN Young, Aaloy Arlecdou. Whitehaven.

WANTED, a 15 h. Engine, second-hand, good cendition, state lowest price.—A. R., Post-oince, Jersey.

WANTED, a strong Bicycle, not to exceed £2.—0.

P.. 2ft, Kensington-gardens-square.

WANTED, back vols, of English Mechanic, to Vol. 10, workiniEmod"l locomotive engine, send prices, sketch of engine to Jaubs YOULB, Jim., Maryborough, Dingwall.

WANTED, a Galvanic Battery And Coil frr medical use Tor some useful articles.-Williajc Anyon, 82 Waterloo-road, Manchester.


For Sale, Bicycles, very good Swiss make, £3 46 — C Holstx. 14, Southampton-street, Strand.

A Falrbairn Printing Press And Type, cost £J, may be had for £,%.—H. Oakland, Abbey-house, Sherborne.

A Bicycle, iron wheels, price £1 5s., open t» offers.—Qboeoe Jackson, Broughton-ln-Purnets.

Prepared Wood for fretcutting samples, free per post.—Booth Bbothkes, OS, Upper-street, Dublin,

Circular Saw, bench-wood frame, 3ff Cin. saw, a bargain.—Payne And Sons, Thrapstone.

Horizontal Engine, 4in. stroke, 2in. diameters, strongly made, price £4 10s.—Ahthue Hlnde, Bilston.

Excellent Tricycle for sale, price £5, open tooffers.—c. P. Atkinson, is, Hanover-street, Leeds.

Lathe.—To be sold chenp, a good Laxhe, with. steel bedding and tools,—O. Moss, near the Pond, Clapton.

Printing Press, useful assortment of type, everv requisite, prints 41 by 0, I'l.—Tatlob, Io. Queen •street" Gravesend.

Engine, 11 h.p. Horizontal, gun metal bearings, Ac. minus bed and wheet, ita.—11, Gol borne-gardens, Keussl Town, W.

Post free, Galvanometer Dial, 7d., steel needle

6d.. brass suspension caps S stamps.—ALVBID CftOFIS, 10, Military-road, Dover,

Use Commutator, pn rosewood stand, peculating screws complete, a good second-hand instrument, "s. 6d., ALKKKD CEOBTS, 10. Military-m;i.l. Dover.

Six Glass Cells bichromate . battery 7s. Gd electric bell as.—Alfred Caorrs, 10, Military-road, Dover.

2 Cell Manganese Battery 6a., an upright vertical galvanometer 14s.—alfbbdcsofts, 10, Military-rood, Dover.

A Horizontal Slide Valve Engine, jf bore, finished bright, and breech-loading revolver with SI cartridges ads., both now. London sale only,—Joseph O. SamBs, M, Suows-delds, Bermondsey.

Well trained Black Retriever Doo £3, value ten

guineas, or for oxchmige.—T. W. Co WAN. Bechcnham, Kent.

CC Finger Organ, 4 stop?, steam boiler, 6fc by 2ft.. by 1 plates, Schiels ps'ent fan. Bin. centre lathe, planed metal bed.—O. DAKLIKfiTOH, Chesterton, near Newcastle.

A small Horizontal Model Cylinder, fitted

with pUton covers, Flido cot« complete.—H. FBST03, Hlgh-sircct Colchester.

Electric Bell Galvanometer and battery complete, nearly new. price IS*. 6d--G. Uogbes, V, WUUam.street, Kennlngton-road, S.E

101b. Pica Type, leads, rule', quoins, riealets, aide sticks, Ac. S0S.-B. Hugginb, Lowmore-buildinga, Woodhouse, Leeds.

For Sale, two bright Hammers, and a planUhlns anvil, warranted good, open to offers.—O. T., SI. High-street Weymouth

J. C. Shewan offers Instruction to novice apeculators, in mechanical and chemical pursuits ; any of his inventions can be supplied to order through htm.

For Sale, a Beehouse, with about twelve hives, including Neighbour's bar, ohservingsnd cottager's, for price, &c-H. Babclay, Churchill-house, Haudsworth, .Birmingham.

