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to arise from increased convexity of the crystalline lent (and not from the flattening of it. which your correspondent supposes, which would have a contrary effect), and for which concave spectacles are used to correct. In some kinds of employment short Bight la rather an advantage than otherwise, such as drawing, engraving, watchmaking, Ac. The watchmaker, as is ■well-known, has to use a convex glass to shorten his -vision, which a short-sighted person might dispense -with. I am acquainted with a lithographic artist who uses glasses in the streets, but who takes them off to work at the atone. I observe ooe of your correspondents wiahes to know whether the concavo-convex lenses would not be more suitable for this defect than doable concave ones. 1 should like to seo this subject ably handled by some of our correspondents who are well verged in optical lore.
VENTILATION OF BUILDINGS. Sir—I beg to explain, for the benefit of Mr. Hasting*'(page 300) and others, that upward ventilation through tie floor waa the great mistake made by Dr. Bead in ventilating the Houses of Parliament. Upward ventilation through the floor must inevitably carry op with it the odour of shoe leather, either new or old, as well as all the dust and flying dirt brought in from the streeta'or accumulated on the floor, right up to the breathing organs of the company. Whereas If the fresh air be admitted inrensibly through a finely perforated ceiling, it would take the temperature of the air in its downward progress through the room, and at the same time carry down through the floor and out all the unpleasant odours, villanous smells, and flying dirt always present in crowded assemblies.
Henry W. Reveley, Reading.
TOOLS FOE GRINDING OBJECT GLASSES.
Sir,—In almost every number of our inestimable
Journal we have instructions for making and usln*
trie-scopes. These instructions are so explicit, and
the means apparently ao simple that, like Alnaschar,
1 dream— notfof pots, however, but of owning a valuable
telescope of my own construction. He demolished
the " baseless fabric " of his future grandeur by a kick,
while mine is annihilated by remembering that the
carrying outof those exhaustive instructions implies
the possession of apparatus, the value of which alone
would purchase a creditable instrument. A lathe, and
skill to use it, are essential for preparing the grinding
tools. Now, many amateurs have not these requisites,
although from their general aptitude they might be
able to grind the lenses, had they the tools already
Now, to go to a foundry and get them cast, turned, and ground, to the proper curves (supplied in •' ours ") for the, four dfferent surfaces would coat probably as mnoh, as I seeSln. achromatic object glasses advertised for—namely 45b. Were we therefore able to pay lor the former, it would be far simpler and more certain of worth for our money, to buy the latter. Aa this, to many of us, is simply impossible, what I therefore, with your kind permission, wish to propose is, that some kind soul, who has already accomplished the task, should lend us his tools, of course "fora consideration, or that some optician should supply ns with the discs and the loan of the proper curvature, Hkewise, of course, for a consideration, for grinding them.
Sir,—S. Stevens, query 4070, must not look on this present answer to nls query as put forward In a spirit of contradiction. 1 have myself been instrumental in supplying aome information on the subject to the readers of the English Mechanic, but have not, as a rule, given dimensions for anything. Many different classes of turners are to be styled 'amateurs.' There are amateur plain turners, then a step further, eccentric men and oral men, an I then your aristocratic rose-engine turners and geom-'tric chuck men, till you come to tools that can only be purchased by the tenscore of pounds. There are other amatcura besides, such as I am one of, who have made lots of chucks and things for doing ornamental acratchlng, but have scarcely ever turnedln wood or ivory anything beyond a few foundry patterns aad a cup aud ball. Now these classes require and must have very different class.es of tools. I think really, as a modification of the last sentence, that the best possible foundation for a man to build on,inteuding to be an amateur mechanic or turner (ornamental or not), would be one of Whitworth's or Mulr's self-acting 5" lathes, or a6or7in. foot lathe, double geared, aud made specially light for amateur's use. But here is a first outlay involved of possibly £100 to start with, aud that of Itself would be enough to make many a would-be amatenr pause. And here crops up the money difficulty. Now as to the lathe mentioned by S. Stevens, the design came In the first instance from a gentleman who stands quite in the front of the first rank of amateur machinists, with any quantity of means at his back to produce the best possible result. But lathe mitkiug is as much an art as carriage making, and it don't at all follow, beeause a given maker turns out the beat drag In creation, that he is equal to the construction of a dog-cart, and I have been many times rem nded, when looking at amateurs' lathes turned out, eveu by Whitworth, of Mr. Dent's saying, thut when engineers make clocks, they forgot that they will not Tiavo a steam engine to drive them. And In the case of that lathe, the designer bad not the lirre or opportunity of carrying out the Inventions of his braiu, aud the capitalist had not the mechanical ability, so the result was, that a lathe maker had to be called in to complete a machine which I should think would require months of attention and practice to devclope the capabilities of. The greatest mistake a beginner can possibly make, is to imagine that he can design his own lathe, or can seWct suitable pattern* from somewhere or other, and have castings made at some louudry or other, and then find some workman who cuu do tbe work.
in advance, and then when the work is three-fourths
There are frequently second-hand lathes, some or
EXTRACTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE .
SQUARING THE CIRCLE.—"Saul Rymea"says:"The original design oi Mr. A. S. Gearingdoes not, as be seems to imagine, overcome the difficulty of the problem (') And for this simple reason, that the thick e nds of his wedges will form a square edge, they cannot form a circular edge. For as no portion of a circle is a stralghtliue. It follows, as night follows day, that there will be a vacant space between the line of ihe circle'and the centre of the base of each wedge or
isoceles'triangle. If Mr. Gearing will get a metal eircleand endeavour to perfectly till It with wedges cut according to his diagram ho will easily see his mistake. Mr. Elihu Burrltt recently made a computation of the amouut of time wasted la spelling such words as honour, colour, Ac, with a ' u.' I wonder how much has been wasted in attempting to square the circle?"
GLYCERINE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR OILHenry Page says :—" One is sorry to see in the ' Letters to the Editor' that aome pay little atteution to the extracts from Montaigne's Essays. A correspondent some time back told us that glycerine was better than oil for machinery and clock work. We have now another stating that litharge mixed with glycerine makes a capital cement for chemical apparatus, and gives us a list of acids, Ac, that it will resist. Now, not having the slightest faith in Buch a mixture, but desirous of putting it to the test, I ground some litharge in glycerine,and put it on glass, where It was well exposed to the air and sun. I lind now, after ten or twelve days that it can be easily washed off with a little water, leave alone any ocid. This is just what I expected."
BRAZILIAN RAILWAYS.—" Bernardin" says :I always read with great interest the geographical notes In our English Mechanic. Permit me to make a slight remurk ou the reply of Mr. T. G. to the query No, 3977. I do not find out how 10 make correspoud his assertion 'no line of railway in the city of Bubia,' and ' the Bahia and San Francisco Railway, some 69 miles long, commences at a pillar and ends at a post.' 1 extract the following lines from the work ' O Imperio do Brazil na Exposicao Universal em Paris, Rio de Janeiro, 1867, p. 7:1: -' Railway of Bahia, English C'ompany.-Tbe part now constructed and delivered to traffic begins in the town of Bahia (princlpia rvi cidade da Bahia) and ends at Alagoinhas, distance 183-5 kilometres (69 miles is only 1104 kilometres). Perhaps T. G. will have the kindness to throw light on this confused question."
REPLIES TO QUERIES.
[S714.J-BOILEB.—J. B. Crosiiey's reply to "One in a Fix," may stop the humming uoiie made by his boiler, but it will not remedy the evil, winch is caused by Borne irregularity of the flues. I have myself been in a fiz with the same complaint. I also tried the perforated platea in front of the ash pit, hut found the true remedy in rounding all corners and filling up all spaces where the current of air could by any means form a whirl or eddy, which is the cause of the humming noise complained of. If ■' One in a Fix " will examine his floes, and get them made as near as possible of one uniform area, and avoid all sharp angles, I have no doubt he will And an improvement, and I shall be glad to see his report.—W. Varlkt.
[37S2.]— SEPARATING CHALK FROM WATER —If T Grayling. M.D., will place in his cistern a small sheet of zinc, and one of copper attached at one end by solder—say 9in. square, it will cause a deposit of all the chalk, lime, and also all the animalculse contained in the water j it sets up an immediate galvanic action. I hare used the same for several years,—Nn. Drsprkanduic.
[3800.]—PHOTOGRAPHY.—" Would be Artist " will find
ARTIFICIAL LIMBS—The Waiern Daily Tina, in Its observations on the Bath and WeBt of England Society at Taunton, says i—*' Nothing in this saloon (Arts and Manufactures!, various and valuable as was everything that had yet appeared, would rival as evidence of extraordinary genius and perseverance, the contents of Mr. J. Gilllngham's case, of Chard. This gentlemen, yet a young man, and originally a disciple of St. Crispin, has applied himself to the repair of the human understanding to an extent seldom if ever before achieved by an individual starting from his point in life. He describes himself as the inventor of the "Scapular Arm and Derinatopercha Log," manufacturer of artificial limbs and Burgicomechanlcal appliances, including instruments for diseases of the spine and hip, club foot, fracture and ruptures, and aitliicial eyes—Indeed only give him any portion of the human frame that has life in it, and he will add all the rest. You are not left at liberty to doubt: there they all are, the substitutionary limbs belore you, aud it needs no assistance from other people's eyes to discover what skill and beautiful workmanship in Bteel, wood, aud other material had been bestowed on their production."
