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the Polytechnic advertisements and notices of the inmnUro "¿48,which шяу easily be ..«en by, consulting an old file ol the Tim«, Chrontck, Post ПсгаЫ, ffi te te I may aleo appeal to the testimony of numbers'who attended my lectures, and I think I may °»further"¿»"there l/ scarcely a living electrician of note, who did not witness my experiments I feel bound to say In conclusion, that I am convinced Mr. Hearderhai acted entirely under a mistake and was not cognisant of the facts above quoted. I merely îpeak to settle the question of mv original discovery inthls important electrical development and I am tealy glad to perceive that Mr. HearSer, whoses general electrical experience Is well understood, is bringing his researches lo bear upon so prolific and so intorest¡l)" a field of physical investigation.

ISHAM Baggs.

PITMAN'S PHONOGRAPHY. Sm -WIU yon allow me to Inform "Hermit," page 255. that there can be no douDt whatever that Pitman s phonography Is the best system of ■boiltaad. "is founded on philosophical principles, and its alphabet may truly bb called the alphabet of nature as ftcaatains a symbol for each simple and distinct sound in our language. Those who write other eystems will .■enerally be found to be persons advanced In Ufe, who learned shorthand before Pitmau s system was introduced, and I feel sure they would all recommend the latter to a beginner. In comparing phonography with other methods of shorthand. It Is sufficient to say that it is easier to learn, easier to write, and, what is almost of greater importance, easier to read. In fact, I may safely say, that phonography is the only kind of shorthand which, when put Into actual practice, and written with any degree of speed, can ■ be read with perfect accuracy by any one else besides the writer. It is ao uncommon thing for verbatim reports of speeches, taken in phonography, to be sent to the compositor without any further transcribing 1 think it needless to occupy one or two columns of our valuable space in dilating on the advantages ol shorthand. "Hermit" will find an essay on the subject at the commencement of any treatise on the art, if his common sense has not already suggested them to his mind. Suffice to say, that it is a great mistake to suppose the art is only useful to reporters; persons in every situation of Ufe would find • a knowledge of shorthand of the greatest use to them; they would find time and labour saved to a very great extent. Phonography can be written at a speed three times that of ordinary writing with scarcely any muscular fatigue, and the shorthand writer can keep it up for about half an hour without any intermission, whereas a longhand writer, if he writes at the top of his speed, is dead beat in a very much shorter time. With regard to the leugth of time taken to acquire a knowledge of shorthand, nothing definite can be said. Some people will learn as much in a month as others will in a year. I have had some experience with shorthand classes, and I have found that while, as in everything else, only a few attain to real excellency, yet all are able easily to comprehend the simple and very beautiful principle« of phonography, and by a moderate negree of bona Jiile application, to acquire a fair knowledge of the art in less than a year. I have known a person without any previous acquaintance of phonography, write with very great accuracy In six weeks' time. This of course is an exception. It will generally be found that a moderate amount of dally application will enable anyone to write phonography at the same rale of speed at which he writes longhand In, from two to six months' time, varying, of course, according to the ablUty of the learner, and the amountof time he gives up to it. Further practice increases both the speed and the ease of writing. Expert verbatim reporting can only be acquired by years of constant practice, and if " Hermit'- says, "How many years?" I think I might say, that if you are naturally clever, and take a liking to the thing, and work hard at It, you may perhaps be able to follow very closely on the heels of a speaker at the end of two years' time. It Is impossible to say how long it would take to be able to follow a very rapid speaker verbatim. My own opinion is there are not half a dozen men in England who can

dolt. ......

The spread of phonography has been very much retarded by the coustant changes—I ought rather to say improvements—which Mr. Pitman has from time to time had the honesty to introduce Into the system, to the detriment of his own pocket and the vexation of old phonographers. I am, however, happy tu say, that a great deal of time and labour, has lately been expended in bringing the system as near to perfection as it Is possible so to de, and phonography, according to the 13th edition of the "Manual." which will, I beUeve, shortly be published, Is likely to remain, for the future, substantially the same. These changes are of course only ou minor points, and do not at all affect the general principles of the art, nor do they in any way deter anyone from making use of the existing edition of the " Manual."

All needful books can be obtained from Mr. Isaac Pitman, Bath, and the Phonetic Journal, published weekly, contains a list of persons who correct exercises sent through the post, gratuitously.



Sir,—If you think the following remarks will be of any nse, you may Insert them In your next notice of sewing machines.

In your impression of May 6th the cotton Is represented, on page 157, as coming off the shuttle from the top, whereas I find from experience it comes off easier and more regular from the bottom. Let anyone who has a machine try for himself. In Fig. 10, on same page (if your Instructions are intended for anyone to make one for himself) the spring should be made long enough to catch the brass end of shuttle reel, and it only wants to be lust enough of a spring to keep the reel from turning after the tension in making the stitch ceases. I think the method of keeping the reel in shuttle as represented in Fig. 8 is preferable to No, 0 with a hinge at the end, because if the reel U

not pressed firmly down, the hinge goes behind the end of the ehuttle reel and shut« It out, instead of In. I have found this to be the case two or three times with persons I have Bold machines to. I think Howe я shuttle admirable for leather or heavy work Jbut think those represented on page 157 are quite as good for general purposes. I have had and worked a machine 10 years. My opinion respecting the pause spoken of by " Study," on page 211. is. thatJtisgood, but In my machine the needle bar goes down to the full extent, then oomes up a little way (thus making the loop for ehuttle to pass through), then goes down again just as the shoulder of ehuttle is passing through the loop, and, as It were, eases the thread over the thick part of ehuttle, and finally the needle bar comes np, immediately the ehuttle Is past the needle, to tighten the stitch. Is his the same?


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AN IMPROVED TRICYCLE. SiR-I have enclosed an elevation of a tritjele, which I have been altering and •'"Pll,7,1n8tlorm\h,! last twelvemonths until I have reduced tt to litt e more than the three wheels and the smallest possible amount of framing. I can do ten miles an hour on a road composed of the average amount of up ana down hill, an* more on a level road. There arc indiarubber tires (Of a good substance) on all the wheeIs The front wheel is the driving and steering whee , and nothing can exceed it for easy and luxurious riding In designing a tricycle, there are certain points to be observed to insure success; I have found them out by experience, and now offer my brother readers the benefit of them. The first is, to keep the seat well down between the hind wheels, so as to employ th forward thrust ol the foot Instead of the downward pressure, as is usual. The second Is to proportion the


distance from the scat to the treadles to the length of the Intended rider's leg. The third is, not to put more weight on the driving wheel than is absolutely necessary to keep It to Its work; that is to say, to prevent Its slipping: and last, bu! not least, to have good indiarubber tires to all the wheels, but especially to the driver. My front wheel is ¡Win. in diam., and the trailing wheels 36ln. ; the reach is composed of two pieces of ash, bolted together at the front, and separated about «In. at the back with a square mortice throuf h each, through which a piece 2in. square, posees to carry two iron arms for the back wheels; the seat is centered between the two pieces of the reach, and supported on a spring at the back; there are no Iron lyres on the wheels, which makes a considerable difference in the weight—it weighs altogether 70lb.

Mr. Shlpton, page 253, has a good deal to learn In the matter of velocipedes; he has too many levers about his machine. He will soon find that working bis arms and legs (spider fashion) will soon exhaust htm.

Т. Соокк.

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SIR,—AB SO miiuy ш JVUL vu!«.,».,,*. ..... - ",-,

afforded opportunities for the consideration of musical instruments, I feel sure of a little corner for a few words from an old author on the cultivation of the voice Sinking is not only the expression, but au aid to the acquirements of the " merry heart," which, as Solomon tells us, "maketb a cheerful countenance. "hath a continual feast," and "doeth good like a medicine." , . ,

William Tiryde, one of the greatest musicians ol the Elizabethan age, in the preface to his collection of "Psalms, Sonnets, and Songe of Sadness and Pietie " published In 1506, givce the following reatious for learning to slug, the amusing quaintness of which Is mingled with good sense :—" Reasons brleflle set down by th' auctor to persuade every one to learn to sing. 1. It is knowledge easllie taught nud miicklle learned, when there is a good master and apt scholar. 2. The exercise of einging is delightful to nature, and good to preserve the health of man. 3. It doth strengthen all the parts of the heart, and doth open the pipes. 4. It Is a singular good remedy for a stuttering and etammering in the speech, o. it is the best means to preserve a perfect pronunoiatiou, and to make a good orator. 0. It is the only way to know where nature hath bestowed the benefit of a good voice which gift ie eo rare, that there is not one amongst a thousand that hath it; and ¡h manie, that excellent gift Is lost, because they want art to express nature. 7. There le not any mueick of instruments whatsoever comparable to that which is made of the voyce of men, where the voyces are good and the samo well eortcd and ordered. 8. The better the voyce ie, the meter It ie to honour and serve (jod therewith, and the voyce of man íb chieliy to bo employed to that end."

"Since singing is so gond a thing.
1 wish all men would learn to sing."