For Sale, a Slide Rest, suitable for a 6jin centre lathe, slides Uin., not used many times, prloe £3 lfti.—Js. Kikg, 30. North-street, Leeds.

English Mechanic, Vols. 1, 2. 3,4, bound,or iu parts or numbers.—William Cbaig, Bookseller, N.B.

Drilling Machine, hand, fix to bench, drill tin. to Hiii.. S changeable speeds, strong and powerful. — i. i'OPFLEWELL, Woodnridge-road. Ipswibh.

Beautiful finished Vertical Knoine 2iin. stroke. Uln. diameter, and copper boiler compitte. with fire box and tubes, prloe £S.—William Knight Markyate-street, near Dunstable, Herts.

Cricket, no club comp 'o without the new patent wicket standi varnished '<*., galvanised fts. per pair. Encased telegraph coils ■ ontaining 100IL wire, free for 15 stamps.o pounds assorted new type 0s.—John Campbell, Gl» Upper Bean-street. Liverpool.

Breech-loadlufj six shot Revolver, best quality, 30s.—Ma. Ellis, Si, Cock spur-street. Pall Mall.

Silver quarter hour Repeating Watch, perfect, £i ids.—II K. Ellis, 31, Cockspur-street, Fall Mall.

Silver Pedometer, perfectly accurate, £2 108-— Ma. Ellis, SI, Cockspur-street, Pall Mall.

Safe first-class Shifting Compartments, for four persons, £3, patent looks.—Mb, Ellis, 23. Cock spur-street. Pall Mall.

Real Chinese Gong, large size, mellow tone, .ft lOH.-Mit. Ellis, 21. Cockspur-street. Fall Mall.

Breech-loading Double Gun, central fire, first-class maker, £8 10s.—Mb. Ellis,21, Cockspur-street, Pall

Musical Box, lorse size, brilliant tone, quite perfect, eight tunes £t 10s.—Mr. Ellis, 21, Cocksrur'*1' l'all Mall.

For Sale, Bicycle, good cheap. 35in., 35b.—A. Wilkinson. 15, Marlboro-rood, Dalston, E.

Book Labels. Dr. Ussher's eorrected copy, Charles Forrest, jun., Lorthouse near Wakeneld. will send labels with name and address done en coloured French note, post free for uiue stamps.

Book Labels.—Two hundred post free for thirty stamps.—C Fobbest. Jun.. Lofthouse.

For Sale, a firet-olass Bicycle, as good as new, front Wheel SSin., price £4.—W. C. Millabd, Crewkerne

A good second-hand Battery on Magneto ElecTric Machine wanted.—B. W. J., 2, Boyal-park, curt en, Bristol.

Horizontal Slide Engine with boiler and fittings complete, quite new, price £1.—henby E. LOCK*. Buckingham-road, Aylesbury.

A horizon'al 2in. stroke Valve Engine and boiler, 25s.-J. Kinqham, Jun., Buckingham-street, Aylesbury.

Folio Bible with commentary in 2 vols., morocco bauds, fullgiit, steel engravings, new, by Virtue, cost 16a.—A. G. 1'brhisq, SslTron, Walden.

Splendid 39in, Bicycle, quite new, cost £lfi, will be sold cheap, — K. Bell, Gateacre-brow, Wooltcu, near Liverpool.

Work on Iron And Steel Manufacture, i 12s. parts.—H. B„ u, North-bridge, Sunderland,

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AVAILING himself of the results of the most recent researches into the physical condition of the visible Universe, Mr. Proctor has in the volume whose title heads this notice, reopened the discussion carried on within the memory of a considerable proportion of our readers, between the late Dr. Whewell and Sir David Brewster, as to the inhabitability of the various bodies which people space.