GASES EVOLVED BY RIPE FRUITS.-According to Lechnrtier and Bellamy, plckod fruits—such as apples, cherries, and gooseberries—at first absorb oxygen; afterwards they give off carbonic acid, and in largervolurae than the previously-absorbed oxygen. At first the evolution of gas takes place uniformly. afterwards it moderates, and tbeu ceases for a time, and commences again and gives off more gas than during the hist period. An increase of temperature promotes the transformation. Whether light lias any influence upon the icuetiou Is not stated. From these observations It will appear that it is unsafs to
this plan answer his requirements. The screen should bs covered with white paper, sized and varnished. — Nil
[3803.j-PRIMROSES.-If" J. D M." wishes to change the colour of his primroses, he should take them out or the soil and plant tliem in horse-dung, and he will soon get a very different colour, I see. in answer to this question, 8. Rogers says that he is willing to give a few hints on hybridising. If he will do so he will greatly oblige.—AN Amateur Gardener.
[S895.]-PARASlTES IN CANARIES.-Let "Pakeau scald the cage and everything connected with it Iu boiling water as it is the cage not the bird breeds them. ~nd. Let the bird's body (not tbe head), be folded for a moment in flannel steeped in turpentine, provided he k tame. If not so, lot cage he touched here and there with turpentine with a quil top. Flour sulphur suspended in flannel bsg from the top of cage it a good preventative.—Poor Five Cover Maker.
[3913 ]—FROM A. STRINGER.—The maker of the veloc.0 pede is ThoniB3 Stanwav, King-street, Macclesfield price £ i. It is not requisite to send a design for steering a veloce like » boat, because any blacksmith can reverse the steering handle by bringing it under the frame.—A. Stringer.
rSSsfl ]—VELOCE.—" T. T. M." asks for an opinion on. his plan for the kind of wheels for his veloce. Tbe following sketch I give, as I have seen it used:—a is nave, * is axle,
He will pay quite as much money, all or most sleep In apartments where m.ich fruit is stored
action on the ink, T think he will soon find, destroys the deep black. What he requires is some silver electrotype, which was aied a few years hack with a patent marking ink, and found to answer very well—K.. T. Z.
[3M8.]—BEES.—If the Iastoccupantaof the hive died from the severity of the season only, and not from dysentery, "8. W." may safely, and with great advantage, place a swarm in it." The combs of a stock hive very soon become black, but this is of no consequence, though it may be well to cut out a little of the lowest part of the combs. Any mouldy combs, or those filled with old pollen should be carefully removed. "S. W. will find much condensed information in " Manuals for the Many, Bee-keeping," price 4d., at 171, Fleet-street.— R. M.
[3971/]—DISPLACEMENT OF SHIPS.—To work out the displacement of anv vessel would take a column of our •'voracious journal/* The calculations are mostly made by Stirling's (better known as Simpson's) rules. Dr. Woolley's rule is also used; this, though far shorter than, ts not quite so accurate as. Stirling's. The whole method of calculation is described, with examples, in Peake's " Naval Architecture," price3s,, published by Virtue and Co., Amen Corner, London; also in M Theoretical and Practtcal Shipbuilding," edited by Professor Rankine, price (I think) £:t 3s.; and in "Naval Architecture," by John Scott Russell, published at 40gs. —F. W. G.
[3072.]— IRON STAINS.—" J. H. P." can take his iron stains out of calico or linen with salts of lemon, which can he obtained at the druggists. The way to do it, is to hold a teaspoon with the conv ex side up, and place the fabric on that part which is stai ned; put a small portion of the Bait, and rub it with the finger moistened with warm water, the process to be repeated till the spot disappears. This is an old and well-tried recipe. I have seen it practised with success. -J. M.
[3973.1—WATER VELOCIPEDES.—They can be obtained at Barnwell's, Richmond. "J. D."should go and hire one for a short time to see how he likes it. But why not apply the principle to a boat? I can send an illustratien of one served in that manner, if "J. D." would like one. — Semper Pa*atus.
[3986.]—CYANIDES.—I do not remember at present where the fullest information on the direct formation or synthesis of cyanides is to he found; hut I can tell "J. W." that though the process is very interesting from the scientific point of view, and was particularly to at the time of its discovery, when it was generally believed that organic compounds could only he produced by vital processes, yet it has no practical value, and fa not worked, because at the necessary temperature there is such loss by vol utilisation that the process is far more expensive than those usually employed; the other bases will act.—Sigma.
[3992.]—THREADS IN ROPES.—I enclose for "One Anxious to Learn " a table of the number of threads in ropus from iin. circumference up to 12in., which mar be implicitly relied on, aa it is fallowed up in all the Government dockyards:—
Three Strand Shroud Laid Ropes.
when finished. Now this is the vehicle for graining oak, either light or middle tint, or old oak. The colours used for tinting the above are raw umber, burnt umber, and vandyke brown. The umbera are good drying colonrs, but the vandyke is a very bad drying colour. These colours arc ground in turps, and are mixed, according to taste, either separately or together. The combs are nude of horn, ivory, or steel. The veins of the oak are wiped out with a piece of cloth or leather.— Henry Paqr.
[400S] — WATEaiNG GARDEN.— The enclosed rough drawing will, I think, explain to F- H. Jones a cheap method of making a force pump for watering his garden. I have had one in use some time. A, common lead pump; B, valve; C, solid plunge from' pump; D, outlet pipe; E, small cask, or any suitable air-tight vessel holding about (teal.; K, valve; Q, outlet pipe, reaching to within ab out 2in. of the
W. H. La.idle.el [3906.]-BOOKBINDING.—In answerto"Q., Yorkshire," I should prefer handled letters, as when he has once overcome the difficulty of keepiug them perpendicular he will find them much more convenient than the brass type, especially when lettering on a well rounded buck, as there is then great difficulty in keeping the letter* clear without Hny slurring. If he wish only to letter on the sides, or for labels, then decidedly the type would be bust for him. In answer to his second query, 1 think lie will find the following to be ab> *.tt the usual prices; but as it is now 2 or 3 years since I required to purchase, and! have not the billshaudy, 1 cannot
J;uarantee their correctness:—Cloth, Is. to is. a yard; eather, Is. per akin—skiver or sheep, 2s. 3d.; roan morocco grain, 4s 6d. to 5s.; calf, 9j. to 10*. (id. tin will find that the greatest difference in price ia caused by grain and colour. -K. 1\ Z.
[40'8.)-GRAINING "STUFF.—Vandyke browu in a little beer is Hie article used for oaken doors; it is termed overgraining.—Sempkr Pahatus.
C400U]-GftAL\ING STUFF.—Purchase at the oil shop lib. dryers, Jib. burnt umber ground in oil. Id. of orange chrome, ipt. turpentine, $pt. linseed oil; work up with a knife on a board a handful of" dry whitening moistened with oil to a consistency; then add the dryers, umber, and half the orange chrome previously ground* up with oil; put all into a pot and thin out with the oil am) turps in equal p ropvrtions. The more oil and turps added the tlimner the colour, and then strain the whole through a portion of the legof an old stocking tied over the pot. For inside work nil the oil and turps must be used, aa the colour is used very thin.—Babphuogee.
[4006.)-GRAINING STUFF.-The easiest method is called oil graining. Take 2 by measure of boiled linseed oil aud 1 of turps; to this must he added patent drvers—a sufficient quantity to make it set in 6 or 8 hours. The quantity of dryers will depend entirely on the time ot year. He must now grind up some whitening in turps and mix with it. adding a little at the time; when he finds it beginnmg to thicken he must rub a imJc sparingly with his brusbou some old paint-work, and draw his graining com ha down it. If he finds the coinh marks run iti, he has not got sufficient whitening; he roust keep adding more until he finds, on trial, that the comb mirka rentalu distinct. The whitening is simplj put in to make it comb, ami not for any other purpose; therefore when you hav e obtain., d this do i.ot put in any more, as it only destroys the transparency of the work
bottom ; K, guide for plunge-rod. It can now be used as a common pump by having a union; an india-rubber or any other pipe may be screwed on, and there would be sufficient force to carry a contiuual stream 60ft. hi^h. The cask, or airtight vessel, may he placed at any distance from the pump; a round hole in the bottom, with a piece of stout leather weighted is all that is required fur valve.—B. 0. Z,
[4i»17.1—C1UCKET BAT1— Willow is the wood used for the blades; when spliced, part wood aud part cane is generally used. 1 should not advise "Stump" to try to make them, as, unless he ia a good workman, he will undoubtedly miike a mess of it.—Semper Paratus.