G. R. Li-rr.

Sir,—If one of yonr " Harmonious " correspondents, sitting down to his organ or piano, was asked to play the oldest tune In the world; what tune would it be Î Let me suggest that it would have to bo a Welsh tune. Why not? The Englishman Is often too ready to sneer at Wales and Welsherie. But, there were Welsh bards; they had music, harps and all: much, of their music has come down to our scoffing age; some of it must be old, and I want to know whether it does not comprise some of the oldest music extant? Take ono tune, by no means the most ancient—" Morfa Khyddlan." It commemorates a battle which occurred in the year A.D. 801 ; more than a thousand years ago. The air, indeed, ie said by the Mngluh tourist, Blnglcy, to be •' Infinitely too artificial for those dark aces; but, does not this viciously beg the whole question, whether those ages were " dark " in the sense of musical skill? Also, the tune, as a plaintive elegy, bewailing, a local BlauRhter, would not have been likely U> be composed except at a time when feelings were fresh. To doubt the date, seems to be mere doubt for doublings eake, and as gratuitous scepticsm, as when again the ЕпцШк Dr. Burney doubts whether the Welsh could have invented counterpoint; and yet counterpoint is found in full force In the Welsh manuscript Berorlceth. Let me select as what I conceive to be the oldest of the old Weleh tunes, the beautiful and really ' eacred' air "Nos Galen." It has strange antique grace, and a fine flow of melody; and It is alluded to by one of the greatest and most indubitable of th« bards. This bard was Aneurin; he flourished A.r>. 570; his poem " The Gododin " has come down to ns in a perfect state; it is highly epic in its tone, and hi uumistakeaMy prl-nitive in its grandeur; if it belonged to any other country but the Wales which the Prince of Wales never goes near, all our English gloBsographers and antlquity-moagers would rave about it. This Gododin poem of Aneurin has been ably edited, word forword, and translated by Williams. At line 884, are the granitic old Welsh words, " Cann calan a darmelthei, meaning which he wove into a eong for the calends of January. Thus this is a direct recognition of the air Nos Galen—Nos is night, and Galen or catan is calends ; Nos Galen is Christmastide ; and why do not our British churches use this oldest of Christmas carols .' I fancy "Rousseau's Dream " is a mere adaptation of it. Will some friend adduce a tuneolder than this " Nos Galen," which is 1300 years old? gijjel


Sir—Different systems seem to succeed with different manipulators. For my own part, I could make nothiug of tannic acid, and little of collodio-albumeii. but I eucceeded well with Fothergill'e process. My method was as follows :-Sensitise as usual ; wash in «ix drachms of dlstiMed water; pour albumen over th* plate and let It run well over the surface backwards and lorwards for nearly one minute -, wash In three waters, and let the plate stand to dry ; develop with nvrogallic I used Keene's collodion, and never found blisters, or anything of the sort. There was no need of the black varnish, as the film was perfectly

This is a more troublesome prooess than "Tannic Acide" and coneequently hie Is preferable on that acoount, if the result is as good. Perhaps he will try this, and 1 will try hie, when I can. „ w G


Sir —On page 265 of the present volume. In the last пага-Л-aph but one of Mr. Webb's "Hints to Astronomical Students," he says respecting interference rings —" I have noticed a border round the limo oi Venus undoubtedly due to euch a cause, and Is an probability it would be very conspicuous round tne sun were It possible to view him without such a darkening apparatus as muet extinguish all such appendages." I think an experiment I have tried will enable him to sec the interference rings round the sua very easily, and also possibly lead him to suspect that such an appearance In optical instruments arises, noi from the passage of light through space, but from the character of the media we empToy. I took a simple pocket lens and placed It in the sun, then stood atwut a yard off. The lens was about an inch "«OS. .in* Image of the sun in this position resembles a, brilliant star. I then took a narrow slip of card, and wltn a pierced a small hole; then about half an Inch irom this 1 made a smaller hole. Then, at the same distance, a third, pricked with either only the г»10' of the pin or with a small ueedle ; a fourth was mide still finer. Now, on looking through the first hole, held close to the eye, the interference rings were plainly perceptible, but through the second still more apparent, and the spurious disc of the sun larger s in the third hole the disc appears larger etlU, and in a very fine hole the disc is larger still, with only two or three Interference rings. 1 tried the experiment also with a hemispherical lens, with raihera bitter result. It was a very Interesting experiment, and the view oi the minute image of the >uu resembled a very distrae t image of a brilliant star a« seen through a good telescope. Now, on making the experiment at night wltn the same instrumente, only using a parafflu lamp fur the source of light, I fouud exactly the same effect produced, where, of course, the effect of distance could not be taken into account.

W. С M.

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—Our friend and instructor, "F.R.A.S.," page ■>77, justly answers " The Welsh Shepherd" as to " Inserted images." When the top and the bottom of the ,/ii»,i is determined we shall find fiat the poslliou of the picture upon the retina will allectour judgments a» to the real position of visible object». The " W.o. appears to forget that if the little boy saw everything: around him in an inverted position (as " W. h. presumes; that he would see his own drawings ш Uit same manner, and therefore represent them In tux same position as a normal eye sees them.

1 eUNl« IDlaA.


Sir.- In hie letter, on page 28!i, by taking the volume of one gramme ol hydrogen as 1116 litres, instead of using the more accurate value of 11*161, Mr. Divin makes the answer tu "Zeta'a" query 10145t litre», Instead of the more correct volume of 101 «1 litres. This discrepancy between "Zeta's" replies might confuse him, so I have referred to it to explain how the difference arose. In answering such questions aa this a certain degree of accuracy Is essential, and it is to he regretted It is not always used.

Also with reaard to methyl, Mr. Davis has assumed the theoretical specific grarity 14)305; Krankland and Kulbe's researches, though, indicate a specific gravity considerably higher, approaching that of ethyl hydride —that Is to say, about 1-075.

Allow me to draw the attention of "Sigma" to the letters on page S63, signed by Mr. Kornan and " E. J. W." The latter Is especially rich, and its author seems to hold a very different idea of the "safety and eecurity " of the South American Republics to that of Her Majesty's Government, or perhaps I should qualify by saying he " believes." For " adds," Une 10, page 382, read "oxide."



Sir,—As flautists are coming to the front in the correspondence pages of our magazine, perhaps I may be allowed a few words. An eminent composer when asked why he wrote »little for the flute In the scores of his operas, replied that he hated flutes—they were never In tune. Tbie has remained a fact in flutes up to a few years back. I have been in the musical profession as a flautist for a number of years. I began with the old Nicholson flute; and however well it may be made, It is a most Imperfect Instrument. There are always some of the notes a great deal weaker than the others, especially С and E, and the instrument is generally more or less out of tune, defects arising from the holes not being in their proper position. If they were so, the fingers could not reach them. In the flutes (Siccama Patent; sold by Chappel. Nuw Bond-street, it Is sought to remedy this by the introduction of a key for the third finger of each hand bv making the holes and bore of the instrument larger. They are very good instruments. The flutes sold by Boosey (Tratten« Perfected) are also very good, but neither of them attain to what is wanted—equality of tone and tune. I played some years on the Boehm Finie, and although the change of fingering involves the student in an extra amount of practice, I feel assured that in the end, from increased tone, correct tune, and ease of execution, he will congratulate himself on having adopted the Boehm system. A recent correspondent speaks of the constantly-recurring difficulty in executing rapid passages on this flute. This is directly contrary to my experience. With the old system of fingering it is Impossible to execute in a creditable manner many slurring passages in extreme keys; they are simply botched and struggled over. With the Boehm Flute it is about as easy to

Çlay on fire or six flats as to play on that of С natural, he flute I use at present Is Carte's patent, combining Boehm's fingering with Carte's fingering and improvement«. For volume and quality of tone and facility of fingering, I believe tbey are unequalled. And for the great desideratum in flutes—that of being well jn tune—I can almost say, using the words literally, they are perfect. The only objection I have to them is their once—to the profession £22. Before purchasing this instrument 1 was Induced to read Clin ton's essay on his flute, and naturally thought great things of his instrument. I made Inquiry of some flautists who have held good positions in London. I was told his flute was gradually being abandoned, and that the Carte-Boehm is adopted by the principal players in the profession; personally I know nothing of it.


TURNING HORSES OOT TO GRASS.—" O. E. S." in a letter says :—" When horses have suffered in their work from anything of the nature of strain of the sinews or their ligaments, or when their legs are very much the worse for wear, they should be allowed no exercise but such as thy can get in a loose box they should be treated as a man would be who had sprained his ankle and mut be confined to his sofa. On the other hand. I have seen horses which were pretty good on their legs, but stale, groggy, and tucked up from hard work and dry and exciting food, improve as if by magic when turned out to grass on the following plan. I have h"used them during the day time in a well-ventilated building, darkened so as to exclude the sun and flies, giving them about half a peck of corn dally, with bran and clover chaff; they nave then been turned out at night in a pasture in which there was an abundance of grass. Under these circumstances they are never tormented by flies, when they are out all Is cool and quiet, the long grass saturated with dew supplies an admirable, cool, reiricerating poultice to their legs and feet, and the grass they get, combined with their daily feed of corn, seems to plump up their bodies wlthont much interfering with their condition for work. I have taken up horses treated in this way as late as September, and had them in a very fair order for work by the commencement of the hunting season."

USES OF VINE LEAVES,—A correspondent of the "Philosophical Magazine" states tl>at fromexperiments which he has made he finds that, on being dried, which should be done In the shade, and infused in a tea-pot, the leaves of the vine make an excellent substitute for tea. He has also found that, on being cut small, bruised, and put into a vat or mashing tub, and boiling water poured on them in the same way as done with malt, the primings of the vine produce liquor of a fine vinous quality, which, on belus fomented, makes a very fine beverage, either strong or weak, as you please; and. on being distilled, produces an ex«'ll«nt spirit, of the nature of bran'y. In tincourse or his experiments he found that the tormented Honor from the prunlngs. particularly the tendrils, •when allowed to pass the vinous, and to run into tin»ceto;-« termcutatiou,mikesuucommunly Hue vine-;T-.



"Inertia" writes :—" On page257, of our journal, Mr. O'Connor has attempted to correct serious errors In the very useful and instructive paper» written by Mr. Kef nan, occasionally given by you, and doubtless read by the majority of your readers with great pleasure and satisfaction: for my own part, they retail old lessons and laws (sometimes nearly lost in a practical Ufe} with a freshness and simplicity so readable, tbat few of us will finish the chapters without some benefit, even If It but refreshes the memory ef rudiments too often forgotten. Surely the presumption so visible In one that has yet to learn the correct meaning of inertia and momentum, will meet with the remarks from your better informed corresponden te they deserve. Allow me to observe, Sir, that this one incorrect" correction/ forms the " few errors" so ostensibly displayed by your correspondent. With regard to the classification, if Mr. O'Connor will read the former paragraphs In connection with the one ne has quoted, I think most of your readers will form their own conclusions as to the one which is so * much superior ' to the other."

EMIGRATION.—R. Smith writes:—"I am very

fiad to see the emigration question in your pages, and cannot but think, an amount of useful information will be obtained by its ventilation. I have travelled in the United States, and will answer with pleasure any inquiry from brother readers. I think there is great hope for " Railway Clerk " in the Western States, where he could tickle the earth with greater advantages to himself and family, than ledger tickling In railway depots in England.

