Abbildungen der Seite

eed by giving lome farther particular* relative to | A drum ia fixed upon the axis of the puller at the edge of

'- the table; over tins drum is stretched aaheet of paper, and,
during the motion of the puller, a pencil whose point ia
pressed against the surface of paper ia cauaed to more with
uniform Telocity parallel to the axia of the drum.

Aj the pencil haa thus two eimultancoua motion*,*

m directiona at right angles to each other, a curre

must he the result, and if thia curre be a parabola, it

a eaaily shown that the acceleration of a point on the

drum, and therefore of the eliding body (since the cord

moves with the aame Telocity aa a point on the drum), must

be constant, and cooaequentlv that friction ia inde pendent of

the Telocity; for if the motion of the eliding body be uu iformly

accelerated it must be acted upon by a

constant I force, and therefore the friction

cannot rary with the Telocity.

In Fig. 11, let A B E be a portion of the parabolic arc deaenbed (for in the experimenta a parabolic arc waa clearly obtained), whoae axia. A D, ia at right anglee to the axia of the pulley, let B be the position of the pencil's point after the interval of lime (from the commencement of the motion, draw B C perpendicular to A C, a tangent at

A. then, by the well known property of the parabola, if p

be the latus rectum

tie ertnieTaJ caodea of producing ice. 1 he materials suitable tor abstracting heal from water in sufficient quantities to be n^e^ikr for reducing temperature were, liquid ammonia, niraSai and ether. The substance hitherto uaed for proAr« cold had been almost entirely ether vapour, with the eart»Qott of the expansion of air, To produce a lb. of ice, we rweired to take out of water at a temperature of 60° a qusntavr of beat repreaented by 148 heat units, and to cool the water from the temperature of 60° to that of 38°. Speaking cd this in larger quantities, the lecturer aaid that 3i481h. of -tvbex reqairrd to be vaporised in order to convert one ton of water al 60° into ice at 32°. Although there waa a great .difference between the quantity of thoae materials which were rtqaitite to produce thia change, experience went to anew tiat the solution of ammonia waa the moat efficient ■ to be used for absorbing heat from water to convert i: lato ice. Still, ether had the advantage of being since pfe'Mc to vaporisation at low temperatures. Neither water nor a!coiol would Taporise at a low temperature with anything hie that degree of rapidity which would suffice for artificial cooling. The doctor then deacribed the way in which ether waa aaid. It' might appear remarkable that fuel ahould be used for producing cold, but the reason waa, that the rate ■of evaporiaation that corresponded to the tension of ether ■would be too large to (.reduce any appreciable cooling, or •ufficient cooling of water to produce ice. Therefore, the enporisatitm of ether had to be facilitated by mechanical ■scans Willi the aid of a diagram the lecturer explained the whole of thia process, and then spoke of the ether apparatus A machine capable of producing five tone of ice in the space of 24 hours consumed a quanlitv of fuel which waa in the proportion of lib. of fuel to 31b. of ice produced. The tension of vapour varied according to temperature, and that had an important influence on the efficacy and work of this material in the production of ice. That, in brief, explained -the way that fuel bad to be consumed in making ice by means -of ether- Ammonia, at an ordinary temperature, waa a gaseous substance, requiring a pressure of about 1501b. on the square inch to reduce and maintain it in a liquid form. If we used ammonia to produce ice, it must be al the expenditure of a roniivierable amount of power and of fuel. When we Rmemtit'ed that in the ateam engine there waa not,

feneraJIv speaking, more than one-tenth of the beat produced y coal burnt which became affected by mechanical force, it must be evident that this mode of working ammonia must be very cortiv; and so it had been found to be. But. on the other bam!, there was found to be a faculty characteristic of ammonia which rendered it possible to do away with this application of mechanical power. That character was the faculty of ammonia for being absorbed into water, and this characteristic had been taken advantage of in working tbe .ammonia machine, aa he ahowed by reference to two die grama of ammonia machines used in the production of cold. In both a strong solution of ammonia was separated, and used over again; bnt the special ,*—■•-- "■■

liquid ammonia waa obti
in the other. The expansion
thia purpose; but this was so