[1.25.]—HORSE POWER.—The general rate is to multiply together the pressure in pounds on a square ineJt of the piston, the area of the piston in inches, the length of the Biruke in feet, and the uuinber of strokes per minute; the result, divided by 33,00't, will give the horse-power; but it is necessary to deduct about 1-lOtli of the whole as an allowance for friction.—Cuthbrrt.
[4027. -1033, 4058, 4003.]—MEDICAL COILS.—Being away from home, 1 cannot refer to past numbers; but some of the questions asked me on this subject have beeo recently answered, and full particulars given. As to " A Coal Miner's" question, it is very hard to say where fittings can be got, particularly where one docs not know his locality; the best directions I can give J3, make them, which is easily done by any handy person: thus, for the part carrying the screw an elaborate brass casting may be employed, but is no better than a simple arch funned of sheet brass, ou the middle of which a thick piece is soldered for the screw to work through. My own early attempts (aud very successful they were, and even with some pretensions to artistic effect) were built out of all kinds of odds and ends; even coat buttons were pressed into service. The pillar to carry the spring may be mad e of any stout rod, or even of a thick wire, passed up the middle of a piece of wood turned up to shape iiud fined with a screw ut the end. For medical purposes "R. T." would lind the condenser injurious instead ot benefic ial. It cannot be too plainly understood that lor this purpose violent, shocks are not desirable, but a full steady flow of mild pulsations. I would advise "Rather Dull" not to use a water regulator; they aie nuisances, anil interfere with the last-mentioned principle. It is fiir better to control the force by a commutator throwing different lengths of wire into action, nod by either withdrawing the core or covering it with a sliding brass tube. I think "Inductorium" is mistaken in the meaning of terms. If a wire were woucd in different directions in its two halves, not the smallest effect would be produced, as one half would act directly opposite to the other, and neutralise it. But if we start winding from the, middle, it is necessary to wind in what we may call opposite directions in order to make tlie continuous direction the same, just as it is m the two arms of an electro nngnet ; so, also, each layer appears in one sense to be in opposite direction to the one above and below it; but electrically it is in the same direction.—Siuma.
[4031.]—LEATHER CUTTING.-TO "J. C."—I consider the screw motion belter than rack and pinion for your job. The reason for its going hard ia the gre:it diameter of the screw. It it were lin thick instead of 2 it wonld be strong enough probably, and take les* than half the power to work it. I have investigated this subject mathematically, and have arrhed at a result that would astnuudi most engineers, judging at least from what general practice is. I have not yet been able to try practically whether my theoretical result is correct, but have submitted my calculation to Dr. B. U. Deoisou, who is a practical as well as a scientific man, and he sees no lallacy in it. 1 have tor some time past in landed to send it to the Knulish Mechanic, and shall do so, 1 hope shortly.—J. K. i*.
[4<>:jl*.]-GftlPcilUOK.—The chuck, as shown, was for a lathe of din centre with mandrel not bored up. I have since madcone -lia shorter tor a 54m lathe, the mandrel of which is bored with a iui. hole about 6m. deep. Less length would do— gay Sin.—J.K. r\
[4033.]—SLIDE BEST.—If "J. D. L." will look at tray letter of Oct. 15, last year, beaded " Levers or no Lever*/' ho will find a fall description of what he requires.—J. K., P.
[4Wo]—ORGANS.—In answer to "J. N.," I beg to mforoa * him that the sinking of the keys is common, especially usold organs. If he will look at the backfall beam he will most probably find it of oak. The heat of the weather warns* this beam, or something immediately connected with ft^ causing the backfalls to rise. The kevs drop in proportion to this rise, and the pallets consequently do not fall enough t» allow a sufficient supply of wind to the pipes. I played oft • large old organ of 3 rows of keys for many yeara, which was to me as good as a thermometer in telling the amount of host. In the summer, if at all hot, uot only did the keys fall, bat one of the sliders always became immovable. This wis owing to the reason above stated, and to the warping of tht upper board, which was of oak. The only remedy for this is to screw up the nuts under the pallet pull-downs. This will raise the keys, hut care must he taken if the weather alters to umrrrv these keys again, or they will he too high, and the pipes belonging to them will most probably speak. The oaJv perfect eure will be to make a new and much stouter haekfau beam of dry mahogany, well secured to the bottom of tat wind-cheat or elsewhere.—CamEkton.
[4037.]—WHEELS. — TO "R. T."—The real practical diameter of what is called the " pitch circle" of a wheel i* rather more than the distance measured from the bottom of the teeth on one edge to the top of the teeth on the other edgo, the trifle that I call "rather more " bcin£ the amount cut out between the roots of the teeth to prevent the point* of the teeth of the wheel with which it works jamming; and the diameters of wheels of the same set are exactly at' their pitch-line, proportioned to the number of teeth; so that if your 120 wheel measured 3in. a little less than half-way down the teeth, then the 30 wheel would be J in diameter at its pitch line; and owing to there being 40 teeth to every inch diameter, would be called No. 40 on the Manchester wheel gunge. In the same way No, 10 has 10 teeth to every inch diameter, and No. 12 has 12 to every iuch, and so oa. Now for the " addendum," as it is called—that is, the amount the teeth project beyond the pitch line. Oa the Manchester guage this quantity is always one division of the scale on each side of the wheel, or two divisions for the two sides, added to the pitch diameter. Thus, on the 10 guage a 35 wheel will be $5 + 2 = 37-10ths over all; and on the b guage a 35
wheel would be — = 4— diameter; and a 75 wheel on the 6 B
20 gauge would be — = 3— = 3 35; and a 63 wheel on the
27 guage would be — ~ 2—. It is a mere matter of pro
87 «7 portion, or what is called a role of three sum, for finding the pilch diameter , and the rest, which I call the " addendum," is the same for every wheel of the some sized teeth.—
i. K. p.
[4047.1—MUSICAL TER.MS.-Iii answer to "J. R. W„" he is evidently not well up m orjjan stops or the labelling of the stop-handles. The pitch ot the principal organ-slops*. such »s the open diapason, dulciana. clan bell a, gamba, trumpet, See, is of what is called 6ft, pitch, because the pipe of these stops to produce CC must be 8ft. long or thereabouts, being n tittle longer, if the pipe is of small Bcale, and shorter if of large scale. If you pull out one of tie above-named stops, and press down— say fiddle G, you have the fiddle G note, corresponding with the lowest note on the violin. Any stop, then, on the organ or harmonium, which, when drawn, and a given key pressed do**n, gives yon the pitch you expect to get according to the note pressed down in an 8ft. stop, whether it goes through the compass of the instrument or a [i irf i.'t'tr. The pitch of the human voice aud of ordinary instruments, as the piano, violin, flute, clarionet, oboe, bassoon, &c. is 8ft. Jiow if you pull out the double diapason liifi., double duleiana 16ft., or bourdon 16ft. (tone), aodpreaa down the fiddle G note as before, you will not gut the fiadk G tone, but an octave below it. Any atop labelled 16ft., whether it runs through the whole compass of the instrument or a small part of it is called 16ft. pitch, and gives you aa octave below the tone you expect to get from a given note. Hot if jo J pull out a stop labelled 4lt., say principal or flute. and press down fiddle G, you will not get that note, hut an octave above it. If you pull out the loth, or any atoplaUeLlod 2ft., and press dawn fiddle G key, you will not get that note, hut 2 octaves above it. Any stop may or may not go through the whole compass of an instrument, but it is of 16ft, 8ft., 4fL, or 2ft. pitch, as I have explained—Cakketow.
[4055.]-ORGAN PIPE''—In answer to "J. P.," there is no such thing ns CCC apt* diapason. CCC is the lowest of the double diapason, or bourdon, or any other 16ft. stop. Organ builders first cast the metal, then plane it to the desired thickness. Different organ builders have different thicknesses and scales and weights of wind to correspond. The once noted builder, Green, made his pipe* very thin, of small scale, with small weight of wind. IITM organs were very sweet, but of the chamber organ tone, And wauitug m the full, bold, ringing tones of the old Father Smith's organs, the pipes nf which, as a rule, were of thick, honest metal, aud well blown. An organ builder would cur out mauy pipes from the same sheet of metal, as he would many wood pipes from the same board. A small scaled pipe will always he longer than a large scaled pipe giving the same note. Aa to lite relative diameters of open diHpasou. principal, fifteenth, fee, no two organ builders are agreed; but the most sensible iioion seems to be this, and it was adopted constantly by the bust builder in England, has ever seen :—Make the principal one scale less than the open; the 15th one scale less than the principal; the iiand one scale less than the loth; and so on. As to a mixture stop, the relative diameter of the pipes depends entirely npon the character of mixture which is wished to be obtained, whether a full or sharp mixture., cornet. See. The length of middle C open Will be about 2ft.; mnidle C principal 1ft.; middle C 15th tlin.—(J \m t Uton.