THE BICYCLE.—J. Hare writes:—"A correspondent of yours, who eigne himself N. G. Lamborne. and who states he has been a velocipedist more than twenty years, states, ' The blcyele is only fit for those who are fond of dangerous sports.' Now I think this rather too hard on us poor bicyclists, and beg (to inform him, that I, a mere amateur, have performed several journeys on both business and pleasure, on this 'dangerous ' (?) machine, carrying a considerable i weight of luggage on my last journey, and did it all I without a scratch. I think the bicycle, made as light as possible, consistent with the required strength, with a few minor improvements, and a pair of the india-rubber tired 'Phantom' wheels, will be the machine of the future. Vet I, along with many of your correspondents, should like to see the merits of the different machines ably discussed in your journal. I must, however say, that I have not tried these celebrated wheels, mine being a machine with a pair of first-class ash wheels, but If they have half the advantages which the advertisement states, they must be indeed a great desideratum to admirers of the bicycle."

COMMERCE AND TRADE.—"A. W. J." writes: —** Your correspondent, ' F. W. M..* seems to have got into quite a mist; he has been firing wide of the mark, he Is discussing a point that 'Herbert ' never rsised. 1 consider * Herbert's ' argument Is conclusive. 'Herbert' says, ' if 1 freight a ship with a cargo which costs me £18,000, and she brings me back a cargo in lieu of it, of the value of £29,000, I think my trade would be very prosperous,' Ac. Let 'P. W. M.'read this agaiu and then his own mystifie i reply. Again, let * F. W. M.* send a cargo, worth £10,000, and lu return receive only £9,000; methlnks he would soon have to retire on a beggarly nothing. His argument as regards paying workmen's wages, is very childish. I should judge from his note, be is not a business man, nor either tbat he is acquainted with the laws of trade."

A PRACTICAL METHOD OF DETERMINING THE FOCAL LENGTH OF A CONCAVE LENS. —" S. T. Preston," writes:—" Place the lens in the sun's rays, so that the luminous circle, formed on the screen is equil to twice the aperture of the lens; then the distance from the screen is the focal length required. Or combining with the lens, a con rex lens of short focal length, whose focal distance is known, then observe the focal length of the combination, and calling F the focal length of the lenses combined, and/' that of the convex lens, the required focus may be simply got by the formula,


Required focus = -"


NUMISMATICS.—Samuel Smith writes :—" I trust that Mr. Hcnfrey will accept my thanks for his reply to my query about thetwocoius, as also 'Collector,' who bas quite destroyed my belief in the Immanuel de Rohan being a token. I am obliged to him fordoing so. I am interested in Mr. Henfrey's articles on ancient coins. I hope, when he comes to treat en the gold coins of England, he will drive away some of the mist that hangs over them, and explain how a noble, which nearly equals our sovereign in weight, and exceeds It in beef buying capabllltlee twenty timee, should be called 6s. 8d. It wae valued at 80 peonies, but the penny was a very different coin from our présent coin of that name. I fancy an article on that subject would interest a good many readers."

BOILER INSPECTION.—John Swift writes :"Might I be allowed to draw your attention, and that of your very numerous readers in the engineering world to the fact of a select committee of the House of Commons now sitting to inquire into the causes of boiler explosions, also to remark Cas to the personnel of said committee, that nine out of the fifteen gentlemen are all Lancashire manufacturers, and I think two others also engaged In trade. That there are no'working men's members: on the committee, but that there are two members for Boltou and no member for Birmingham. The county »ГStaffordshire, I think, is distinguished for boiler explosions, but Mr. McLean's namejis not on the committee."

VELOCIPEDES—S.Jamee says:—"In reply to'Isle of Ely,' the oscillating treadle bars of the back-wheel bicycle* arc lOin. apart enly, and the obtins never rub the wheel In ordinary turnings. When they do it makes no difference. I think he does not understand the treading motion. It is not an uncommon one. but the ваше as that in the * Macclesfield.' 'Edinburgh.* 'Kng'ish,' and all the improved tricycles."


LITHARGE AND GLYCERINE CEMENT.— I ao. sorry to say that in ray hands tins has proved « total failure. A very valuable cement, which I lime used for many years, and which is especially serviceable where cavities have to be filled, is made by mixing equal parts of litharge and white lead with a sufficient quantity of copal oil varnish. Of course it should be only made as wanted.—T. W. Wksb.

[27M.3-THE GOAT AND THE GRASS PLOT. — la answer to Captain Baxter's query, I beg to inform him that the length of tether required would be 2Sift.—G. A S.

[34900-THREE-WHEELED VBLOCE — Should key ou one wheel on the hind axle, and leave the other to ran loose , it turns corners, drives as well as with ratchets, and is economical. I have made one.—-J. H.

[3773.]—1-PLATE PHOTO CAMERA.—Ibeg to inform "Mus." it is a camera for the studio that I wish to construe': nrst, but hope he will at some future time give sketch and description of a portable one, ss I have no doubt many other eaders of the Eivqlish Mechanic would be benefited thereby.—Snatch Block.

[377U.]_BOILER AND SAFETY VALVES.-I beg to answer this very impartant question more for the benefit of amateurs and others requiring to know the pressure on safety valves, or weight on lever to equal a given preuure of steam on valves. First find the weight of valve D, spindle,

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end lever, and add to it the weight of counterpoise weight required to bring the lever to a level in lbs. and oxs. Then hod the pressure you want on valve, or by knowing the pressure you want on the square inch; multiply this pressure by the number of square inches of valve surface, or rather outlet, as at E, and the product is the preuure on valve -, then from the pressure on valve found subtract the weight of valve, spindle, lever, and counterpoise weight, and multiply this product by tbe length in inches from A to B, and divide by the length in inches you want the weight to be toward* C, and the product is the number of lbs. weight to be h un г on the fixed point at C. Example: Say lever 23Jin. long, and valve, spindle, lever, and counterpoise weight weighs ltlb. lOoz., valve 3" diameter, and 601b. pressure per square inch, 70686 x 80 = 4341160 - 14625 - 419 4910 x 325 = 1Л63345750 -~ 23-25 = 68 641b, weight reqaired at C, 23l¡n. from A. Multiply the square of the diameter of valve by 7854, and the product is the area of surface 3" x 3" = 9 x 78Б4 = 7*0686 square inches in 3in. diameter. Divide the number of ozs. by 16, the ozs. per lb , and the product is the decimal value of the ozs., 10000 н- Ы = 625 = Woz.—J. Hovbll.

[S803.]-CHANGING THE COLOUR OF PRIMROSES.— If "J. D. M." wishes to permanently improve his primroses, and to obtain a good race of his own ennobling, I would recommend him to cross-breed them xith dark coloured polyanthus, and to save and sow the seeds. The result will most likely be seedlings of various colours ¡ he can save those he likes best, and if he chooses repeat the process of егоза breeding them at pleaeure, till he obtains a race which will amply repay him for the slight attention required. 1 think he will find this a much safer and more interesting method than using chemicals. If "J. D. M." is not familiar with hybridising, and would like to have a few hints, I will (with our Editor s permission) endeavour to give him a few. If he merely wishes to improve those he already has, high cultivation may perhaps do this.—S. Rogers.

£83».]—TRACING CLOTH.—Get a 6d. pot of ox-gall, and mix a little both with ink and colours; if ink won't, then take on the cloth, increase the quantity of ox-gell. Rowney's is the best manufactured. As regards colouring tracings, you should always colour on back, as the ink lines are liable to being obliterated on applying the colour. For your walls use lake or carmine; wood, burnt sienne; slates, prussian blue, or indigo and lake. Mix your colours very dark, so *i they may appear of proper strength ou opposite side. — Draughtsman.

[3856-1-SPEED, be.. OF TRICYCLES,—I believe the average rate on tricycles driving by teerrs Is about 7 to 10 miles an hour (And. indeed, this is the aversge rate of most velocipedes). Some of the inventors assert that they are easier than bicycles, but I do not consider they are so in practice, except it be that the seat is easier. The one upokea of by Andrew Johnson would do well for two riders; but for оае a tricycle is a miserable affair unless it drives by levers. The cost ought to he about £8 (I can make good ones at that) The driving wheel ought not to be more than 38", and the cranks 6*.—8. Jambs.

[3861.] — SIZE OF NOZZLES.—The rule is 3-liiths internally, 5-16ths for water; and for steam It is 1, sad internally |.—J. Hard мая.

[3869.]-WEIGHT OF WATER.—The bucket will appa rently increase in weight as it approaches the top, this м owing to the decrease of leverage by the roller becoming thicker with tbe rope coiling round it; and not to any difference in the weight of the bucket from difference of distance from the centre of the earth. Mode of calculation. Let л = diameter of roller; b = thick печь of roping wonnd on; v weight of water at bottom of the well; and tr/ weight of water at top of the well. Then as я : + 2? . ¡ w : «eí-—В.

[3869]—WEIGHT OF WATER.—" Countryman n complains of his bucket of water being no much heaurr at the bottom of the well then at the top He want* aa expUixt-on of this, and M simple rule to work it out. The real trti'h of the matter is that 1пч bucket of water is actual!} of less weight at the bottom of his well or Wit. tt.nn at f\e tjp Seeing he has gone so 'ar into the ear;i<, lli*» gravity *::. '*e а trifle leas. The increased weight can only be the rope or «bain that he winds up with, and if he knowe what a foot of tint weighs he can calculate íor himself; hutas he li mis it hard work to wind up the water »'hile the bucket is at the bottom of the well, he should have his roller that he winds up on tapering, and so commence winding at the small end of his roller. He will find Ibis plan a great relief— H. P.


[8883.]—DOUBLE MOTIVE POWER.—Consult a properly qualified eugineer and millwright on the subject. These two motive powers cannot overrun one another if properly governed by governors. If there is not one on the wheel, take all the water, and the engine will govern the difference, unless the quantity of steam power required is very little; connect both powers by a clutch coupling or wheel, that the one can work either with or without the other. When the pinion on shaft is made moveable, it should be keyed on swell with sunk key, and when not required taken off swell and hung clear of shaft.—J. H.