His justification for having done so is well set forth in his introductory chapter; in which, after referring to the great strides which knowledge has made since the appearance of the " Plurality of Worlds," and " More Worlds than One," he proceeds to say—

"We stand in a position much more favourable for the formation of just views than that from which Whewell and Brewster surveyed the planetary and stellar systems. Never, since men first explored the celestial depths, has a series of more startling discoveries rewarded the labours of astronomers and physicists than during the past few years. Unhoped-for revelations have been made on every side. Analogies the moat interesting have brought the distant orbs of heaven into close relationship with our own earth, or with the central luminary of the planetary scheme. And a lesson has been taught us which bears even more significantly on our views respecting the existence of other worlds; we have learned to recognise within the solar system, and within the wondrous galaxy of which our sun is a constituent orb, B variety of structure and a complexity of detail, of which but a few years ago astronomers had formed but the most inadequate conceptions. My object, then, in the pages which follow, is not solely to establish the thesis that there are other worlds than ours, but to present in a new, and, I hope, interesting light, the marvellous discoveries which have rewarded recent scientific researches."

It was only to have been expected, from the scientific antecedents of Mr. Proctor, that the task which he thus imposes on himself would be ably performed; and this expectation, we may say at once, every reader of his thoughtful, suggestive, and very interesting book, will find most fully realised, as he peruses it. It is divided into thirteen chapters, in addition to the introduction. 1. What the Earth teaches Us. 2. What We Learn from the Sun. 3. The Inferior Planets. 4. Mars, the Miniature of Our Earth. 5. Jupiter, the Giant of the Solar System. 6. Saturn, the Ringed World. 7. Uranus and Neptune the Arctic Planets 8. The Moon and Other Satellites. 9. Meteors and Comets; their Office in the Solar System. 10. Other Suns than Ours. II. Minor Stars, and of the Distribution of Stars in Space. 12. The Nebulae, Are They External Galaxies? and, 13. Supervision and Control.

In the first chapter our author derives a striking and cogent argument from the extraordinary varieties of external conditions under which organised life exists on our own globe: drawing his illustrations from the imperishable stone record contained in the stratified layers of the earth's crust ; from the accounts of our most philosophical travellers; and notably from the marvellous discoveries of Dr. Carpenter, made during his recent dredging expeditions, of the illimitable profusion of animal existence at depths in the ocean so vast that the mero aqueous pressure crushes the instruments by which we seek to investigate it.

he then proceeds to examine the physical structure of our great centre of light and heat—the Sun, and traces the curious connection which subsists between the period of Sun spots, and that of certain terrestrial magnetic disturbances. Considering the very small portion of the Sun's disc which is at any time obscured by spots, as

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compare, with the illuminated part, the notion advanced that our Sun, viewed from one of the fixed Stars, would appear a "' variable,' having a period of ten and a half years," seems a little fanciful; although we are scarcely prepared actually to deny that it may be so. As a matter of course, the spectroscope plays an important part in the chapter under discussion, and Kirchhoff's magnificent discovery is put forward with all that prominence to which its vast importance entitles it. Its leading features have been too recently discussed by a writer in these pages to render any more explicit reference to it necessary. Mr. Proctor successfully, as we think, combats the notion of Mr. Lockyer that the Solar Corona has a terrestrial origin; but we confess our inability to find any proof of the implied identity of that Corona and the Zodiacal light which his pages contain.

In tho chapter on the Inferior Planets, Tyndall's remarkable discovery as to the part played by aqueous vapor in our atmosphere in regulating our supply of solar heat, is made the foundation of an attempt to show how the surfaces of Mercury and Venus are, by no means, ex necessitate, burned up. With reference to Venus though, our author seems to be in a curious state of indecision ; as while on p. 79, he seems to lean to the idea that she may be inhabited b, a race of beings as highly organised as ourselves, on p. 215, he appears to imply that all probability is in favour of such an inclination of her axis, as would render her practically unfit to be the abode of any thing resembling human life Incidentally, the curious question as to the existence of B satellite to this planet is discussed; a moot point which has arisen within the last few weeks in our own columns.

In Chapter IV, Mars is dealt with. And here Mr. Proctor's task is a relatively easy one, as his intimate knowledge of Martial detail, enables him to show conclusively how singularly striking is the resemblance between this planet and the one on which we live.