[40"»6.]—ELECTRO MAGNETISM.—MF. N. F.V question is somewhat obscure. II 1 understand it aright, the best position for placing the magnets is in the lines of the radii of the revolving wheel—not as tangents to it, becautethe whole face ia brought into near neighbourhood, while ia the latter Imso only the edges wonld be so. Of course the cut-off ehould be so arraogeil as to stop thj current slightly hufors the annuture reaches the position of strongest atutuction, in ortUr to demagnetise completely by Hie time it crusse that position, otherwise there Would be a ttadeui:y at that point to stop the motion—Siova.
[4ufi7.J—GALViNIC BATTEUIES.— Neither the manganese or sulphate oflead battery is at all su: tabic for the
(«0«8.~)—PRESERVING FLOWERS.—"G. 0. F." must not expose them too much to the inllaence of light. lie will find no difficulty in "laying them out "if be places them ranrfully on ttaicfc absorbent paper, as soon as possible after collecting, and covers them by bending over them, from one corner, unother piece of paper so that as he arranges the petals, etc, he presses them into place. Before they get quite dry, he should examine and arrange any parts that are pressed out of the natural position. I have a hortulas siccus consisting of some of the most minute and delicate leaves and liowcrs. zathensl during the past 8 or 10 years, which are as beautiful as when first obtained.—H. E. QoDraei.
[4lr70.J—THE LATHE.—For answer, see " J. K. P.'s" letter.
1T0TES AND QUERIES.
£4082."]—FLUTE.—I have a flute male by Starke, London, which it nearly a whole tone too fiat; is there any way to sharpen it? I have tried in town here, and can't get It done. The flute has a very sweet tune, and I nm very fond of it ao don't wiah to change, if possible.—J. T. O'brien.
O083.}—CLEANING WHITE CORAL.—I have some pieces of coral reef (originally white, I am told) but now very tlirty. I have triei to clean them, first by washing them in pure water, then with soap and water. They are still n dirty grey. Will any reader tell me how to get them white, and oblige?—A New Reader or Thb Mechanic.
4084.]—COMET.—Having seen a mention in one of the daily papers of the expected arrival of one of these strange bodies, I should feci much obliged if someone among our astronomical readers would kindly inform me in what conatellation search should be made first, and whether it would he likely to be visible to the nnked eye?—W. It.
£4085.]—PERRY'S MICROSCOPE—Will Mr. E. Perry inform me what is the distance between the leni and the object glass, also where the instrument may he obtained?—
[4086.]—FITZROY STORM GLASS.-Will any reader publish the formula for making the above ?—W. V. Young.
[4087J-GLASS PAINTING —Will you let me thank Mr. Ashton very much for the trouble he has taken? The only thing in which I fear failure is the oxide of gold and calcined silver, may I therefore trespass upon your space and his kindness for brief replies to the following ;—Wiiere can I procure the above two chemicals purest and cheapest? Does he coneider prussiate of potass, mdigo, and the earths, burnt umber, eienna, and vandyke brown, permanent; if not, will he kindly set me up with browna and blues?—Sable.
[4088.]—OBJECT GLASS.—Will someone kindly assist me out of a little difficulty, that is, what distances should the linea be, namely:—
Eyepiece Ke. 1. \\n. diameter, |in. focus
No. 3. \\a. „ 3|in. „
No. 4. lin. „ 3io. „
Stops between 1 and 2, 3 and 4. And what distance should there be between 9 and 3, as I have a 3in. achromatic object glass of which I am satisfied wiih the night power, but in the day power there ts a dimnesslike a glass out of focus?— 6.3.
[408V.J—LEVER ESCAPE HE VT.—" Nobody" has replied to my question in a sneering, I had almost written, insulting manner; I did not ask for wit, but information. He evidently thinks I knew nothing about what I wrote, and wanted* to steal something through the medium of the English Mechanic. Allow me to tell him that I have occasionally seen a lever escapement, and have planted a new one or two, but what I wanted to know was the best way without going far into arithmetic to gauge the "proper dimensions" of the purls of an escapement relative to each other, that is to say, sizes of 'scupe wheel and roller, length of lever, place for ruby pin. dtc, 8tc, aod the best way readily to get the angle for pullets and lever, and whether the same rules answer for club wheel as pointed tooth escapements. Also in converting a verge or English horizontal into a lever, the best way to do so "supposing, the pieces to be already made, for I think nobody would take the trouble to make a lever escapement when it can be bought so cheap rough. The remark—" suits of clothes to lit anybody" was quite uncalled for, as the same gauge or dimensions will answer, proponionab.y, for all size watches. If *' Nobody " cannot, or will not, now answer my question, perhaps, some other practical man will kindly give me the , uaforniiition I ask for.—Gracchus.
[4090.J-GILD1NG BATTERY.—I wish to thank "Tangent" for his information (gilding battery) which he sent a few weeks ago,.and I have been anuously looking tor the few hints he promised me, as I wish to learn the gilding practically, if possible. I tried with one cell, and followed his instructions—heating the bath to about 60° Fahr, puttin? a piece of gold on wire from positive pole, and a piece of tine (as I h«d no platinum) ou the negative wire, but I could get no deposit Will you tell me where I am still wrong. For the bath I used merely an oz. of cyanide of pottastinra to \ pint 0f water, and left the battery for seveaal
hours. If be wishes to write to me, I will insert my address in the Sale column, or a drawing how toarraoge the battery will oblige.—Ore In A Foo.
[40fH.}—PLAN OF CANOE.—I should be glad to take advantage of "Boat Builder's" kind offer to send a plan of a canoe, and to communicate with him direct if he would write to me,—J. F. O'brikb, 32, Lord-street, Liverpool.
[40V2J-THE ENGLISH CONCERTINA—Would our worthy friend "The Harmonious Blacksmith," or some other musical correspondent, kindly explain the merits of an English concertina? Arc they really musical instruments, and the beat substitutes yon can get when circumstances will not allow of a piano or organ ?—Cost.
r*09S.}-RANGE OF PROJECTTXES.-How much rise, or «aU, there will be in a plane, on which a canuon is fired to •* equal to 1 degree, on the tangent scale, as I find when practising on a tidal river at a floating target, the ranae is very much affected by the rise and fail of the tide, which is caused by the elevation of the plane? IS the tide is lowering the range tncreucs, and, if, ou the other hund, it is rising it decreases in a similar manner. Not having seen the deviation noted, 1 shaU feel obliged by your answer, in one of your
sized copies; they are thin. The small one has rays apparently issuing from the heads of the figures V—A Beoinner.
[40W]—AERATED WATER—Will any reader giye me instructions for constructing .in apparatus for making aerated water? Itis made by impregnatm;* the water with the gas from sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol )aud chalk. I want to know how it is forced in to impregnate the water, Stc. ?—D. W. L.
[4097-3-A VELOCIPEDE FOR SPORTS ME V.—I have been trying to fix on the best plan for a 3 or 4 wheeled velocipede for carrying two persons, and in addition two dngB, for shooting purposes in winter, or a portable canvas boat for fishing in summer. I live in the west of Ireland, and urn surrounded by lakes which are at various distances, and frequently it is not easy to find a comfortable or safe stable to put a horse in. It would therefore be a great boon to me and perhaps to others who are fond of a day's amusement with a rod or gun. Could a really servicable 3 or 4 wheeled velocipede be obtained suited for the above? I should prefer ease in propelling it to speed. I hope some of your clever correspondents may give me some assistance iu the matter.— liA.no or Thr West.
[4098.]- "EMIGRANTS' INQUIRIES.-Will any kind brother reader inform me. how I could emigrate on the cheap to some healthy colony where I could meet with employment in the building trade. I could, if hard pushed, turn ray hand to painting, plumbing, masonry, and manv other useful branches. Having a wife and family I have not the means to turn out as 1 would wish.—A Uahd-up Welsh Tradesman.
[4099.] -OBSERVATORY —I want to erect an observatory for a reflecting telescope, like the one described in the "Intellectual Observer " of July, 1864. The chief difficulty will be in getting an ordinary carpenter to rruke tue root so that it shall turn round easily and smoothly. I intend to cover the roof with felt. If any correspondent has ever built one on this plan I should he much obliged if he would give me the benefit of his experience? Tho whole cost, including labour and materials, is said iu the " Observer" to be under £11.—Algol.
(4100.]—TOOL VOR SWAGING BOLT AND SET
SCREWS.—Will s>mc reader inform me liow to make a tool for swaging small bolt and set screws:—Amateur BlackSmith.
[4l0l.]—DIFFERENCK OF TEMPERATURE BENEATH TREEo.—What ia the c .use of the difference of temperature noticeable in passing under some trees in t lie summer months. I have often been struck by it, and a few days ago, during a long drive through llerelordshire lanes, about sunset and an hour or so afterwards, the air was quite chill, but whenever I passed under certain trees, a pmF ot heat iu my face Whs almost startiinjr; indeed, it felt like passing before a fin;. 1 had no means of teatiug the difference of temperature under the trees and a few yards out, but I am sure it must have been many degrees. I have only noticed the above on summer eveninjrs.—K,
-GALVAMSM.— Wanted to know best works on medical eleetricity, and prices of same, aud publishers. Also how to make a galvanometer ?—T. B.