[3911.] — GALVANIC CELL.—The cell described by "Hermit" is called a Bunsen's cell. Nitric acid HN03 is poured into the porous cylinder containing the carbon, and dilute sulphuric acid Ha804 into the glass vessel containing the zinc, say about 1 part of H2S04, to 10 of water, ИaO. This cell is one of the most powerful, and is also pretty constant. There is one objection to it, however, and that is, it give3 off red noxious fumes during action. These fumes consist of some of the lower oxides of nitrogen. Where Btrcngth and constancy are required it is very useful, but where constancy without strength is required, I say use a Danielle. I use for electrolysis a battery composed of 4 or 6 Bunsen cells, and this battery auswers very well. The following may represent chemically what takes place in a Bunsen cell. Let (N,Os) represent an hydrous nitric acid, which may be written to illustrate the action as (N30{0)—i.e., the nitrogen tetroxidefNjO^) and oxygen (Oj :—

1. Before chemical action^

C, + NfihO + Ñ.j04,0 | Ha, SO¿ + Ha,SOj + Zn;

2. After chemical action.

CTN304 + ONjÓi + OH,+ SOj, Ha + S0¡", Zn.

Now the NjO^ does not combine with the carbon (C), but comes off as red fumes. The compound radical (SO«) combines with the zinc and forms sulphate of zinc (ZnSO.j), while the sulphuric acid is made more dilute by the formation of OHs, water.^-J. Harbison. Bradford.

[3911.]—GALVANIC CELL.—I beg to inform " Hermit* that his cell is a Bunsen's; the cylinder is made of very dense charcoal. The liquids used are, dilute sulphuric acid round the zinc cylinder, and nitric acid round the charcoal. The system is as energetic as Grove's, but does not last so long.— A. Bough Et.

[3940.]—THREE WHEELED VELOCE.—The best way is to have one hind wheel loose on the axle, and the other one fixed on it, for turning.—-S. James.

[S943.J-*BEE9.—"S. W." need not be afraid to hive the first swarm he may have in the hive or box of old comb he has, only taking care before hiving the swarm to well sprinkle the layer of comb with sugar and beer, or honey and beer, about $pt. To show that bees are not very particular about taking to furnished apartments, X will mention a case which occurred among my own bees about 3 weeks since. One of my stocks died about the middle of February; I ascertained they we/e quite dead, and that the hive (one of the old straw ones) was full of comb, and then placed it in its former position between the 1st and 3rd hives in the row. About the 15th of May a swarm from No. 3, after manoeuvring about the front of tne hives for a short time, quietly took possession of the empty hive. The next morning 1 found in front of the hive nearly a pint of dead bees and rubbish These industrious little workers had removed in the night, tbey have gone on well, and I shall immediately put on them a super hive or cell glass. I shall be glad to know if any of my brother bee-keepers have tried the use of chloroform in taking honey from the old straw hives. I have done so, and found it answered very well, only it is a good bit of trouble, which perhaps was on acoount of the primitive implements I used, being just what came to hand. The old method of destroying bees to procure their honey seems very cruel. 1 ■hall be pleased to hear from some of our more practical I and extensive bee-keepers.—Anoxpokdshiee Fahmkr. |

[3944.] —ARITHMETICAL QUESTION. - Every circle! may be conceived to be a polygon of an infinite number of aides, and the semi-diameter must be equal to the perperpendicular of such a polygon, and the circumference of the circle equal to the perimeter of the polygon. Describe any polygon on paper, and cut out each side and place them together, and they will form a parallelogram whose length is equal to half the number of sides, and breadth equal to the perpendicularr^ semi-diameter.—J. Shahi-k.

[396fi>-CHLddICAL.—TO " B, TERCET."—The following i в after Frankland's notation. Question 1. A litre of methyl.

gas f £{|з (molecular weight SO, and density 16), at 30eC. * 273

and 760mm.t will be -089« x 15 x = l'2B3grme.

273 + 20 Question 2. Prepare a solution of NaHo by means of COa Nao;,, OH„ and CaO. Now mix the С2П41 with sufficient of toe NaHo, and distil over a water bath, when cthytic alcohol will come over and sodic iodide remain. CJI51 +


[ocr errors]

iriT3Ho + Nal. This alcohol may now be

mixed with the CrOaKo« and the S03TIo3, when it will be

oxidised at the expense of the chromic acids, and acetic acid

formed. The following will express these reactions :—

Cr03Koa + S04 Hoj = SO, Ko3 + CrOa Ho,

CrOa Ho3 = 0., + CrUo,

{chÍh. + °» * {со'но + °H*

Night School Bot.

[39M0-CÀST IRON FOR TURNING, bc.-In answer to part of "Faber's" query about moulding composition, I beg to state that gutta percha, applied with considerable pressure, it far better than wax; and Gore, in ** Electro-Deposition," recommends ¿ paît of marine glue to be added to the gutta percha by melting them together.—Bijra.

(:jo6fi.}-TABLES WITHOUT DECIMALS.—You should at once learn decimals, aiid know the fractional value of money, weights, measures, or any other material.—J. II.

[39673— GALVANOMETER NEEDLES.-It is generally admitted tha^t whether the needle of a galvanometer be highly or feebly magnetised, the deflections will be equal. The earth's attraction for each needle being in the same ratio as thut oi thu coil (made a temporary magnet by the current) ¡

of course the noodles must be equal in every way as to dimensions and weight.—Excelsior.

[3970.3-STEAMING FOOD FOR COWS.—" R. R " wil find an iron tank much the best; also I should advise him to do 50bush, at twice (if that is the amount he uses atone fcedl, as the utensils for oUbush. would be very clumsy. I have by me a drawing of complete aoparatus, but cannot just now find it—«ill send it next week if I can; meanwhile any engineer will give " R. R." information on the subject if he wants it immediately.—An Oxpokdsiiirk Faumeb.

[39720-IRON STAINS.—Dissolve a little oxalic acid in water and apply to the stains; after a few minuLes rinse in clean water.—H. E. Godfeet.

[3072-3-IRON STAINS.—« J. H. P." may remove iron stains by dissolving oxalic acid in hot water in the proportion of a teaspoonful of the crystals to a teacupful of water ; the parts melted with the acid mist afterwards be carefully rinsed through clear hot water. This method is only suitable for white materials.—Salopian.

[ЗЭ77.] — BRAZILIAN BAILWAY3. — "H. Z. Y." — There is not, that I am aware of, auy line of railway in the city of Bahía, tho nearest terminus beinj; Jequitia, some 2 miles from the city. There are 2 tramways from Bomfiue to Custom House (lower city), Plana, to the Barra (upper city); total distance about б miles. The Bahía and Sau Pranc'sco Railway, some 69 miles long, commences at a pillar and ends at a post. The only other railway in the same province is the Paraguassit Tramroad from Cachocira, some 45 miles from the city. This line is in course of construction, to be carried out to the Chapada or diamond district, some 65 leagues in the interior.—J. G.

[3987.]—OIL TESTER,—Wm. Johns, Mesara. J. Bailey and Co., of Albion Works, Salford, make a good machine. Price complete, £9 10a.—J. G.

[4000.]—SODA WATER. —Render a neutral or alkaline solution acid with acetic acid, then add acetate of potash, and a little spirit of wine; stir for some time. A white precipitate indicates tartaric acid — no precipitate, citric acid. — H. Ё. Godfrey.

[4019.]—SAFETY VALVE.—Had "O. G." known that our kind correspondent, "T. J. O'C." would have given such detailed and explicit examples on the lever safety valve, I have no doubt he would have paused before sending his query for insertion; but as he appeals to me personally, I will give him the rule 1 use for finding the size, length of lever, Sec. The orifice through the safety valve is generally about 8-10ths of a circular in. per horse-power, or a circular inch to It horse power; or the surface of the boiler exposed to the action of the fire in feet, multipled by '305, and the square root of the product will be the diameter of the valve in inches at the smallest part for 301b. pressure to square inch ; but as "O. G.'s " boiler is so small, I fear the proportion would be too small to be practicable, as it may be liable to stick, or the lever may be a little tight, or many other things that would have a great effect on so small a valve ; so it would be better for him to keep the safe side, and have it a little larger—say 3-16ths or Jin. in diameter; the fulcrum or centre of motion about the same distance from the centre ot valve as the valve's diameter ; lever about 2%in. or Sin. long. If " O. G." decides on the lengths and diameter, he only requires a rule to find the weight. Rule:—From the required pressure per square inch in lbs., eu!»tract the weight of valve and effective weight of lever, multiply the remainder by the distance in inches from centre of motion to valve; divide this product by the distance in inches between the centre of motion and the Iweight; tho quotient is the weight in lbs. required on the ever.—JoNAn.

[4091.]—COINS.—The first coin of "Veloce" is a common sixpence of Queen Anne of 1711, belonging to her second issue, after the union of England and Scotland. It is not worth more than Is-, unless very fine. The obverse bears the bust of the queen to the left, ANNA DEI GRATIA (Anne, by the grace of God) Reverse: 4 shields of arms arranged in the form of a cross, and each crowned. The star of the Order of the Garter in the centre, and the date, 1711. above. MAG. BRI. FR. ET. HIB. REG. (Queen of Great Britain, France, and Ireland). Se« my "Guide to English Coins," part ii., p. 119. The second coin is a Hamburg piece of Charles VI., Emperor of Germany from 1711 to 1740.— Henry W. Hrnfrkt, M.N.S., Sec.

[4091.}—COINS.—In answer to "Veloce," the 2nd coin to which he refers is a 4s. piece of Hamburgh; it is base silver; the one now lying before me of the same year has a doubleheaded eagle, as I think they all have, and not a griffin, as he supposes. The other I dun t know.—J. G. Syilmonds.

[4034.J-GALVANISING CASf IRON.—The first thing in the process is to remove all rust or scale from the iron by immeringit in dilute sulphuric acid; after the iron has been in the acid for a few minutes plunge it into cold water. The iron being now ready to receive its coating of zinc, put it iu a bath containing zinc, which, previous to its being melted, is covered with a layer of dry sal-ammoniac (hydrochlorate of ammonia); this melts also, and forms a viscid coating, which prévenu the rapid oxidation to which molten mettl is liable. The bath is constructed of fire-clay. The iron is simply dipped into the zinc, or made to pass through it, and when pulled out it is effectually coated.—Cuthbert.