The two following chapters, those on Jupiter and Saturn, develop the very curious theory that instead of being habitable, these two huge globes are themselves Suns; or act as such to their Satellites; and that it is these Satellites in which we are to look for Worlds. The same idea is propounded with regard to Uranus and Neptune, the Moons of which we are invited to conceive as the abode of creatures who derive their light and heat from those planets. With regard to the two chapters more especially referred to, we may observe that they contain one assertion, or, perhaps, rather hypothesis, so startling, that we must demur to it at once. It is no other than that the changes of figure which observers have imagined they have detected in Jupiter and Saturn (and notably in the latter), have their origin in an actual alteration in the planets' outlino caused by some stupendous convulsion 1 Of the nature and character of the force which should cause a chance of such mighty magnitude as to be easily visible some seven hundred and eighty millions of miles off, it would be idle to speculate.

In " The Moon and Other Satellites," the probability of these attendants being themselves worlds is discussed.

The Ninth Chapter—that on Meteors and Comets—is one of singular interest, and is treated in a way worthy of its writer. He combats Laplace's theory as to the relative age of the planets, and denies that they have been ejected by the Sun in order, beginning with the exterior ones; which would of course then be the Older. He looks to the aggregation of meteoric and cosmetic systems for the formation of the various Globes which circulate about the Sun.

"Other Suns than Ours," is the title of Chapter X., which, dealing with the constitution of the Fixed Stars, fully sustains the interest of its predecessor.

In Chapter XI., on Minor Stars, and of the distribution of Mars or space, the author treats of a subject which he has made peculiarly his own, and shows, as it appears to us conclusively, upon how very erroneous a principle the appearance presented by the Stellar Vault has hitherto been interpreted. We would commend the very instructive woodcut on p. 254, to all who may be disposed to cling to the existing explanation of the structure of the galaxy, and of our visible sidereal system.

The Nebula, form the subject of the twelfth chapter; and here again we meet with much

The book concludes with a bold, but reverenr. attempt to meet the religious difficulties which it is assumed will be felt by many to whom the idea of other inhabitants of the universe than our own race, may prove a stumbling block. How ably and eloquently this has been done, and how, by the aid of arguments pervaded by a tone of the most fervent piety such difficulties ore, one byone met and disposed of, the reader must go to the work itself to learn. He must be curiously constituted if he do not rise from its perusal a wiser and a better man.

Thirteen illustrations adorn this volume; some of them of very great beauty. Among these we may particularly specify the chromo-lithographs of Jupiter, Saturn and Mars,and the view of the Nebula 17 Messier, which faces p. 292. We had marked several passages for extract; but (even , were we not prevented by the exigencies of our limited space) we feel that to pick out small portions from a close and connected sequence of argument would be to render an injustice to the author, and to give no adequate idea of one of the most interesting scientific works which have for a long time issued from tho press. Aud so we pass it on to the reader.


By A Fellow Op The Royal Astronomical


( Concluded from page 218.)