[4lo:j]-CLOG IRON MACHINE.—Could any of our readers give a description of one.of these machines, so that I may make one?—Land Am mi.
[4104.]—BEES.—Will" Anon" be kind enough to inform me where I can obtain *■ Payne's Bee Book," he recoiumendsm Mechanic of June 10?—A Bee Kkeper.
[4l05.]~HALL MARKS—Will any brother reader kindlv inform me where I Chu procure a book containing the hall marks, so that I might l»c able to tell the dates of old plate, &c., and about the pr.ee of such ?—Catskyk Diamond.
[4106.J-GOLU COINS OF EDWAKD 111.—What is the ralue of a J gold noble o! Edward III ?— Catseve Diamond.
[4l07.]-KNlKEBOARD.-What is thr- cork composition fastened on the kmfehtiard with?— Catsryk Diamond.
MVI8.1-WHAT COIN IS THIS?—Brass, about the size •four penny, the inscription Jacobus II, Dei Gratia; rev.:
a crown with crossed sceptres, on one side I and the other It. over the crown 1680, XXX, below Aug. I. round the com, Mag. B.K. Fra et. Hib. Rex. ?— Catseyk Diamond.
—TELESCOPE CONSTRUCTION.—I shall feel very thankful to anyone who will inform me what is the price of a disc of flint glass, and a disc of crown glass, 6in. diameter, of good quality, Ht Mr. Chance's. Birmingham, or Powell's, in London? What should be the diameter of my brass tools for working an object glass Gin. in diameter? How can I tell when tbe glass is ground sufficiently well to commence the polishing ,- is it possible to grind the surface of the glass sufficiently smooth witb finely-washed emery to reflect an image of a star like I ran get iu working a metallic speculum? Can I employ a coating of black pitch spread on the tool as a polishing bed, or will it be likely to press out at the edges, and so prevent the getting of a true spherical figure ; which ou^ht I to employ from among the various other polishing beds which 1 have heard proposed, such* as cloth, linen, alpaca, lute-string, Bilk, Sec.? How long ought a lens.fiin. in diameter to take to be polished, using putty powder?— Ukanij.s.
[4110.]—MAGNETISM.—Allow me to call the attention of your readers tn the following as relating to this subject; perhaps " Sigma •* will kindly give his opinion. If a wrought iron ring be surrounded with a helix of covered wire, I think it will be admitted that in this case, from its symmetrical form, there is no reason why the magnetism should be more strongly developed in one part than another. If, now, the ring he cut through transversely (without severing the wire) soastoforra two horseshoe magnets, it will be found that iron-filings will only adhere around the severed p*rts, even when the same are pressed firmly together. How csa this be explained? The ring with the halves in contact has remained the same as before, with the exception that the cohesion has been destroyed in these parts. Does not this point to an influence that mere severance or destruction of cohesion has on the distribution of magnetism, or on the formation of poles? 1 cannot see that Ampere's theory throws any light on this case. I have not in my readings observed any mention of the following fact: If one end of the secondary of one of Rhumkorff's coils be insulated aud the other end connected to earth; the core, primary wire.undeverything in connection with it, battery, fcc., takes an electric chargeWith a coil giving *iu. sparks, the battery gave with the above arrangement strong sparks Ain long. With a large coil a most unpleasaut shock would certainly be the resultof touching the battery with the arrangemeut referred tor—
S. T. PRESTO.V.
[4111.]—EMIGRATION— TROPICAL CLIMATE.-Could you or any of your numerous correspondents kindly indicate where I could meet with sound information on the following point: I am desirous of emigrating, but from descent and constitution could succeed only in a tropical climate. I am therefore desirous of learning the price of land and other necessary particulars in Jamaica, Trinidad, and British Guiana.—Okikns.
[4U2.]-GAS METERS.—Will any brother reader be kind enough to give me a description and drawings of the working parts of wet and d^y gas meters ? -An Inquirer.
[4U3.]-PHO.SPHATE OF LIME.—What is the use of the phosphate of iron arriving iu Loudon and in Bristat from Portugal. A few particulars will oblige?—Phosphate.
[41l4.]-METRICAL ACT.-I wish to know the date of it, and especially the official proportion of English aud French weight ?—Inquirer.
[41lo.]-TROPICAL FIBRES.-A work has just been edited on them in England. I shall feel obliged for some particulars ou it, where I can get it, price, 8tc.?—J. C. P., Paris
[4116.]-AN AIR-STRUNG PUMP.—I have for some time been greatly puzzled with a common pump, often improperly called the sucking pump. The pump stands about 50 yards from where it gets its water, aud of course there are 5i» yards of pipes, with a valve near the end of the pipes. Now, this pump often becomes what is technically called airsirung. The pump does not lose its water, but it is in a manner locked. The fact iB, when the pump is in working order one man can work it with ease, but when it is airstrung it ia absolutely impossible for two men to work it. I shall (eel greatly obliged if you, or any of our excellent correspondents, will kindly explain what it is that causes this pump to become air-strung?—Coal Mink a.
[4117.1—BULLION IRON CEMENT.-I should feel obliged if any of our correspondents could tell me of a inaterial called bullion iron cement? I think it is not used to prevent rndiation of heat, but to coat the metal of the boiler. I am told it is a heavy yellow powder. I should like to know where I might see any ?—R, G. B.
[4118.]— PROBLEM.-"Gimel" will much oblige if he will fie so kind as to give a solution to the following problem without the aid of algebra? A geutlenian having mortgaged an estate for £2000, at 5 per cent, compound interest, he is now desirous of knowing in what time he shall discharge the said debt and interest by paying the mortgagee £187 yearly? —Algkbra.
[4111).]—ANASTATIC PRINTING—POROUS CELL*.— Will any fellow reader kindly inform me whether the nine used for anastatic printing is prepared in any way; if it is I should be obliged to anyone to tell me the way to do it?—
[4120.]— FLY PAPERS.—How are fly papers prepared—I mean papers for catching flies, which disturb us so much at this season of the year? — Hawthorn.
[4131J-TO BOTTLE FRUITS.—I wish to know how to bottle fruits such as those done ia the clear liquors. Will any reader kindly favour me with the exact process?—Samper Pakatus.
[41^.]-DISTILLED WATER.—Will any reader kindly inform me how to distil water on a small scale for photography ?—Moses.
[4123/J-SOLDER1NG BRASS.-What fluxes arc used for soldering brass?—Muses.
[4124/J-KOLDING STOOL—Will someone inform me the best principle ou which to construct a folding stool for au office desk— one to slide under the desk is what I want. A sketch would oblige?—Timed Legs.
[4126 ]-SCRb W CU TTING—How could I cut an odd pitch inascrewcutting lathe without using a reversing strap. 1 have tried Io do so by bringing uirj carriage back to ttie same place, but find that the tool will not pitch always in the same thread. And also the same iuformauon as to tho fractional part of a thread?—Anxiou*.
[4126.J—WALL BAPER.-What is the lest material to put on dump walls to keep the p-ipor from being tarnished?— A Constant Reads*.
ANSWERS TO CO-RESPONDENTS.
*»• All communications should be addressed to the, Kditob of the English Mechanic, 31, Tavistockstreet, Covent Garden, W.C.
The following are the initials, he, of letters to hand up to Friday morning, June 17, and unacknowledged elsewhere —
G. and S., Ker. H. H.G.. A. Q., N, 8., Job. Moore, Hy. Eccles, W. E. E., Sambo, W. C-, J. ParaaU, D. W . J. H. T., Col. S. B-. T. W. T., J. and D., W. B., R. A, Proctor, •I. H., H. H., H, W. P. Smith. Paine and Sons, Rev. R. F. D. J., W. P. and Sons, Old Flute, J. K. P.. W. H. J. P., Amateur Tinker, Andrew Johnson, Old Faint, Banting, Wm. Airej, R R . Chemicus, Andrew Wilson, Rcineps, A Reader, Roe. Wells. J. h\ T., W. B., J. P. G., J. Hamson, Little John, C. J. Eagleton, J. K-, J. M. J.
Lkttebs To The Editob.—An nnnsnal namber of letters are postponed till next week, including " Emigration/' by Haul Rymea; "To Millers," hy Thos. Evans; "Bicyeles, bv Wm. Jackson Pigott; "The Miltmiian Bicycle," by Capt. C. D. Campbell, R.N.; " Deuble Beat Valve," by J. K. P. ; "Cotton Spinning." by C. S. B., and Harmonius Cotton Spinner; "A Tour in North Devon," by Devonlensis; "Emigration,0 bv Rivei PJ titer; "Bath Forum Field Sports," by R. P. E. ; " Cheap Gas," by C. P. C .; "Specimens of Lathe Turning," by J. U. Morgans, &e.
y i -wis Hughes.—The best way is to say what your plan or utilising sewage is. If it is good it will be very likely adopted. Please write with a more legibte ink. You can't write too plainly for editors and compositors.