TefnEeration, aa almost to place its use out of theqneation.
Axtiflcittl refrigerators were now in use, and he had only
lately heen informed that in the breweries of London there
-were cooling machines working which were capable of cooling
an much as nine hundred barrels an hour to the extent of 10
degrees, which waa equivalent to the cooling of 324.0CO gal-
Iona an hour, and that qoantitj cooled 10 degrees was equi-
rafext to the melting of 10 tons of ice an hour. At this
point Z>r. Paul entered upon that part of bis subject which
should have commeocei his lecture. He began by showing
tbe uses of fuel for the production of high temperatures, snd
observed that the temperature produced by the combustion
of fuel depended much more upon the way in which the heat
-.generated was disposed of in the production of combustion
than it did in the actual amount of beat This wss espe-
■eialiy important in the use of fuel in such operations as the
jnsnufaclure of iron. Tbe specific heat of almost all auh-
stauces increased as the temperature increased. In the case
-of iron it was more than double st that high temperature
'required to be maintained in the puddling furnace. The con-
Suuvpikju of fuel in puddling iron was at the rate of a ton of
fuel for every ton of iron produced, or something like 18
times as much as the quantity of fuel repreaented in the
actual work done. By thia he meant the heating of the pig
iron up to the temperature necessary for producing the
change required in puddling and for melting iron, fuel,
under existing eh-conistanees, was indispensable. Speaking
■of gas, the lecturer said that the specific heat requiaite to
waise the temperature of lSlb. of gas 1 degree was sbout
three heat onits. In the furnace three-eighths of the heat
was used, and five-sighths passed off in waste; and this pro-
portion applied to glass-making and to all operations necrs-
nary to be conducted st a high temperature. Tbe higher the
temperature produced, tie greater the amount of free heat
there was available (or the work to be done, and the greater
was the economy of fuel. At high temperature there was a
rapid waste of heat by radiation and conduction, and by escape
in various ways. The temperature regulated the amount of
-work done. Dr. Paul next alluded to the use of fuel for
producing high temperature for the production of iron in
what was called the smelting furnace, the conditions of which
prevailed in the hot air blaat furnace. By means of a dia-
gram he showed the difference between ordinary combustion
and that taking place in this furnsce. In the smelting fur-
nace, carbonic acid was converted into carbonic oxide, which
-was combuatible, and which furnished heat snd effected a
saving of fuel. In many cases the consumption of fuel ran
•up as much as three times the weight of the iron produced;
and this large expenditure of fuel was attributable to the
•sum oases which operated in the case of tbe puddling fur-
nace- There wss reslly only about a sixth part of the fuel
-consumed which was turned to account in doing the work of
reducing iron. The plan of burning fuel so ss to obviate
<hi* waste consisted in burning it sfter having inverted it
into a gaseous form, ss in the case of the production of gas.

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but — is constant, hence B C bears a constant ration to P, or

the spaces traversed by a point parallel to the axia A D of
the parabola vary aa the squares of the times of traversing
them ; bnt a point under the influence of an uniform accele-
ration traverses spaces proportional to the squares of the
times, therefore a point which describes a parabola must be
under the influence of an uniform acceleration.

Let/be the dynamical measure of thia acceleration in feet

per second, and we have C B = t / <*, »y the relation

/l|' 2 a»

between space and time, also C B = therefore/ =


In experiments such as the above, where acceleration takea

place, it is clear that the descending weight exceeds the

friction by s certain quantity ; we must therelore find an ex

preasion tor u in Ibis case in terms of known quantities. Let Q

he the sliding body drawn along by a descending weight P,

then we hats the weight P + Q set in motion by the force P

moving force is P lessened by the friction

acceleration, as found above, we must

motion, P + Q: P — p (Juji/t,

%here g is the dynamical force of gravity expressed in feet per

second. _ „

tti-f) - Qf

Therefore/s = ———

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Example 8.—A mass of csst iron,
along a horizontal plane
cord which is parallel to the pla

drawn B

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weighing 1001b., is lane of cast-iron by means of a

,.. _„e plane, and to the end of which

a weight of SOIb. ia attached. Determine the coefficient of
friction, if the acceleration, found as above described, be ljft.
per second,

90 X (32 -ID- 100 X \\
Here u '

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100 x 32 x 3 9800 20

In any examples which may he given, g will always he
taken to be equal to 32.
We can also put the above expression for p under the form

T 9-/ f

Let Dow s be the -pace described by the sliding body "*' seconds, then by the well-known relation between the time and space described by a body under the influence of an uniform acceleration, we have

fP 2j

# => or/ = —

2 fl

Substituting this value for/in the above value for p we have

P g.» - 2i 2j p „ _ x

Q gP gfl

Example 9.—If in Example 8 the weight describes 6ft. in
S seconds,what must be the coefficient ot friction?
20 n x 32 -■.,■ >- 6 ?x 6
Here u =

include every circumstance of the case. As friction considered as a resistance constantly retarding tha motion of bodies has now been introduced, I shall here give the solution of an useful problem respecting the motion of a body along a series of inclined planes, and it may here be remarked that all the questions which have been given on the friction of sliding bodies apply generally to that of rolling bodies, for it is clear that the resistances to the motion of carriages, as on roads and railways, due to friction are made up of rolling snd axle friction, which together may be taken to be some definite proportion of the weight of tbe carriages. The resistance of friction on roads and railways shall however receive a separate account hereafter.