FROM the spectra of the fixed stars, Mr. Huggins naturally turned to those of the nebula:. The first of these anomalous bodies which he examined was the one known as 37 Hersch. IV., Draconis (Vol. X., p. 6). This, as many of our readers are aware, appears in the telescope as a small bluish disc of light. We may conceive Mr. Huggins's astonishment when, on getting this image on to the slit of his spectroscope, and regarding it with that instrument, not a vestige of a continuous spectrum was to be seen! At first all that he could detect was one bright line: further observation, however, revealed a second at some little distance, and finally he could just perceive a third of extreme faintness. It is scarcely needful, then, for us at this stage to inform the student that this was the spectrum of some incandescent gas or gases. As a matter of fact, a direct comparison of these lines with those of certain terrestrial elements showed that the brightest line was caused by nitrogen ; the exceedingly faint one by hydrogen, and that the third was very near, though not absolutely coincident with, one line of barium. We refrain giving an illustration of this spectrum, inasmuch as no engraving could adequately reproduce its extremely dim and ghostly appearance ; in point of fact, had it not been that it consisted of three lines of light upon a black ground it would have hardly been perceptible even in Mr. Huggins's large refractor. Onr great English philosopher was not long in following up this very remarkable discovery by others in the same field. The nebula Strove 6, Tauri Poniatorii, presented the same three bright lines as the object jost described; as did 73 Hersch. TV., Cygni, but the last-named object showed also a faint continuous spectrum. This was conclusively traced to an eleventh magnitude star in the middle of the nebula I 51 Hersch. IV. Sagittarii, 1 Hersch. IV. Aquarii, (Vol. X., p. 65), and 18 Hersch. IV. Andromeda:, presented tho some spectrum too, but with the addition in the last cose of a fourth very faint and more refrangible line. The ring nebula, 57 Messie' Lyra (Vol. X, p. 65), and the Dumb-bell Nebula' 27 Messier Vulpeculaa, showed merely the nitrogen line. Mr. Huggins also examined several well known clusters, more or less resolvable, and found, as might have been expected, that they one and all gave continuous spectra. Now it may here be asked, Do all the nebulae give this same three-line gaseous spectrum 1 Mr. Huggins who examined some seventy of their bodies, shall answer for himself. "Of these seventy nebulae,' he says, " about one-third belong to tho class of gaseous bodies: the light of the remaining nebulas and clusters becomes spread out by the prism into a spectrum which is apparently continuous." The great nebula, 31 Messier in Andromeda (Vol. X, p, 65), presents a very remarkable spectrum ; in fact, a kind of hybrid one. It is seemingly continuous, and yet all the red, and some of the orange end of it is absent from it, and the brighter parts are striped or mottled in an odd and n.iqujl manner.

Every one who has began the survey of the heavens with a telescope is familiar with that moat striking object, 42 Messier, the g at nebula surrounding tho multiple star 90rionis(Vol. X., p. 495). Now for many years previously to Mr. Hnggins's investigations there had been a growing disposition to believe that all nebulas without exception consisted merely of clusters of stars at such an infinitely remote distance as to render their component stars individually invisible, and to cause them to present their well known appearance; but that increase in the aperture of our telescopes was all that was needful to resolve them into their constituent glittering atoms. It is true that the grand mass of which we are now speaking had resisted the power of Herschel's 10ft. reflector, and that his son Sir John Herschel, and, after him, the Earl of Rosse with his reflector of 3ft. in aperture, and Lassell, with a 2ft. mirror, one and all failed to resolve it; but yet there was a general disposition to believe that increased optical power would turn this mysterious cloud into the minute stars of which it was imagined to be composed. The truth of the poet's aphorism that "the wish is father to the thought," is a matter of common experience with us all, aud it is therefore not surprising that when Ldrd Rosse acquired his gigantic 6ft. mirror, he should have persuaded himself that he could see some faint indications of resolvability in this nebula; nor that Bond in America, and Secchi at Rome should each have done the same. But now Mr. Huggins appeal's upon the scene, and applies his crucial test to determine the vexed point. Let us listen to what he says: "The light from the brightest part of the nebula near the trapezium was resolved by the prisms into three bright lines, in all respects similar to those in the gaseous nebula) . . . The whole of this great nebula, as far as lies within the power of my instrument, emits light which is identical in its character; the light from one part differs from the light of another in intensity alone." There is something most particularly striking and impressive in the first view of the spectrum of a nebula, and we can never forget our own of the strange object under discussion. In the darkness and quiet of our observatory, the death-like stillness only br oken by the measured tick of the sidereal clock, the sight of the dim bands of light emanating from this mysterious body, impressed us with a feeling something akin to awe.

From Nebulae, the transition is not wholly unnatural to comets, and we need therefore feel no surprise that Mr. Huggins availed himself of the earliest opportunity te examine the spectrum of one of those strange wanderers. Passing over his results as obtained from two insignificant comets which appeared in 1866 and 1867, wc will proceed to notice the remarkable conclusion which he was enabled to announce with reference to what is known as Comet 2 of 1868, which was first discovered by Dr. Winnecke on the 13th of June in that year. Nine nights afterwards Mr. Huggins directed Mb instrument to it with the curious result of which we aro now about to speak. Instead o! presenting a spectrum of narrow lines, the comet's light was resolved into three broad bright bands, as shown iu Fig. 10. It would be foreign to our purpose, even had we space to do so, to copy Mr. Huggins's minutely-detailed account of the shading, &c, of these bands. It must suffice to say that the spectrum differed wholly from that of the gaseous nebulas of whioh we have been speaking above, and that, suspecting its analogy to that of carbon, he compared it directly with the spectrum of that substance obtained by passing the electric spark through a current of olefiant gas. The carbon spectrum which he thus got is shown iu Fig. 9, and its identity with that of the comet will be seen on inspection. It is very neoessary to state, though, that although Winnecke's comet undoubtedly consisted mainly of carbon iu some form, yet that it by no means follows that others have the same chemical composition. Iu fact Brorsen's comet, a small periodical one, which also appeared in 1868, gave three lines which do not correspond with those of any known terrestrial substance.