W. and B,—Tickets for the dinner returned. We are adverse to bribing and purling of all kinds. Giving dinners to " the representatives of the press" is in our estimation a species of hribery.
Gaot.EE wishes to have his thanks recorded to "J. K. P." for his drawings on the throttle valve.
I). J. Williams.—The address of Beck and Co., is Cornhil), London.
J. R. L —Try again. There is every probability you will be successful neat time.
J. R., T. W B. and others.—Mr. Perry's address is, 8, Mount Pleasant, Sherbourne-road, Birmingham.
F.R.A.S.—Mr. D. Wright, or Aberdeen, suggests that a testimonial should be subscribed for, and presented to "A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society " for his " unvarying kindness." As the selection of one correspondent from a large number of others, for such an honour might appear invidious, we feel sure that F.K.A.S. would moat respectfully decline the offer.
G. Gillingham.—See extract in "Useful Motes." We always like to give an esteemed correspondent a lift if we can honestly do so,
J. H. Mo&gass, Farklands, with photos of turned work.
W. Pbabson and Co.—with description of new lock-stitch sewing machine.
Vbncedojl— The journal you mention ceased to appear about two years since.
A. Miller.—The machine was an American invention.
James Eaedlet.— The report of the Aeronautical Society can be obtained of Hamilton and Co., Paternoster-row, price Is.
W. S. Grkf.nWood— Exchanges are paid for, and not inserted gratis as replies to queries.
The Sixpenny Sale Column is the only place in which can appear queries sent by " A Bootmaker," "A Header.'' "W. Giles."
Ccthbert.—First query inserted. For second, see recent papers on "Electricity."
Babphoogee.—Queries asking where various articles can he obtained, can only appear in the " Sixpenny Sale Column."
Charles.—Both vour queries have been asked and answered during the time you have subscribed.
Subscribes (Northampton).—Advertisements cannot appear as replies.
Wood Engraver,—Sec last volume.
A Stonemason.—Yes. W e should be glad if you would send us a list. Any sum you can afford.
H. H.—How is it possible to give you any information when you give such meagre particulars? If You describe the picture, say what its subject is, its size, it any initials or marks on it, Sec., some of our readers may be able to oblige you.
De Lobbaine.—Write the Editor of the Journal of Horticulture.
J. Bird.- Find the contents in cubic feet and reduce to galIon*. One cubic foot contains (approximately) 6 2S£ gallon 3
Jack Rao.—A book (now advertised in these columns) sold by Mr. Crowther, of Halifax, will give yon the information you require, also a hook by Sir. Bums (likewise advertised and reviewed in this number).
ft, X.—See answer to "Cuthbert."
A Four, Years' Subscriber.—You may become a dentist by apprenticing yourself to some member of that trade, and a solicitor by becoming articled to a solicitor for a certain number of years (usually five), and then passing the necessary examinations.
H. C. Daties.—Consult indexes.
R. B.—The " Commissioners of Patents'Journal" will give the information you require.
W. II. D. asks the somewhat curious question, from what town in Great Britain do we receive the largest amount o> correspondence? We can't answer exuctly, as we have not kept an account.
R. Smith.—A purely commercial query. Advertise.
Veloce.—Your question cannot be answered without seeing the picture.
Pedestrian says, "What a happy suggestion of yours about out-of-door pursuits! The Kwqlisii Mechanic, as it is, is the companion of the workshop ai d the laboratory. Your suggestion will make it a guide to the rocks, the flowers. tufact, to the surface and crust t»f the globe, which Mr utardsley would degrade by making flat. Is be sure it is the cartft which is a Hat ?'r
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APPLICATIONS POtt LETT BBS PATBNT DUKMNQ THE
1030 L. Hose, 5, Bank, Lelth, an Improved stopper for bottles
gas Tor illuminating and heating; from ooal oils
West, 7, Lidington-place, Oakley-square, improvements In
1043 E. Doughty. «0. Welbeck-terrace, Nottingham, improve* ments to lace maohlues
1044 G. T Bonsfleld, Lough borough -park, Brixton, improvements in th« treatment of slag and other vitreous material.—A communication
1045 J. Morris, Belfast, improvements In machinery for shedding power loom warps
1S40T. Areling, and H, Rnwllnson, Rochester, an improved arrangement of reversing and expansion gear for steam engines
1047 J. Storer, Hammer am 1th, improvements in fountains
1019 P. Schafer, 0, Golden-square, protecting shop fronts and other parts of building* against burglarious attempts
1040 W. B, Lake, Southampton-buildings, London, Improvements in machinery or apparatus for testing strain or pressure applied to solid bodies, and fur other purposes.—A communication
1050 A. Plccatuca. 83, Boulevard Sevastopol, Paris, improvements In apparatus for manufacturing Iced syrup or cream, and soda-water beverages
1051 G. Lodge and G. Shcard, Leeds, improvements In steam boiler and other furnaces, tiro bars, and fluua
1052 H. w. Hammond, Manchester, Improvements in cartridges.—A communication
1053 B. Clarke and J. Hughes, Ponkey, improvements in safety cages for mines and shafts
1054 W. Dewhirst, T. Dswhlrst. and J. Dewhlrst, Bradford. an improved stop motion applicable to machinery or apparatus
1055 E. Green and J. Codbury, Birmingham, improvements in collar and shirt studs
1850 H. Bollinger, Manchester, improvements in machinery for dividing and condensing fibrous materials on carding engines
1057 W. R. Lake, improvements in printing telegraphic apparatus.—A communication
1058 W. E. Newton, 80, Ohancery-lano, improvements In cartridge cases for breech-loading lire-arms.—A communication
1059 T. Greenwood. Leeds, machinery for drawing wool, silk, flax, and other fibrous substances
IQO-iJ. H. Johnson. 47. Lincolu's-lnn-flelds, improvements in producing lis-ht from heavy hydrocarbons.—A communication
1001 G. T. Bousneld. Loughborough-park, Brixton, improvements in woven and knitted fabrics and yarns.—A cunimuuioation
:6u2 E. Moss, Winchester House, Old Broal-street, improvements in the manufacture of leather for mill bauds.—A communication
1003 W. L. Wrey, United Service Institution. Westminster, Improvements in the means of propelling ships and vessels
1064 I. W. Butler, Stonebridge-park, Willesden, W. I). Butler, Pnnces-street. Hanover-square, and I.Dudbar, Vicarage-road, Camberwell. improvements in machinery or apuaratu* for supplying coal, cannel, or oth?r substances to gas retorts or ovens, and for withdrawlug the same after distillation
1605 J. Scaife. Leeds, an improved packing forjpistons, piston rods, and other rods
1000 W. T. Wright, St. Nicholas. Qlamorscan. and E. Yorath, Molton. raising and lowering, loading and unloading hay, corn, straw, and other materials
1067 W. FHken, StamfoMham, Northumberland, and T. It. H. Pieken. Leeds. Improvements in machinery for cultivating land liy steam or other power
1008 %■ T. Gramme, and E. L. O. d'lvernols, Paris, improvements in magueto-eiectrlc machines
1009 P. W. Webb, Bolton, improvements in ladles for molten metals
1070 C. D. Ahel. an, Southampton-buildings, Chanoery-lane improvements In the preparation orM)rkn for rendering them impermeable.and to preserve them from decay.—A communication
1071 O. C. Stone and W. Pridgeon, Odessa, Knssia, improvements in apparatus for governing and controlling steam engines
1672 W. Kay. Edinburgh, a new or improved machine for WHStiingand cleansing floors and other surfaces
1073 J. 1). Hrunton. Leighton-crescent, Kentish-town, Improvements in the ventilation of tunnels
1674 C. A. Calvert. Manchester, improvements in the means of checking and indicating the number of passengers carried by an (tmmbu*
1675 W. B. Mewton, 00. Chancery-lane, improvements in steam boilers —A communication
1070 P. Sptncc Newton Heath, Manchester, Improvements in the manufacture or alum
1077 J. H. i„ r. Portuer, Regent-street, improvements in the construction of cabinets, stands, or receptacles Tor sowing machines.—A communication
1078 H. R. Fanshawe, u. Plnsbuiy-place, an improvement in towels, rubbers, ind wipers
107° K. T. Y. Johnson. Stockton-on-Tees, improvements in rotary engines and pumps
1680 J.T. Parlour, Brooklyn. New York, improvements in machinery and in the means employed iu connection therewith fur raising sunken ships
1081 W. Poison, Paisley, improvements in treating farinaceous substances
16*2 B. Hunt, I, Serle-street, Lincoln's-inn. an improved joint, for water, gas, and 8ream pipes—a commurrcation