POISONOUS TEA.—Too trade in the lowest class of adulterated ten »till continues, and thie mouth Dr. Muter reports that there have been no leas than 80 chests exposed lor sale, of which he procured samples. This so-called tea consisted of a variety of rubbish, and ts being- sold for 2-fd. per lb. It yielded au ash amounting to 22U6" per cent., consisting' chiefly of iron filings, and under the microseope presented the "tructures of many foreign vegetable matters. But the worst sample which came under his notice was a green tea from India, highly faced, and yielding an ash containing a quantity of copper. This is really a sad thing, because It has previously been a noteworthy fact that our Indian planters refrained from such practices, and that tea from our own possessions could be depended on. We trust, however, that this prompt diecovery and exposure of what we think is the fi<et case, may discourage the unprincipled persons who are thus disgracing the commercial honour of our ludían planters. The colour seemed to have been produced by roasting in cuntact with copper, probably in copper pan.».—/V>d Journal.


OUTDOOR SCIENTIFIC PURSUITS. Aa the timo ii come lor outdoor exercise», агате lnentä. and scientific pursuits, we should be Riad to receive from our numerous correspondente contributions on mattere more particularly appertaining to tue season, Including information for scientific touriats, mlcroscopiets, geological and botanical inquirers, lovers of natural history, Ac. We should also like to place on record practical suggestions on boating, fishing, moth gathering, and a dozen other cognate subjects. The seashore, always attractive, now teems with interest to the observing eye and reflective mind. In fact, we should be glad to receive from any quarter any fragment of information which would be read with interest during the summer and autumn seasons.

[4025.]—HORSE POWER.—How can 1 prove correctly the horse power of an engine ?—Novice.

[402o.]-BOILER PRESSURE.—From what point io the pressure of steam in the boiler does the high pressure com. menee ?-«-novice.

[4O270-MEDICA.L COIL—Hsving made a coilaccordiaif to " Sigma's "directions, would that gentleman,or aov brother reader, he so kind as to inform me where I can get the pillars for the electro magnet contact breaker and piüar, with a rmj to allow the spring to pass through one to hold the screw, and the pillar to hold the end of the spring and studs, and pivot described by " Sigma," as I have written to five or su difTerent places and cannot get them?—A Coal Mike >;.

[4028.]-FLOORING.—As a hoy I lived in Nottinghamshire, and have a vivid recollection of the floors being sraoot u and polished like marble. I have since been informed that they are made of unburnt gypsum ground fine and beaten, mixed with a little water, uatU quite hard. Can any o/ your readers who reside in the parts of Derbyshire or Nottinghamshire where gypsum abounds, give me any information as t* the modm opcraivli, and from whence the best gypsum for the purpose can be obtained ?—Aeched Floor.

[4029.]—FIXING COLOURS IN COTTON MATERIAL. —Can anyone inform aie how to fix the colour in a black and blue print, also in mauve and green ?—Goss.

[4030.]—LEAD INSCRIPTIONS ON STONE—Can any correspondent kindly inform me what is the new process of letting inscriptions, &c, in lead into stone? The Jead, I believe, is melted by some chemical process, and run in cold, so as to avoid shrinking. Tbe advantages of this rasttioi are so obvious that I shall be greatly obliged if anyone cau tell me how it is done ?—У В. Fowleï.

[4031.]—LEATHER CUT14NG.-I cat through the soles oí boots with и steel die and a screw press, screw Sin. in diameter, and 1 threads in inch. 1 lind it too hard to drive. I should like to know the strength of a Long lever with pair,: working into a toothed rack, the rack to press through the die. Can any of your correspondents Inform me if this is better than the screw press?—J. С

[4032.]—GRIP CHUCK.—Would "J. K.P." kindly inform me what sized lathe his grip chuck, described on Oct. 22 last, was made for. Is the length (4in) too much for лЦл. centre lathe?—J. D. L.

[4033.]—SLIDE REST,—Would "W. H. N." the «nthor of the working drawings for slide rest in your number of the 3rd inst., kindly describe the method of constructing the tangent wheel of a spherical slide rest?—J. D. L.

[4034.]— BOAT STEERING—I have a 25ft. whaleboat. and find the rudder-heatl for yoke-hoes gives too little power when under sail in a stiff breeze. The distance between the lines is Hin., the thickness of rudder lin. Can auy fellowreader tell me in what proportion I shall increase the power of steerage by making the distance between the yokelines 24in., assuming part of rudder under water to be 15in. by 14in. ?—Excelsiok.

[4035.]—ORGANS.—I am acquainted with an organ, the keys of which at the right hand sink down, thereby losing their leverage more or less; the pipes do not speak when they are thus down; the sinking occurs at this season of the year, and the kevs right themselves at the approach of winter. Could any brother subscriber tell me the reason, and Iuíecv. a remedy? The organ has been built about 12 years—J. N.

[4036] — BOTANICAL — CKiMICAL.—Chemicals are applied to the roots of a plant, u .d effect a change in the colour of its bloom. Now. are se: lings raised from a plant so changed likely to retain the o! lur so acquired, or to go back to their natural coluur? I am inalined to think the latter, and should be gl id of the opinion of some of our botanical readers?—S. Rugem,

[4037.]-RULE FOR FINDING SIZES OF WHEELS. —Will " J. К 1'.", or some other reader let ne know how the relative sizes of wheels are found; for instance, I have a wheel 3in. diameter, with 120 teeth, what size ought one tobe to gear with it with SO teeth? What is the rule used by practical men for the purpose ?—R- T.

[40380-CONDENSER FOR MEDICAL COIL,—Will "Sigma" say whether a condenser would add to the power of the medical coil described by him, and if so, how would he connect it P—R. T.

[4039.]—BAROÜBTER TUBES,—Wiil any reader inform me how to fill my barometer tubes, so as to avoid the air getting in? I have tried, but failed.—Stultos.

[4040.]—WHEEL GEARING,—I have a pair of bevel wheels, the larger of which runs loose on the sliufi, and is connected by a clutch. I wish eccnionslly to vary the speed, and could do it at these wheels by slipping a collar and the bevel wheel back, and putting a larger piaioa on. I have, however, been informed that a larger pinion, though having the same bevel at the pitch line, wou|d not run well. Will some of your correspondents give an opinion, especially anyone who has tried it, and oblige.—KiazBT.

[404L]—BICYCLE QUERIES.—How can I alter a henzolene lantern so as to make it suitable for a bicycle? I have taken the sponge out and tried to burn colza oil; but tne light dies out after riding for a few minutes. Is oil or candle used for these lamps? what part of the foot is the best to drive the bicycle from for speed and ease?—Lebk.

[4042,]—MAGNET.—Will some brother reader kindly let me know what sit« wire would be the most suit:**)!'- юг a horseshoe m&gnet 3in. loog, and composed of iron Jm. diam.;

and also how many Uvera would be sufficient oa each pole?—

T. J. o*c.

[40«.}-CORNISII VALVES—Will some one kindly et plein to me tbe construction of the Cornish or equilibrium vab ее used in Urge pumping engines ?— F. P.

[4Л.Ц.,]—¿m GUN.—Can anyone inform me the price of a sood лгг guu complete, and If it is capable of killing at $0 or 60 yarda wild pigeons? Any other particulars would be rery acceptable.—Sportsman.

£40*5.}— SPECTACLES.— I should be glad of any information OQ the choice of spectacles ;' I am shortsighted, und to see things clearly am obliged to hold them within 8io. of iny eye» -, a pair of spectacles I have bought afford relief, but with these objections:—After wearing them an hour my eyes become hot and weary ; objects appear about £ their real size. I cannot recognise people beyond three yards, and not titling well, they continually fall below the level of the eyes. I may mention that the frames are insufficiently wide to allow the ceotres of the lenses and eyes to coincide. Is there any adi aataee in having plano-concave lenses instead of double cuocave?^. R. W.

(4044.}— UARMOX[CON— I have a three-octave harmonium tuned in the key of G I intend to place the semitones to it; how shall I then tune the instrument, so as to play in any key ?—J. R. W.

[4047.)—MUSICAL TERMS.-What is the meaning of "dulciana 8ft.," written on the stop-rod of an organ, there being no pipes ofthat length in it?—J. R. W.

[4048. CROMAN NUMERALS.—How did the Romans perform arithmetical operations with their Z's, Y's, X's, fee.? —J. R, W.

[4049.]-POLISHII*G COPPER.—Will one of our silversmith subscribers—or any other thoroughly acquainted with the subject—inform me of anything better thau rouge for getting a polished surface on copper free from scratchesr~ H.P.

[4050.}—IRON MOULDING BOXES.—Would any brother reader furnish л sketch of what in Lancashire we call a small workbox, say 24in. long and 12in. broad, Sin. depth each part, and the best means of putting them together in the pins and snugs?—F. E.

[4051.]—TO "F. R. A. a"—May I inquire of your talented and courteous correspondent " A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society" whether he could oblige me with any mersures of Xi Ursœ Majori», subsequent to those of 18Л6? The measures for that year (in " Webb ") give 2* 2 as the distance separating the components, but from the difficulty I have experienced in divorcing them this year, I fancy they must have closed op somewhat since the last measurements. If 1 may trouble "F.R.A.S." further, (and if lam "in order" in repeating the query of a former correspondent) I should h'ke to ask your obliging correspondent to describe the "bar micrometer." This form of micrometer seems to be the only ouc obtainable at anything like a moderate "price.— Albbrt P. Holdkn.

[406a.>-ES LARGING CARTES-DE-VISITE.—Will any brother subscriber favour us with a description of the apparatus and operation used for enlarging carlea-de-visite to life size?—AiHoa, Pokthos, And Aramis.

C4053.]—DRYING GLUE—I want to know the beat mode for drying glue by a constant eurrent of air passing through a room filled with crates or racks of this material. I have an engine 2 horse-power, and have tried to turn two open fans in ibeaeatre of the room, but have so far failed in consequence of power, and I was thinking of trying one of the silent fane, but am at a loss to know the effect that it would produce) and in which way to connect it, and whether the engine would be of sufficient power. The room is about 10yds. long by fi wide —J. S.