We had intended to have given some general notion of the mode in which the rate of motion of our most brilliant star, Sirius, has been determined, »ind of the extraordinarily ingenious manner in

A;ch Mr. Huggins has shown that it is travelling ""ei'nfroin the Earth. We had also some idea of

Blacktjs some rude and makeshift apparatus by b«oks. «k«t<->rhich rudimentary spectroscopic obser

Last 4 Vols. ° mbut 'ttllmK space warns us nr.t volume of .conclude. In doing so, we would

oiren requested,— \. Dover.

fain express a hope that our descriptions may have been found intelligible by those for whom they were more especially written. We commenced by speaking of the difficulty of giving a popular explanation of the subject we proposed to discuss; and now, as we approach the end of our labours, that difficulty appears mora formidable even than it did then. -We have, however, used the very plainest language that we could command, and have never scrupled to repeat ourselves, whenever such repetition would conduce to the elucidation of the point under discussion, or tend to render the understanding of it by the student easier. 'So, then, conscious as we are of the shortcomings of this essay, let us hope that it may not have been wholly without use in teaching those who have so far followed us, what Stripes the Suubeam.

The End.


(Continued from page 222.)

Lectuke II.

GENTLEMEN,—In my last lecture I gave a general survey of the physiology of our mental functions, showing how indissolubly they are bound up with the bodily functions, and how barren must of necessity be a study of mind apart from body. I pointed out that the higher mental operations were functions of the supreme nerve centres ; but that, though of a higher and more complex nature than the functions of the lower nerve centres, they obey the same physiological laws of evolution, and could be best approached through a knowledge of them. I now propose to show that the phenomena of the derangement of mind bear out fully this view of its nature ; that we have not to deal with disease of a metaphysical entity, which the method of inductive inquiry cannot reach, nor the resources of the medical art touch, but with disease of the nervous system, disclosing itself by physical and mental symptoms. I say advisedly physical and mental, because in most, if not all, cases of insanity, at one period or other of their course, there are, in addition to the prominent mental features.symptomsof disordered nutrition and secretion, of disordered sensibility, or of disordered motility. Neither in health nor in disease is the mind imprisoned in one corner of the body ; and when a person is lunatic, he is, as Dr. Bucknill has remarked, lunatic to his fingers' ends.

Mental disorders are neither more nor less than nervous diseases in which mental symptoms predominate, and their entire separation from other nervous diseases has been a sad hindrance to progress. When a blow on the head has paralysed sensibility and movement, in consequence of the disease in the brain which it has initiated, the patient is sent to the hospital; but when a blow on the head has caused mental derangement, in consequence of the disease of brain which it has initiated, the patient is sent to an asylum. In like manner, one man who has unluckily swallowed the eggs of a taenia, and has got a cysticercusin the brain, may go to the hospital; another who has been similarly unlucky goes to an asylum. Syphilitic disease of the brain or its arteries lands one person in an asylum with mental symptoms predominant; another In an hopital with sensory and motor disorder predominant. The same cause produces different symptoms, according to the purt of the brain which it particularly affeots. No doubt it is right that mental derangements should have, as they often require, the special appliances of an asylum, but it is certainly not right that the separation which is necessary for treatment should reach to their pathology and to the method of its study. So long as this is the case, we shall labour in vain to get exact scientific ideas concerning their causation, their pathology, and their treatment.