1083 W. Bush, Nor-tJng-lane. improvements iu the construction and arrangement of carriages
1081 .1. Walker. Mansell-street, AM gate. E. Rneon. Cotlagoroa'l. Pari ding ton, improvements in the form and construction uf siitpi nnd floating vessels
1686 r. Green .#,.od, Leeds, and J. KeaU, Leek, improvements n«»w>D« machines
1>S P G. Floury, 21, Merrick-square. Southward, improvement* in water waate preventers
itl.57 W. K. l,*ke,tm iminov.-u embroidering attachment for sewing machines. —A oommunii-ation
Hm J. Coj)be, (Jlnrumont, Leed->, improvements in machinery for winding cops for welter warp, or other purposes
1089 A. P. Branny. «, R^clifre-road. West Brampton tm
provementu in staining and ornamenting wood
JJShiS:(freU/,ul.J' 0reig' Edinburgh, a new or improvsd machine for dressing and wparattng the fibres of certain fibrous substances, the same being specially aimUcaols for ^Vif rihe? or. ch,na aTM" ~A communication
1601 B.J. d.Mnis. W, Southamptou-buildinga. lmpr.ivem*nli in steam and other vessels, and in ste^m engines, steaa ii^"i*fi.d?rop*iUera *PPH?ablo thereto—A communicattoc 1002 P. W. Granham. and a Butterneld, Bradford, improvements in muzzle* for dogs
1603 K. Punshon. s,8t. Nicholas-buildings, Newcastle-upccTyne. sliowinp the local deviation of the mariners' compia u iron and other ships
16V4 M. Henry.iOe, Fleet-street, improvements in apeaUcSei A communication ir*«—«»»
l«tt DC. Lowbcr, Church-street, Warrington. Improvement »2irSmDr> iK man*facturing wire ties l^r securing bate. loutj v*. a. uike, improvements in rudders for vesseis.—i communication
1097 E.T. Hughes, lit. Chancery-lane, improved method! . preparing pure carbonate and bicarbonate of soda, andj • -"ALMS ll? orystsdllasd state.-A communication luuAP. J. knewtftub, S3. Saint James-street, Wastminster ,S,«'vem8.nt'' m tr»v^"t»K «d oth«?r bags, ca^es. and boi-* low u. i*ewis, Kettering, improvements in reaping or harvesting machines
1078 W. BV. Lake, Improvement In brakes and stsrtrsz apparatus for railway carriages —A communication
3501 J. Hamilton and H. Paterson, Improvements in coUiVtable c*sks or vessels for containing fermenubie md Mw>j beverages
S575 H. J. Kansome, J. Deas, and R. c. Hapier, improvemeots tn tram wars
&M« H. Cockney and F.C. Cockney, improvements in steaa boners and tn the setting thereof
3500 H. Wilson, improvements In machinery for oultia* timber into pieces
»wi w. Williams, improvements in subaqueous and tunrri communications
W05 J. Ga-dner, an improved mode of cutting veneers.—A communication
S0I7 O. W. Honeyman, an improved preparation for tb» removal and prevention of incru-tatiou iu steam boilers
S67S H. Kinspy, manufacture of surface condensers. bLiwater apparatus, and stcain boilers, and water heaters for thi same
8740 W. Sumner and E. H. Walderstrom. machinerr f&r boring copper and its alloys for making cylinders, rollers sad tithes
S?jo W. Sumner and E. H. Waldenstrom, improvements in the manufacture of cylinders, rollers, and tubes of copper and iu
37*) A. Upward. J. Bannehr, and the Rev. T. P. Dale, ta*
PTovemsats In the manufacture and purification of gns and ia the utilisation of waste and bye products of gasworks
37M P. GledhiJI. improvements in machinery for outtiue ooal and other minerals ^*
asm W.O.Green, improvements In breeoh-loading flre-arnn
KM J. Turner andj. Turner, Improved lubrlcatora for f»t«am engines
9400 p. IC. Evans, and H.J. H. King, Improvements in apparatus for feeding fibrous materials to carding or other machines
•VM7 J. Livesey. improvements in street tramways
361S tt. Morton, improvements in refrigerators or appuratm for cooling liiiuids
VHi* N. P. Burgh, an improved double or single acting pump
to-'i J. Uamer, inipravements In steam engines
9617 J. H. Sams, improvements In seed sowing machines and manure distributors
atiiS E T. Hughes, improvements in wood-mouldins: a.nd> panelling machmes —A communication
3631 J. H. Johnson, Improvements in means or apparatus tor reducing friction.—A communication
3613 t. A. Buirat, an Improved proeess for producing engrarod metallic plates for commercial indications
366s J. 0. Bamaden. improvements in looms
3676 W, L. Wise, an improved instrument for leveling and for measuring angles. —A communication
3670 M. Hen-y. tmprov*m<*nts in the mode or and apparatui for typographical oomposiug and printing.—A communication
363U A. M. silber and P. White, Improvements in apparatus for indicating time
S70S J. .Loader and W. H. Child, Improvements in steamboilers
3703 J. Pritchard and J. Collins, improvement* in embroidering or sewing
3706 J. Brooke, an Improvement in the manufacture of blankets
37*7 F. W. Webb, improvement in mills for rolling and crushin< metals
3766 J. O. Butler J. Nichols, and W. Heslop. improvement* in th<* manufacture of tyre* and hoops for railway wheels
Si O. Vlvier, improvement in means or apparatus for.measurIng and indicating the uistanoes travelled by vehicles
lot A. V. Newton, improved apparatus for preparing fibrous Biih^tances for spinning —A communication
100 A. V. Newton, improvements in maohtnery for prepvin? fibres for spinning.—A communication
110 W. P. uhapmai, improvemeut tn cases or apparatut Ut ti-iii-iiLirt in if and exhibiting out Oowera
131 T. P. Balls, improvrmenls In apparatus for moulding sal (M-'mpressmg stih-il-ancei for artiricial fuel
5U7 K. a. Noma, improved method of getting coal
oil W. Mc.Vaub, improvem iiits in bale hoops and other bands
9*1 W. McCraw, improv) n "ts in photography bv procwir* which combine priittin., ainting, and transferring fur m production r»rchromo- holographs
i*;i.. J. Shaokleton, ••• rovemenis in utilizing exhaust st«aai
u.vj \V. K. Lake, unprovenK'-nis In condenser* for nariue steam engines
H68 E. Farrlngton, improvements in breeeh-loadinz Arearms
U71 J. R. Clark, machinery ror knitting stockings or vanoas other articles
1101 8. 0. Tillman, improvements in boilers, air heaters steam condensers
s&tt E. Tomiinson. improvements in furnaces for orvventia^ theformatioQ of smone
3637 W. T. Henley, improvements in protecting te><m;H wires and cables
3647 A. K. >tucker, improvements in stoppers for infant's feeding and other bottles
3630 Q. *veir and J. Weir, improvements in sltdeTvalvea
3654 E. A. Ingicfleld, improvements in hydraulic apparatus to be used on shipboard ror utilising the pressure of the external water
3653 J. I*. Hane'>ck improvements in apparatus for oroshiag or breaking bones
366S W. ts. ttiodfe, an improved system of pessary.—A communication
3663 W. Hargreares. certain improvements In steam boiler*
3664 W. r*oiilds, improvem-nti in apparatus to proniulf CjoumLion tn sickm hollars -A communication
3077 J. Kohnrtsun, Improvements in machinery for treaties; and shaniug metals
3683 W Morris, improvements in permanent way ofraiiwa; a and tramways
stioo W. Perrie. improvements in blast furnaces
37w S. Dnon, Improvements in the manufacture or prostaction of skirts ano p»tt<co iU
37M C Qordon. improvements In the ooostructlon of breech< loadiug llrwarms
376i H. N. Maynard. improvements In piers or supports for briiine*. viaducts, mid such like structure*
376.^ W. Helliwnii, J. Hulitwell, H. Helliwell. and T. Hellisrell, improvem°uts in the oo-i^truotion of bobbins nsed to tun<'hines for splunlnit, doubiinit. and twisting
3771 J- hV Wuhum, improvements in gas burners for Illuminating beacon-, himm, aud ilghihouses
;>7*- T. P. Prance, improvements m the constructlon"of batliv and *al»rclo*ets
0 C. Drake, improvements in the construction oflcoucryie buildings
'.'-i T. Nuttall and K. Nuttaij, certain Improvements in tb« manufacture of counterpanes
Sflte toM IJIerfank
MIRROR OF SCIENCE AND ART.
FRIDAY, JULY 1. 1870.
MICROSCOPICAL JOTTINGS IN TOWN
MICROSCOPISTS have at least this advantage over other devotees of science, that they are independent alike of the seasons, weather, and even of location. Shut an ardent inicroscopist within the four walls of the dreariest dungeon that ever was, but allow him light and his microscope, and I am certain ihat he will find both full employment and real enjoyment from the "common objects" aronnd him, even if his imprisonment extend beyond the calendar month. How much more, then, have we who are free to roam, scope for real work? We need not exclaim, as I have heard some who have a fair instrument at their use exclaim, that there is nothing for them to look at; that they are shut within the bounds of a great city, beyond the reach of flowers or pools ; or, immured in some village, have no opportunity of purchasing "objects for the microBcope."