[4054.]—MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATIONS WITH POLARLSED LIGHT.—May I ask some of your readers for information on the means of making microscooic examinations with polarised light? 1 want to examine products of fermentation, and had the Compound microscope not fully satisfactory; but I think the means I allude to—although I have little knowledge and less experience in them—should prove helpfuL I want particularly to test the condition of the yeast plant, and to detect acetic acid,—Jon» Barlbygobn.

OiOoa/J-ORGAN PIPES.-What is the proper thickness of metal oí each octave pipe of open diapason from CCC to C" in *H, and what variation of metal between a stop that is lightly blown and one that is blown with a heavy wind? Abo, what is the difference of dimension in length and diameter of open diapason, principal and fifteenth middle С pipe F—J. P.

[4flM 3—ELECTRO-MAGNETISM.—I will thank " Sigma," II. Uoraiman, or any oiha-r of your kind correspondents who is posted up in this matter to inform me, whether an electromagnet placed with its axis in a line with the diameter of a wheel would be more powerfully attractive of an armature of soft iron tixed on the periphery and just clearing its poles, ■ind causing rotation, than a similar armature moving in the line of the magnet's axis, its greatest distance being, say, £in.? I hope I may be understood.—F. N. V. . [4067.}—GALVANIC BATTERIES.-PerhApi "Sigma," would be so good as to inform me how many manganese or sulphate of lead cells would be required to do the work of a quart Bansen ceil? 1 use Bunsea'e to drive a small electromagnetic engine, but tbe fumes from it are so annoying that 1 wish to get a battery without this objection, provided there be sufficient strength to do what Bunsen's does. A' hint as T? x"! 0thcr ^"^eat more suitable would oblige—

[«M-r-MEDICAL COIL.—Would "Sigma" please to tell me how to make an upright medical galvanic coil, with a water regulator, and how much wire it will take, and the si« flattery for the same-' A sketch will greatly assist,— Клтнвк Sou,.

pft059.>-80LDERING.—Will any brother reader inform rue if there is any soldering preparation that will not cause the article soldered to rust, as 1 want it for email articles ot jewellery made of steel >—ft. Bolton.

C-rOeo.jr-VULCANISEft—WiU anyone give me an illustration or drawing of a vulcaniser such aa used bv dentists, a» I very much wish to make some articles in vulcanite?— R. Bolton.

[40ei.3-DBGREE4.—What examination; must I pass to become an A.A.?—Bkbibo.

rwma.J-fiïEPLScE FOR GREGORIAN TELESCOPE. — ГО " KJLA.S." or MB. W. PURKXSS.—I have a Gregorian t«le*«pe, and though the definition is good, there is a eujangeJy small field, not larger thon the field of the evepiece itacU tvhen detached fro m the body of the telescope. Ï have

seen by the table of details of Short's Gregorian telesoopcs, given in " Fcrgusson's Lectures" the eyepieces of such make were in the proportion of Lin. focal distance for eyeglass, and 3in. focal distance for field glass, placed at 2m. apart. Now, as the proportions of my eyepiece is not the same as Short's, as stated »hove, I shall feel obliged if "our F.R.A.3." or Mr. W. Purkiss will inform me whether the arrangement of my eyepiece, being different from Short's, is prohubly tbe cause of the contracted field? The eyepiece I nave is arranged thus:—eyeglass, IJin. focal dista nee; field glass, 6}in. focal distance, placed 4}tn. apart—the field glass being thus l$in. longer focus than the proportion of 1 to 3, as in Short's. The speculum is 4in- diameter and lain, focus; the small mirror 24;in. focus, and all works well, with the exception of the very small field- Will either of the above kind friends inform me how to remedy this defect?— Noetilbbj!* Light.

[4W3.]-COIL ^CONSTRUCTION.—TO "SIGMA."—If I am not mistaken I noticed some time ago in the Mechanic someone very decidedly condemning tbe winding on of the secondary wire, on the two divisions of a coil having a central disc, the one half the wire one way, and the other, reverse. As I have made several large coils in the manner there condemned, and found theiu to answer most admirably in every way. I shall feel obliged if "Sigma" will say on what grounds this reverse winding is condemned?—Inductoeiim.

[4064.]—TURBINE.—Will any subscriber be kind enough to give detail drawings and all particulars in the Kkqlisii Mechanic how to make a turbine water wheel 1 horsepower, also what diameter of water pipe would be required for a fall of 20ft. ol water, and how many gallons per hour it would take to drive it, either from a lodge or from the Waterworks Company's tap? If a small turbine could be driven very cheaply by Water Company's water, it would be preferable to a steam engine and boiler.— PattвRn Makkr,

[4065.J—CONNECTION OF PRIME MOVERS AND SETTING OF ECCENTRICS.—Mr. Baskerville, (upon whose reappearance I must congratulate the readers of the English Mechanic) or any other of your correspondents, would greatly favour me, and benefit many others, I have no doubt, if he would give me some information on the following two subjects :—1st. Do two prime movers ever work in connection, such as a steam engine with a water-wheel, and if so, how is the coupling so arranged that one cannot overrun the other? 2nd. What is the practical method of setting the eccentric sheaves upon the crank-shaft so that they shall have the required angular advance of the crauks? As this is nearly allied to the subjects uf Mr. Baskerville's last two letter's, I hope he will give us his method for doing this, selecting as his exampie, eccentrics adapted for link-motion. —paul Pkt.

[4066.]—BREWING.—Can any of your brewing correspondents tell me why I cannot get my ules bright? I have for many years succeeded until now. The hitter ales und stout are beautiful, hut the mtld ale does not get bright, and does not seem to keep more than a fortnight. Is it that the temperature at which I pitch it (which is 08°) is too low ?— Brrwer.

[4067]— MUSICAL BOX,—Can any of your musical correspondents favour me with replies to the following queries? I have a musical box playing 8 airs, but an occasional jarring of the notes takes place, which is very unpleasant to the ear. It occurs to several notes but always at the same spot; neither the instrument repairers nor the watchmakers can do anything with it here. I desire the remedy, Op the address of a firm who would put it right; also, what causes the buzzing of the regulator ?—Salopian.

[4068.]—PRESERVING FLOWERS.—Will any of your kind subscribers kindly give me a hint as to the best mode of preserving flowers or drying them? I chiefly desire to know now to lay them out before pressing them ?—G. O. F.

[4060.]—PARSONS* WHITE BRASS.-Can you or any of your numerous correspondents kindly furnish me with some particulars of Parson's white brass? I should be glad to know if it can be purchased in small quantities, and whether it is a patent article?—S. Stbvkns.

[A short description appears elsewhere. It does not, however, include the information S. Stevens asks for.—Ed. E.M.j

£4070.]—THE LATHE,—I notice that a correspondent in this week's number of the English Mkch*nic has asked whether fuller particulars of the Saltaire lathe caunot be obtained through your journal, and I am confident such would be of great interest to very many of your readers. In the whole mass of information relative to lathe work which has appeared from time to time in your columus, there is nothing as to the right dimensions of the different parte of the lathe, and a set of reliable workiug drawings illustrating a thoroughly good amateur's lathe would be ot great service. Surely amongst your host of contributors this could be easily accomplished.—S. Stevbns.

£4071.]-1)RÂUGHT IN BOILER.—About 4 years ago I fixed a small vertical boiler with engine ate ached, in the bottom floor or cellar of a house 3 stories high, the smoko was carried into an old flue running into the chimney, when the fire was lit we had a first-rato draught, and got steam up in about ¿Q minutes. All seemed to go on very well for about two years with cleaning out the tubes once a week, then it gradually lost its draugnt and had to be cleaned twice a week for some time still getting worse. To keep steam up it had to be cleaned every other day, and so on up to the preaeut time, when it has to he done twice a day to get draught enough to keep steam up, although no mure work has been added on, and the flue of the chimney has been repeatedly swept, and many sorts of coal have been used, but the ellect is the same. 1 have thought the incrustation may have some effect on it, as there is about l-16th in. or a Utile more incrustation on the tubes which cannot be got off. Since fixing the above I have fixed others in similar positions, and 1 find the same or nearly the same complaint is coming on them. If any of our correspondents can give me a remedy or the cause (but I prefer the remedy) they will oblige?— Johatb.

[4073.]—HARMONIUM QUERY.—Would "Eleve*' íu his next communication to the Mechanic be so kind as to state what are the leugth and breadth of the reed holes in a harmonium pan at top and bottom of the scale; are they the same as the pallet holes?—Valve.

[4073.J—TESTS EOR TOBACCO AND NUX VOMICA. —Can any brother subscriber tell me of a chemical teat for the presence of tobneco in any liquid; likewise, what is the test for nux vomica; and if there is a hook published which gives and explains the different chemical touts, where it u to be got, and what the price would be?—Babjjaikw.

[4fi74.]—REFUSE LIME.—Can any brother subscriber explain to me the following question:— When steam is passed

over refuse lime of gas works'the ammonia escNpflS; in whit way is the steam passed over; is it by agitation or not? Thé refuse lime is charged with ammonia NHj and cyanogen NCy.—Lï.\ Eu M «и.-..

[4075.]-SOL DF.RING SOFT METAL.—Will any k.ud friend inform me of the proportions used for soldering me til teapots? I know bismuth is one of the ingredients, hut I am ignorant of the others.—Ionoramus.

[4076.]—NATURAL SELECTIOH.— WU1 someone kindly explain to me the theory of natural selection?—Trayleb.

[4077.]—WATER ANALYSIS,—I am much obliged to Mr. G. E. Davis for his answer to my query; hut what I nwre particularly want to know is this :—I use Griffin's solutions, which are prepared for me by Messrs. Griffin and Sons, and 1 want to know how to make them. I have used a few drops of each of the solutions in a small test tube full of witter, and bv this means I can detect the presence of any impuritv. Now, I waut to know what quantity of water I should use, and also what quantity of these solutions I should use, and how am I to estimate the quantity of impurities per cent, or in grains per gallon? I want to findout the total solid matters in solution, amount of organic nitrogen, total organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrogeu as nitrates and nitrites; also the suspended mineral aud organic matters?—Aqua.