The following is the problem :—

k body hai ing descended one incline of gtv en length and inclination, is stopped on its descent or H#cent) on another also of given length and inclination. To find the friction which stops the body.

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In Fig. IS, let the body start from a, and, having descended a ft, let it come to rest st d, s point on the incline be. Let 0 snd 3' be the inclinations of a b and ft e to the horizon. Now if W be the weight of the body, W (sin. ,: - ,, cos. (3) ss haa been before explained, ia the force which urges the body down the plane, or, dividing by M. the maaa of the body, we have, aince W=M},} (sin 3 - p cos. 3) for the dynsmical acceleration of the downward motion, therefore, if t> be the velocity of the body on arriving at ft, and if be the length of a 4, we have r' = 2 g (sin. 3—p cos. 3> j, by the relation between velocity and space described. Now if we suppose the body to pass from a but be without lossof velolocity, we hare ita velocity on starting from 4 equal to v, and by. the nature of tbe question, this velocity is destroyed by friction when the body arrives at if, therefoie the friction, or p W cos. 3', is greater than W sin. f}', or the component of the weight along the plane 4 e. The dynamical retardation of the motion along 4 e is thereforeg (p cos. £}' — sin. .3'). and the relation between the final velocity (in this case o) and the space described when the body has an initial velocity, we must have

• = »> - Zg (p ces. p'-BB. 30 r"


t> = 3g (p cos. 3' - sin. 3') el.

Kquating this value of r to that found above, and dividing across by if, we have

< sin. 0- i p cos. (3 = r" p cos. ($' - if sin. f}' Draw now the horizontal lines ft c and if h, and put a c *' j k = c1, c ft = i, and A d = x1; therefore sin. f3 - * i p cos. jS = ft *. ** = i', therefore « - p

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Bt C. Drurxn, A3., L.C.E.
(ConJimieof/rompocieeOl, Vol. X.)

Wbx w speaking of tbe tribometer, or apparatus fb* investi-
gating tbe laws of friction, it waa not shown how tbe law
■which declares friction to be independent of the velocity was
■vcDiied , indeed the experiments, ss then described, serve
only to prove the lews of the friction of rest.
Ibis law can be proved in the following manner.

Prom this last formula it will be seen that we can determine the coefficient of friction by observing the time the weight takea to fall any given space, without knowing the value of the acceleration.

In the above examples it should be observed that the following are not taken into account. The weight and rigidity of the cord, the inertia of the pulley and the friction of ita axis. They are therefore given to indicate merely the manner of experimenting, as the lormulm actually employed ahould

'Or, to speak more correctly, the pencil baa one motion, and the paper has another ; but tbe result is the same ss if the pencil hsd the combined motion of the two relatively to a fixed point on the paper.

t This statement is merely an instance of the law of motion that the velocities produced in the same body by different statical forces, acting for the same time, are proportional to those forces.

Example 10.—A body slides down an inclined plane the height ol which is 12ft. and length of base 2uft„ and elides along a horizontal plane at the botlom lor a distance ot oait. Find the co-efficient of the friction which atopped the motion, on the aupposilion that the body pssses from one plane to the other without loss of velocity.

Here « = 12, * = 20, and x> = 83
12 1

.•. p = —— -
20+62 6

The reader may verify the above result in the case of three
planes, howsoever inclined, snd indeed it is generally true
that when a body placed in the abave-statcd circumstances
stops in descending (or ascending) at a certain point d, the
value of the co-efficient of the friction that stopped it will be
found by dividing the total height from which the body de-
scended, by the total horizontal distance travelled over.

The above is also true for anv curved line, as the P'anea may be conceived to be so small that in continuation Uiey do not differ from one continued curved line. (To bt continued.)


Fatbii Sxccni.the great Italian physicist, has recently laid before the French Academy of Sciences an account of Borne experiments he has been making conjointly wish Professor rruvenzali, upon the modiScationa produced by magnetism upon the light emitted by the rarefied gases. In theire xperinients thfy employed a large Bunsen's battery capable of giving sparks eight centimetres in length from the induction coil The gases were confined in Gciaslcr's tubes.