To these, accepting our Editor's published invite, I beg to dedicate the few rambling notes which, with his permission, I will from time to time publish. I may here promise that my notes shall be simple transcripts of my real home work or my field work. They shall be the chat of a worker to other workers, not treatises to amuse the learned.
We will now take a trip from the fair " and ever faithful" city of the West along the South Western Railway some score miles more or less, to the riling little town by the sea called Seaton, pretty enough, some clay to be big enough, but now merely the resort of broad-speaking, honest-looking Zurnmerset folU, Dorset, lassies and their swains, or buxom "Devonshire dumplings," with a few, perhap«, of that specieB of the genus homo," visitors." The sea tumbles in with a merry though maybe a drenching plash. As we stand on the beach, away it stretches before us many a mile, whilst the pixies and the fairies take their mora' in g's bath. To right of ns we espy chalk cliffs, Beyond our ken in that direction lies Beer and its' Jand slip. Let us wend our way to the cliffs. As we go, we stumble against a u hideous" cuttle fisb. " Frightful creature, pass it by." Gently, tair lady, gently please. There is nothing ugly in nature, bear that in mind, whatever else you forget. That cuttle (1811,1188 in it more than you or I will this day understand—has in it more of beauty than we can now stay to reveal. Let us stay, however, and cut out this canoe-shaped "chalk-like subtance" which lies loosely in the sac within the animal. We will pocket it, pass to the chalk cliff secure a " lump" of the white " stone" now. but once living shells of wondrous beauty, and gladly return to onr workshop at home. Not but that we might pick up as we go a host of waifs and strays sufficient in themselves to find us employment for weeks. Here for example is a mass of chalky substance attached to a piece of " wrack" It is " ugly enough," but take it home, wash it in strong potass, and you will find it is composed of delicate needles of the most delicate transparency. It is only a sponge, but no man could make anght so delicate, so really beautiful. But our cuttle and chalk will more than occupy us for the remainder of the week. We will take the chalk first. Let us powder it carefully, tie it in a coarse cloth and diligently knead it in a running stream. By degrees we get rid of all the white wash and have only a little fine powder left. Wo remove this from the cloth, oarefullv drv it, place a
•f lu! » 7 " b*C on our Slass atae'e Plate. moisten
it witn turpentine, cover it with our thin glass, and
magnify ,t 250 diameters (Jin. objective). Vast
numbers of tiny shells come into view, " woven
work shells < wheel shells," and others, showing
us conclusively enough that the vast cliffs which
guard so much of our coasts, our vast " downs and
worlds, are but the vast mausoleum of the past
age. If we wlah to reserve them for cabinet
objects (and most I trust will so wish) we have
merely to place a few on a slide, moisten them
with turpentine for a few seconds, and then mount
them in Car.ada balsam in the usual fashion.
Our notes have rambled so far that we must I
postpone " cuttle" to our next. j
W. 1'OCKLIN-QTOS, Hull. I
TIIK WORLD, ITS FORMATION AND ANTIQUITY.
Br Arthur Underhili.
(Continued from page 314.)
WrHEN we penetrate the crust of tli3 globo by means of mine3 or other doep excavations, we find that as we depart from the surface, the temperature becomes greater in proportion to the distance traversed; and from this it has been calculated that at a depth of between thirty and forty miles from the exterior, the heat is so intense as to liquify or fuse the mest obdurate material in nature ; since then, in all probability the interior of the globe is a mass of molten matter ; it must during the immense time which has elapsed since its first creation, have pirtcJ with a great quantity of its heat, and therefore must originally have contained a greater amount, than it does at the present time. On this account the most oelebrated geologists have thought that the world when it came fresh from its Creator, was a globe of liquid mineral substance. This is of course but a speculation, yet as it is a speculation which is strongly supported by observed facts I have here mentioned it. One argument in its favour is the form which the earth has assumed, namely, that of an oblate spheroid, a form which has resulted from the combination of gravity and centrifugal force, and which it could scarcely have taken, unless such fores had acted upon it when in a state of mobility. This globe, then, after many centuries became sufficiently cooled down, to allow of the solidification of its surface, and thus a thin coating of solid granite was formed, which as the cooling continued became thicker and firmer. At this period, the earth was a vast stony desert, unfitted for any form of animal or vegetable life, both on account of its sterility, and also of the intensity of the temperature at its surface. At length, when it had lost sufficient hea; to allow of the existence of water, the aqueous particles in the atmosphere were condensed, and formed a sea of uniform depth covering the whole globe. Then life in humble shapes was produced; the tiny zoophytes and molluscous animals, mere masses of jelly, swarmed in the tepid waters of the ocean, with other elementary forms of creation which were however the forerunners of nobler species, who in turn should give way to beings better and more exquisite than themselves. Then came a great convulsion, the outside coatin^ of the earth cooling unequally, cracked and split in various places, and the molten substance from within wag ejected forth, forming Urge tracts of land, and throwing up mountain ranges, of which some still exist. Thus the division of the globe into land and water took place ; but they were not distributed in the same form as now. Places which are at the present time inhabited countries, busy with the activity of man, and flourishing with all the verdure of a tropical clime, then rested peacefully beneath the ocean, and some of the elevated lands of that epoch, are now the bed of the sea. This change of level has happened even in the memory of man, and at one place the largest ships sail over the towers and steeples of a once flourishing and powerful city.
After this convulsion, the sea charged with the debris and detritus, deposited it evenly on its bed; first the heavier portions of matter, then the lighter ones, and thus a succession of strata was formed. At length, after several of such convulsions had taken place, the earth became in a fit state for land animals and birds, which were accordingly created ; first in a rude and elementary fashion ; huge misshapen lizards, or saurians, as they are called by en tomologists and birds, whose wings were but half formed. In these early days of the globe, certain species were not, as now, confined to certain latitudes, but were distributed over the whole earth ; thus we find the remains of tropical trees and shrubs in the strata of our own country. It follows, from this, that one even or nearly even climate prevailed, and this is strong evidence in favour of the igneons theory, for the crust must have still retained so much heat as to make the variations of temperature caused by the 6un, almost inappreciable; there thus was a general summer over the whole earth. Convulsion followed convulsion, each one causing former lands to suhside beneath the Pea, and thrusting up netv ones, where there was formerly I
a " waste of water ; " destroying all animal aud vegetable life, and burying the, remains deep in the new strata formed from the ruins of a former world, there to become these fossils which now serve as the historians of their times.
Another creation takes place, and a new, and superior organic world occupies the position of the former one. Again a convulsion, and another creation, and so on through a long period of time ; each epoch producing life in forms approximating to the present inhabitants of th» globe. As Lucretius says—
So things by turn Increase, by turns decay-
At length man himselt, and the present races of animals and vcgetableswere formed, and then, for the first time on earth, appeared that mighty attribute of humanity, reason.
I have in the foregoing paragraphs, slightly sketched the history of the globe, a history which is proved both by the different races of organic life whose remains are found in the form of fossils, and also by the disturbance and rupture of the strata by the igneous masses which were emitted at each convulsion. That these convulsions did take place at different periods, is proved by the different upheavals of the crust,
thns in Fis. 2. The disturbance at A must havo taken place before that at B, for when the convult; son at A happened, the top stratum could not have been deposited, for it would have been tilted up with the other strata ; but when the upheaval at 1J took place, it must have been formed, for it was inclined by it, together with the underlying strata. Since, then, this top stratum did not exist when the convulsion at A happened, and did exist when that at B took place it follows, that the convulsion at A was, in point of tinu, prior to that at B, therefore A and B were the results of two different convulsions.
Since all stratified rocks must have been formed under water, we fiud that there are certain groups or systems of formations. The localities of such systems are by geologists termed seas, on account of their having originally been the beds of oceans. Botween each convnlsion, the sea deposited a system; and thus wherever we find the same system in two places apart from each other, we may rest assured that both were under water at the same period, viz., that of the formation of such system; and wherever we find no traces of such system, we conclude that at the time of the formation of the system, such place was dry laud; otherwise we should fiud a deposit of the system upon it.
As this subject is of great importance in geology, I shall reserve any further explanation of it until my next chapter.
(To be continued.)
SCIENCE FOR THE YOUNG.* By the Rev. C-kernjln, Clongowes College.
(Continued from page 319.) X AW V. By law TV. the two forces tend to -*-* have an effect equal to their diagonal. By Law I. a force equal and opposite will keep that diagonal in equilibrium, therefore it will keep the two forces in equilibrium. Experimentally the two forces P aud Q, Fig. 61, act upon the body A drawn away, for the moment, to some angle, and held—dotted line—to the base B. Trace a parallelogram, the sides of which (p and q) represent the relative strength of the torces, and the angla at which they act. Measure the diagonal (r), its length shows the force of the resultiut. Hang to the hook II a weight proportional to the forces P and Q, as the diagonal is proporClonal to tho liues which represent P an I Q.
* All r.gbM reserved by Hie Author