[4078.]—RAILWAY GUARD'S WATCH.—Will any horologist kindly describe the best and most suit*Ye watch for a railway guard; size of watch and full particulars; diagram of balance-wheel and leaver, and how m my holes are necessary to he jewelled; and if a lever chrouumeter is much better than an ordinary lever for a railway guard?—J. Hakkies.

[4079]-HARMONIUM.—Will any brother subscriber inform me as to auy really good book upon harmonium or organ playing, especially upon the Angering; and say if the value of the work has been proved in the experience of the party replying ? —Jaspe».

[4080.] — READINGS FROM THE GLOBES. — TO "1. S. H."—Will your correspondent pardon me when I ask him to explain how iu his interesting "Readings from the Globes" (No. 271, page 252) he arrives at the number "43" as the miles in a degree in the latitude of Londou? tie gives the proportion, le° : 9\° ■. : 6°4 miles ■ 4 i miles. But the answer, 1 think, is not 43, but 44 1-oOlh. Ile also accordingly calculates G4S as the rate of miles per hour at which Londou revolves. But using 44 1-G0th, the amount would be дбО l-60th. The difference is considerable; and what then becomes of the computation by logarithms, giving 4326?—Gimel.

[4061]—THE SHIPTONIAN VELOCIPEDE. — Wonld Ernest R. Shipton be good enough to give the following particulars of his tricycle, a sketch of which appeared on Fig. I of 3rd June:—Extreme length and breadth, diameter the driving and front wheels, sixe of crank; and also whether the frame is partly wood and partly iron, and oblige.—A. H.


(From the Food Journal.)

SCOTCH WOODCOCK.-Take a wine glass full of cream, a piece of butter of tb.3 elze of a walnut, a npoonful of anchovy paste, the yolk of three eggs with the whi'os of two, aud red and black pepper if Uiscreiion ; mix them well together, taking care that the paste Udieeotved ;plaee the saucepan ou a bright. Are, and etlr it aticai/s themuu клу. When It Is cooked it will become thick. Serve ou hot buttered toast, as quickly as possible.

FRENCH PANCAKES,—Take two eggs, 2oz. of bntter, 2oz. of sifted sugar, 2 ox. of Sour, and half a pint of milk ; beat the eggs thoroughly, and put them into a basin with the butter, which should be beaten to a cream ; stir in the »щ<аг and flour, and wheu these ingredients are well mixed, add the milk; keep «tirriog and beating the whole for a few minutes, put it on well-buttered platea, and bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. Serre with a layer of jam between each.

MBS. MUSTOE'S CURBY.—Take a rabbit, cutoff all the meat in small pieces, and fry them lightly in a frylngpan, without any fat; mix two tablespoonfuis of curry powder with a teacupful of vinegar, two teaspoonsful of chutney, and the same quantity of flour; out some onions in slices, fry them brown in butter, mix with the preceding iugredients, and stew very slowly for half an hour.

OATMEAL PUDDING— Putintooneqnartof milt, just warm, one pint of whole oatmeal, carefully picked. and let it soak for two hours at least, AdH lib. of stoned raisins, ilb. of currants, a little salt, 4oz. of sugar, and full lib. of butter. It is a capital pudding, whether baked or boiled.—From an old MS.

GOOSEBERRY FOOL.—Boll one quart of gooseberries in a skillet, closely covered. In a« much water as will cover tbem, until they are boiled to pieces. Then put them in a pewter dish. Let them boil for about eight minutes, and stir them altogether, adding 41b. of sugar and i lb. of butter. Then add the yolk« of 10 eggs, with the whites of three, and stir them together. It Is must net boil after the butter Is in. - ■ From ан old MS.

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It ;b a marvel of cheapness and usefulness; in fact, it may be tailed one of the wonders of the age.—J. W. Woisey, Operative Ch em ist, Wandle Ashes, near Ramford, Lancashire.

"I "must congratulate yon anon its improvement in appearance, quantity aud metal"—J. Edwaads, 15, St. JohnV square, £.C.

"I Canhot refrain from bearing testimony to the exceeding usefulness of your publication, and the excellent spirit in which it is conducted."—Martyn Roberts, Deputy Lieut, Pendarren House, near Crickhowell, Brecknock."

"tjie English Mechanic is doing a work unequalled by any other Journal I know, and if my humble efforts in f iir (hcring the good work in any way are of use they are at yonr service."—C. H. W. Biggs, 4, Alexander-terrace, Beading.

"I Iotk with others your great improvement and usefulness.—W. K. LaiDLEa, tt, Edward-street, Paul's-road, Bowcommon, E.

"Having been away for a long time, I have only just seen the English Mechanic in its improved form and contents, and beg to send you my congratulations on the fact,"—Q. Iokkkj 23, Carlton House-terrace, W.

"How is it possible you can issue such a well printed paper, with so many wood cuts, mathematical figures, &c„ and at so low a price?"—Ws. Heney Domville, Treasurer, Sunday Lecture Society, 15, Gloucester-crescent, N.W.

"I Ax glad to see the immense improvement in our paper."—S.F. Siiakespear, Thrapston.

"I congratulate you on the improvement in our Mechanic; it is really wonderful, and still more wonderful for its cheapness."—Thomas J. O'connor, Wexford.

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"the best paper for mechanical information I know of; long may its circulation continue ahead of its competitors, for it well deserves its leading position."—Jos. B. Ceosley, Fire Engine Builder, Farnworth, near Bolton.

"I Ax glad to be able to congratulate you on the improved appearance of the paper. I am sure every reader appreciates yonr efforts to make it the journal of the million. The more closely its acquaintance is cultivated, the more it will be appreciated by the studious and thoughtful of our subscribers, who, in addition to being instructed, are at the same time interested and amused,"—Ralph Marshall, 09, N.B. Cannon gate, Edinburgh.

"1 Assure yon I personally recommend the English MeChanic right and left to every scientific friend I have, and to others who, without claiming any title to that appellation, yet wish to know what is going on in the way of physical and mechanical discovery; and I am bound to add that I never made any recommendation more conscientiously. It certainly seems to me that such a twopennyworth as the MeChanic must ultimately act as' Edex rerum,' and swallow up not only its so-called competitors*, but the mass of our popular scientific serials to boot."—A Fellow Of The Royal AstroNomical Society.

"You seem to be swallowing up other journnlA rapidly. 1 hope, and indeed have no doubt, the English Mechanic will go on increasing in usefulness. It changed Editors just in time."—Wm. Stanley, 443, Hackney-road.

"I Have every number of your journal. For seme months 1 found little in it to interest me, now there is very little which I do not read with interest"—F. W. G., 7, Unionstreet, Rochester.

"Truly, as you have said, 'aLiterary Aaron's rod;' having eaten up the 'Mirror of Science' and the ' Penny Mechanic,' you are now about to appropriate * Scientific Opinion.' We may oak, 'what next, and aext?"'—James Buckle, 43,

Morning ton-road, Regent Vpark.

"1 Really believe the English Mechanic is doing more to promote genuine technical education, and to spread a knowledge of the useful sciences amongst all classes, than all our art and science schools, which are sustained at a Considerable cost, put together."—W. H. T., Manchester.

"I Beg to add my testimony to the very able manner in which our Mechanic is conducted. Althongh constantly interested in machinery of great diversity, and therefore a subscriber to several of our principal mechanical journals, 1 freely admit that I can rind more really.useful reading in our two■ penny journals than in all the others put together.—Isaac 81 Whitesmith, Covan-street Foundry, Glasgow.


Erratum.—In Reply 3723, "Glaze for Pottery.'*on pajre 236, the formula for pWe for pottery should read—" 100 parts white lead, 20 parts Mint, 40 parte stout, and 5 whiting."

E. Slater, with another letter on cottou spiuning.

G. J. Walker expresses a hope that " F.R-A.S." may have space given him for some account ot the two things alluded to at the close of his very well written essay on " What Stripes the Sunbeam." We can only say, that space for the purpose suggested is at the command of " F.R.A.8."

F. W. Ticehubst.—No stamps enclosed, as stated.
Mabtyn Roberts, Pendarrow House, near Crickhowell;

thanks for letter, which is inserted, and for private letter so

full of hearty sympathy. Bbkibo.—First query inserted; for information sought in the

second, see back numbers. J. S. Ashton.— Consult indexes. The numbers inquired for

are in print, and can be obtained through auy bookseller.

G. W. A—Should be glad to receive the drawings, Signatures.—More than one correspondent has lately commenced the practice of adopting Greek signatures. Such a practice is rather pedantic, and altogether unnecessary; it moreover prevents the majority of our readers from referring to them by name. We refer to the use of the Greek characters only, and not to the use of Greek or Latin words, which are often convenient, serving as they do to distinguish a correspondent from the hundreds of "constant subscribers," &c., who daily address us.

Emigration.—" F.R G.S." says, " No man possessing human sympathies, but would be moved to his inmost soul by the letter of 'Cotton Clerk,' in your last issue but une. Sujii men wijl raise our colonies to renown. I am. at the present time, preparing a short article on Victoria, to be followed by one on Queensland, then Canada, &.C..

Wm. Lane, Smethwick.— No stamps enclosed.

0»e With A Drawback.—Consult a mechanical surgeon.

T. Butt.—Exchanges are paid for.

E. E. F. asks rather too much.

J. Leaston.—Drawing not good enough ■ besides, it is rather late in the day to ask opinions on notions connected with bicycles.

H. B.—Your advertisements did not arrive in time, or they would hare appeared. They are inserted in this number.

TeaYlea,—Contribute under a nom de plume.

The Sixpenny Sale Column is the only place in winch can appear queries sent by "Virgo," Chas. Edmonda, "Ignorant," *'R. 8.," " Salopian," W. Scott.

Cuckoo.—Your advertisement contains no address, and its insertion is therefore delayed until we hear a^ain from you.

G. E. J.—Your query has received n reply, see p. 285

Anxious Nephew.—If your relative emigrated to any organised settlement or town, your best plan would be to write to the authorities. A letter to the bishop of the diocese, asking him to inquire for you of the clergyman in charge of the district, might procure you some information. We have a considerable number of subscribers in South Africa, and if you like to forward a query, giving your uncle's name and other particulars, we would insert it, and it might reach the eye of some subscriber who knew him.