The results of their observations have been classed under

* is "whenever a tube of wide bore is introduced between or brought into tie neighbourhood of the poles of the.electromagnet, it is found that the diffused or stratified light winch fills the tube when a current is pssscd through becomes repelled by the poles, and is condensed on the opposite side of the tube, where it sppears as a bright •'»«*'M'"drt » luminous glow.' Indeed, the effect is as though lb<P«iW were really displaced, and accumul.ted in the nion. distaiit part of the tube Father Secchi considers »»'V'° "K; ince presents a. great similarity to the movement* of the streamers in the Aurora Uurealis

2nd. The rondcnsed gai gives a well-defined and brilliant spectrum, and when the current it of sufficient intensity und tne gas If one, each аа chlorine or nitrogen, which givea и double apectrum, both spectra may be observed, the one in that part of the tube opposite to tbe magnetic pules being more intense than that in the main body of the tube. It is considered as proved that the double apectrum is due to a difference of temperature, and not to impurity ef the gas, as was supposed by M. Pubrumfaut. A. very striking result was prescnt-d by the hydrogen tube. In this the light brought under magnetic influence became of a bright yellow colour, while the other part was of a magnificent roseate tint, the blending of the two colours strongly resembling in their shades the solar protuberances (red flames) of the eclipse of I860. The experimentalists think this effect

fartihlly due to the decomposition of the glass under the great eat of the current.

Father Secchi suggests that a simple solution of the phenomena observed may be summed up thus. Magnetism acts as though it contracted the bore of the tubes, and ;by producing an elevated temperature causes the gas to give a spectru m similar to that which would be given in a tube of small capacity, and so it may be ascribed to diamaguetism- In conclution, he says it is impossible to observe these pnenomena without comparing t em with the magnificent phenomena of the solar chromosphere, and thinks that by similar experiments it may be possible to carry the analcgy farther.

'G. M. W.

[We are indebted for the above communication to G. M. Whipple, Esq.. of the Kew Observatory. In regard to the first class mentioned, we showed precisely similar results in 1856 to Faraday. We produced the vacuum in an ordinary barometer tube, 86in. long, in the top of which a platinum wire wus soldered, the mercury serving as the other conductor from a Rhumkorf. Faraday exhibited the experiment at a subsequent Friday evening's meeting at the Royal Institution, while lecturing "en the induction coll.—Ed. К T. and Л. R.]—Electric Telegraph and Railway Review.

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The Bight Ascension of the Sun on the 1st of April will be oh. 42m. 31e., and his North Declination 4* 3V 30*. He will, therefore, be closo to ¡ Piscium; and reference to our maps on p. 64, will show what constellations will in consequence be lost in his rays, and therefore invisible. The Equation of time to be added to the instant indicated by a sundial, will on the 1st day of the month be 3m. 56s. It will diminish until the loth, when there will bo no Equation at all ; the clock and dial being coincident. After tbls tbe Sun will south before mean noon, or tho Equation will become subtraotire, and on the 30th, 2m, 55s. must be taken from tbe instant of apparent noon to obtain the time, which a properly regulated clock ought to show. The Sun is now longer abovo the horizon, in these latitudes, than he is beneath it; the length of the day at the beginning of April being 12h. 53m., and on the last day of the month 14b. 42m.

The Moon enters her First quarter at 25 and a half minutes past 4 a.m. on the 'Jih ¡ is Full at 10a. 26m- on the night of the 15th, when, as sho will be In Perigee, or at her nearest to tbe Earth, about half an hour afterwards, a high tide may be looked for: She will enter ber Last Quarter at 4h. 25m. on the afternoon of the 22nd ¡and be New at eh. 37m. on that of the 30th. Tho Moon will be in conjunction with Jupiter at 48 minutes past 10 on the morning of the 4th : in conjunction with Uranus at 2b. ."8m. In the early morning of the ninth : In conjunction with Saturn at 3h. 40m. am. on the 20th : in conjunction with Venus at 9b. 53m. am. on the 26th: and finally with Mars at 4b. 10m, on the afternoon of the Oth. Practically the first and two last of these conjunctions will bo invisible. During this month Five Fixed Stars, and the Planet Saturn will be occulted. At lh. 47m. in the early morning of the 9th, 56 Gcminorum will disappear at the Moon's dark limb ; and re-appear at her bright limb at lh. .'.'Jm. At 2b. 15m. a.m. on the 12th, 34 Leonls will disappear at the dark limb; to re-appear again at the bright one at 4 minutes past3. At 48 minutes after midnight on the 13th, 6 Virginie will be occulted by the Moon's dark limb, and emerge from her bright limb at 3 minutes past 1. Tbe bright limb of the moon will occult, g Libre at ISh. 16m. on the night of tho 17th, and at 0 minutes past 1 It will re-appear from the dark one. The occultation of Saturn will take place during the early morning of the 20th. The planet will disappear at the bright limb at 2b. 55m., and re-appear at the dark one at4h. 5m. Lastly, y'Saglttarit will beocculted by the Moon before she rises alter midnight on the 2tth; but, after вЬе has risen, will re-appear from her dark limb at 6 minutes past 1. The Moon's ago on the 1st, at noon, is 0-4 days; She is 14 days old at noon on the 2nd, and so on. At о o'clock In the evening of tho i'tli, Libration will bring a portion of the S.E. part of her disc into view; while at midnight on the-31st an additional portion of the surface In the S. W. quadrant will become visible from the same cause. These details, as has been before explained, are given to facilitate the observation of the various features of tbe Lunar surface.