Clearing, then, tho question as completely as possible from the haze whioh metaphysics has cast around it, let us ask—How comes idiocy, or insanity? What is the scientific meaning of them? We may take it to be beyond question that they are not accidents ; that they come to pass, as every other event in naturo does, by natural law. They are mysterious visitations only because we unlerstand not tbe laws of their production—appear

* Two lectures delivered at the Royal College of Physicians In ]870. By Henry Maodslrt, Sl.D., F.K.C P.. Profearor of Aledieal Jurisprudence lu University College, London.

casualties only because we are ignorant of their casualty. When a blow on the head or an inflammation of tbe membranes of tho brain has produced derangement of mind, we need not look further for a cause : the actual harm done to structured sufficient to account for disorder of function in the best-constituted and best-developed brain. But it is in only in a small proportion of cases ol insanity that we can discover such a direct physical occasion of disease. In a great many cases—in more than half, certainly, and perhaps in five out of six—there is something in the nervous organisation of the person, some native peculiarity, which, however we name it, predisposes him to as outbreak of insanity. When two persons undergo a similar moral shock, or a similar prolonged anxiety, aud one of them goes mad inconsequence, while the other goes to sleep and goes to work and recovers his equanimity, it is plain that all the co-operating conditions have not been the same, that the entire cause has been different. What then has been the difference? In the former case there has been present a most important element which was happily wanting in the latter —there has been a certain hereditary neurosis, an unknown and variable quantity in the equation.

Perhaps of all the erroneous notions conoerning mind which metaphysics has engendered or abetted, there is none more false than that which tacitly assumes or explicitly declares that men are born with equal original mental capacity, opportunities and education determining the differences of subsequent development. Tbe opinion is as cruel as it is false. What man can by taking thoughtjadd one cubic either to his mental or to his bodily stature? Multitude of human beings come into the world weighted with a destiny against which they have neither the will nor the power to contend; they arc the step-children of Nature, and groan under the worst of all tyrannies—the tyranny of a bad organisation. Men differ, indeed, in the fundamental characters of their minds as they do In the features of their countenances, or in the habits of their bodies; and between those who are born with the potentiality of a full and complete mental development, under favourable circumstances, and those who are born with an innate incapacity ot mental development, nnder any circumstances, fhoir exists every gradation. What teaching could ever raise the congenital idiot to the common level of human intelligence? What teaching could ever keep the inspired mind of the man of genius at that level?

The congenital idiot is deprived of his human birthright, for he is born with such a defect of brain that he cannot display any, or can only display very feeble and imperfect, mental functions. From no fault of his own is he thus afflicted, seeing that he must be held innocent of all offence but the offence of his share of original sin ; but it is nowise so clear that it is not from some fault of his parents. It is all too true that, in many cases, there has observably been a neglect or disregard of the laws which govern the progress of human development through the ages. Idiocy is, indeed, a manufactured article; and although we are not always able to tell how it is manufactured, still its important causes are known, and are within control. Many cases. are distinctly traceable to parental intemperance and excess. Out of 300 idiots in Massachusetts, Dr. Howe found a8niany as 145 to be the offspring of intemperate parents ; and there are numerous seattered observations whichprovothat chronic alcoholism in the parent may directly occasion idiocy in the child. I think, too, that there is no reasonable question of tbe ill-effects of marriages of consanguinity: that their tendency is to produce degeneracy of trie race, and idiooy as the extremest form of such degeneracy. I do not say that all the children of such marriages may not sometimes be healthy, and some of them quite healthy at other times j but the general and ultimate result of breeding in and in is to produce barrenness a::d sterility, ohildren of a low degree of viability, and of imperfect mental and physical development —doaf-mutism, and actual imbecility or .idiocy. Again, insanity in the parent may issue in idiocy in the offspring, which is, so to speak, the natural term of mental degeneracy when it proceeds unchecked through generations. It may be affirmed with no littlo confidence, that if the experiment of intermarrying insane persons for two or three generations were tried, the result would be sterile idiocy and extinction of the family. Certain unfavourable conditions of life tend unquestionably to produce degeneracy of the individual; the morbid predisposition so generated is then

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