J. H Johnson.—Too metaphysical and speculative.

E. M. Habbison.—If useful to readers, communicate through "Notes and Queries;" if for individual benefit, select the Sixpenny Sale Column.

A. T.—We know of no such book. Perhaps you mean Brewer, not Ure.

D. VVBight.— Sncb a proposition might appear invidious.

II Y. James.—We don't know the address.

Urban.—Thanks for expression of good opinion. As a rule, yon are right about the exclusion of medical queries.

W. H. Henfrey.—" Ancient Coins " next week.

Paul Gill.—We simply thought y*u merely glanced at the question you wrote on. You say " I am fully persuaded that it is your earnest wish to treat your correspondents impartially, but almost unconsciously we now and then repudiate things only because they cut against the grain or fame of our good friends." All are "our good friends" who have useful information or criticism to offer. As we cannot insert all the letters we receive, we are obliged to make a selection, and as a rule the most substantial or the most suggestive have the preference. Of course we may be mistaken, but we endeavour to act for the best, and never to forget the interests and tastes of the mass of our readers. Let "Paul Gill," who is unqaeationally an educated and intelligent man, send us a letter on any subject in harmony with our general purpose and tendency, and not likely to evoke a personal controversy, and the letter shall be inserted. He will then be numbered with "our good friends," because he adds to the common stock of knowledge for the common (rood.

Urban.—We intend to give reports of scientific societies after we have amalgamated Scientific Opinion.

J. W. T.—See our notice elsewhere ou *' Outdoor Scientific Pursuits."

IMS W. E. Newton, a*. Chancery-lane, an improved Ink or mucilage stand.—A communication

lfrte H. Cohne. or Oheapsfde, an improved disinfecting awl otaanalng powder

I-W7 J. Leighton. 40, Brewer •street. Saint James, improvements in ornamenting the edged aud martins of books an J pap*r.

15S8 W. J. Barron, and E. C. Barron. I?. Aldermanbury- improvements In the manufacture of soles and heels for boota unit shoe*.—A communication

1388 J. H. Carruthers and S. Alley, Glasgow, improvement* la Wheels

1500 R. Hughe*. Worcester, Improved apparatus for scraping mid clemmliii.' utre+tn and road*

1691 O. Lowry. ifMrord, nnd S. Brookes. Lower Broughtm. improvements in tho construction of machinery for preparingand hack)tii* flax

ISO* W. fflutnr, Leeds. Improvements in newinrmachine*

1W1 0. D. Abel, 30, Southampton-buildings, Chancerr-Un*:. improvements In the manufacture of phosphorus.— A coaimubloatlon

15W A. M. CUrk. 53, Chancery-lane, an Improvement in machines for working und preparing peat Tor fuel.—A communication

1MB J. James, 40. Princes-street. Stamford -street, improvements lu apparatus Tor cam pressing gunpowder aud other stthaUnces into pellet*

15WJT. Holder. Westbourno-road, B arnsbury, Ad improved cUnicaaudcrank boot or hoof covering for horses

1W7 H- 9. I). (inieispentandC. Schoib. New York, an improved mai'hiiifl for making cut-nails

150* W. V. Pull lam, Kansas. Iroprovedaelf-adjuiting couplers for connecting and disconnect!nit railway carriage*

1599 W. H. Lake, Southampton-buildings, London. Improvements tu couplings for railway carriages.—A communication

1000 J. Priestman »nd T. l'riestm.*.n. improved means anil apparatus for dressing or finishing leather

Iflci A. H. Brandon. II, Hue Gaillon. Paris, Improvements in carding and spinning machine*.—A communication

toos F. Dingey, Truro, improvements In machinery for pulvp-tBing or reducing <>rea and other bard subManoes

NWS A. V. Newton, 58. Chancery-lane, an improved mode of ■preventing the corrosion of iron exposed to water or dampness.—A oom muni cation

I'M W. B. Newton. 60, Chancery-lane. Improvements In furniture springs for seats ana mattresse*.— A communication

lflos R. Leake Manchester, and EI. Larkin. Hydea, Theydon Geruon, Kasai, improvements In machinery for eugraviug or etthinff rolleru fur calico printers

1600 IS. W. Hodgetts, storeton-ln>the-starsh, Olouoestor, improvements In rlok cloths orcovers

1*)7 H.Timmina, Acton, Improvements in the manufacture oi hinges

1008. A. Segard, Arvilliers. France, improvements In andapplicahlo to knitting machines

1000. M. Henry, as. Fleet-street, an improved bit.—A communication

1010 J. F. Rogers. Featherstooe-buildingi, Holhorn, an impioved machine for decorticating fruit* aud vegetables

Iflll W. R. Lake, improved pueans for preventing fraudulent: alterations in bankers' cheques and other monetary instrument*.—A communication

161i a H. Murray, Southw.irk, improvemonti in machinery for pre»slngbrtoks, tiles, and other articies made or clay or other plastic substances

101.1 A. V. Newton. 06. Chancery-lane, improved apparatus for cleaning knives. —A communication

1014 w Ha.tlam, Bolton, improvements ia woven fablica applicable for towelling and other purposes, and in the method of and apparatus for weaving the same

1016 w\ U. Taplln, Dulwioh, an improvement in the manufaclure or lartt for tho feet

1010 J. Burlev andL. Glover, Birmingham, a new or improved

ii)i;J Oddy. Blrkeuahaw.and H.W. Whitehead, Uolbeek, lmprovementala machinery fur oomblng wool, cotton, flax, aim other flhrotia Bubstances

low C. Kenner. Glensavage, Dublin, facilitating the mounting a horse or velocipede

1810 H. Brinsmaad, and B. Lyons, Ipswich, improvements in thraMiing machines

16i0 K.Ueyoock, Manchester, Improvements in that portion of gentleman's wearing apparel known a* " suspenders *'

1011 C.Ularanoe, Takeley, Improvements in breech-loading

io32 J. R. Jefferies, Orwell Works, Ipswich, improvements in ploughs , , ,

10M S. Adams, Saltley. improvements in velocipedes

1034 J. H.Johnson, 4". Lin cola 'a-inn-nelds, impruvnmenta in furnaces for metallurgical purposea.—A communication

1025 B. Hawliffe. Birmingham, certain improvements in vertibulelamos „ ^

io2J 1). Spill, Hackney-terrace. Hackney, improvements in compounds for insulating telegraph wires

ie>27 J. Gabb. Bewdley, a new or improved boiler and furnace for heating churches „ „ . ,

162S J. B. «Mirrlees and W. It. Watson, improvements in desiccating sugar-cane refuse

1429 8. Lake and G. Kingdon, Coombe, Dartmouth, Improved arrangements and apparatus applicable to trawlers and other

lftW W". McLean, Norfolk. Virginia, improvements in hinges.

155IT. A. Marshall and U. I>. Marshall, Bi»hopagat«-sire*t. improvements in attaching or Axing the device* for effecting tht- water mark in paper to the covers of the dandy rolls, and to the moulds used in the manufacture or paper, also In the oonittrucilon of *uch dandy r^is, covers, and moulds

1032 A. Johnson. Healey. Ossett, near Wakefield, improvements In milling or fulling and washing machines

1033 D. Beutleyand J.B. Jackson, Bary, improvements in rag engines

1034 A. W. Pooock, Plmllco. improvement! in meters, pumps. or other engines for water or other liquid ,

lOSfl T. Ueatell, Birmingham, improvements in military and sportlug guns, and also in cartridges applicable to the same ur other descriptions of breech-loading arms

1030 T. Lishman. Stocktou-«n-Tees, improvements in the grate bars and other parts of steam boiler and other furnaces


once i* aave ^or some *"ne inten^cc'to K've your excellent pubweighion a constant advertisement."—John Browning, 111,

[S967.]-1admitted ti'

or feebly m

earth's attract to congratulate you on the improved condition
that or' the col'—Uman.


1581 P. D. Uedderwiek, Glasgow, improvements In printing

1681 A. Dyson, Hudderarleld, impro/ementa iu machinery or apparatus for carding wool

15M L. Oarduer, Maneiieaier,aad T. Bunhby. Improvements in pill making macluuea

1&84 B. Hunt, I, btrie-street. Linooln'a-lnn, electro-magnetic apparatus for moving panoramas, or other thiogii required to be exhibited.—A eommujiicatiou


3514 H. Alexandre, improvements in organs and similar

musical instrument* . .. u

3510 T. Clark, improvements In the covers of umbrellas an

a.VH J. Jonas, improvements In packing and consolidating^* and other substances

S5j0 O. Sipriot. Milan, an improved apparatus for oxhlblti placards and other advertisements

3373 0. A.McCalla, improvements in closing aud stopperl bottles _ , .

8568 H. Kershaw, Improvements in apparatus employed* spinning worsted orother fibres

3370 W, E. Gedge, improvements in velocipedes.—A oa municatlon „ . .

3581 A. A. OroU, Improvements in the treatment of ammonincal liquor of gH<wi>akt

3597 W. A. Marshall, improvements In the manufacture of electric telegraph cables

sets A. M. Clark, improvements inthe manufacture of superphosphate or lime.—A communication

571u W. ti. Williamson, improremeuts in fastenings for trunks portmanteaus, and boxes

317 A. V. Newton, Improvements in treating iron.—A com* munlcition

318 A. V. Newton, an improvement in the process of maunfacturlug wrought Iron or steel. —a communication

86D J. T. Greenfield, an improved side-arm for cleariu? the chambers and rifling of or nuance

511 W*. K. Lake, an improved pneumatic engine.—A communication

Ml H. A. Bonnevilio. an apparatus for the maaufacturcur the legs of half boots.—A communication.

5il H. A. Bonneville a new and useful improvement in steam englnea—A oonimumcaiiou

BU W. Woofe. improved means and apparatus for guldiuf; ploughs, aud also for rogulating the depth of working of Ui« same

\v\n 0. H. Wight, an improved Inkstand

1051 J. lUndi-raoii, aii improvement in the manufactured wrought iron and ateel

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