Mercury is practically invisible during the first twothirds of April; but becomes an evening Star, and may be looked for towards the end of It, During the las two or three days, ho may be seen glittering close to the horizon, to tho North of West after Sunset.

Veuus is a morning Star during the entire monthSouthing at '.'h. 31m. a.m. ■ n.tlie 1st, and at 91). 6m. a.m. on tho 30th. She is still afine telescopic object, albeit tbe difference in the thickness of her crescent is very marked when contrasted with the extraordinary tenuity which it exhibited in February. Mara is still too close to the Sun to be visible. Jupiter is now visibly creeping towards tbo West. It is on the Meridian atih. Лмп. on the 1st, and at lb. 10m. in the afternoon ou the 30tb. We shall soon bo losing him asa conspicuous celestial object, for the season. He remains in Taurus during tbe entire month. Saturn is a morning Star until the 19th, after which he rises before midnight: be is, however, close to tho horizon, and wretchedly situated for observation. He is on the confines of Sagittarius, Uranus may still be observed before midnight; his position is Oemlnl has not sensibly altered from that laid down in our little map on p. 470. Neptune Is now invisible, in fact be is actually in conjunction with the Sun about 8 o'clock in tbe morning of the 9th.

The Phenomena exhibited Jupiter's Satellites aro very much fewer, the Planet's approach to the Sun Interfering materially with their visibility. On the night of April 1st there will be n transit of the 1st Satellite. It will enter on to Jupiter's disc at oh. 7m. On the 2nd the let Satellite will rc-appear from Eclipse at 9h. 29m 52s, but Jupiter will be very low down. The shadow of tbe same Satellite will pass off the Planet's limb aton. 41m. on the next evening : the Sun, however, will only just have set at the time. Strong twilight may also prevent the Emersion of the 3rd Satellite fin m Eclipse at 7h. 19m. 59s. on the evening of the 4th from being observed. On tbe 5th tbe Ingress of the Shadow of tho 2nd Satlliite will take place at 7h. 30m. The Satellite lUelf will pass off at the opposite limb at Sh. 2Cm., and its shadow map probably be seen to follow it at 9h. 55m., but Jupiter will then be on the Point of setting. On the 9th, Satellite 1 will be occulted at 8h 30m. On the 10th the same Satellite will leave Jupiter's disc at 7b. 52m., to be followed by Its shadow at «l. 36m. On the Ilth the 3rd Satellite will re-appear from occultation at 8h. 42m., enly to be Eclipsed by Jupiter's Shadow at 9h. 29m. 26s. This is only some 18 minutes, though, before he will set. The 2nd Satellite will enter on to the Planet's limb at 8b 4Sm. on the night of the 12th. On the Evening of tho 17th there will be a transit of the 1st Satellite. It will pass on to Jupiter's disc at 7b. 40m., and its shadow will come after It at 8h. 18m. The first Satellite may also be seen in tbe twilight to re-appear from Eclipse at 7h. 49m. Us. on the evening of the 18th. Fivcminutes before Jupiter sets —viz.. at 9b. 15m. 33s. on the night of the 21st, the 2nd Satellite will го-appear from Eclipse. The 2nd Satellite will be occulted at 8h. 34m on the 28th, or on the succeeding Evening, the 29th, the Ingress of tbe shadow of the 3rd will take place at 7h.26m. : the egress of the Satellite Itself occurring at 7h. 56m. Wo should perhaps add, that as many of the phenomena, which we have included in the foregoing list will take place In strong twilight, or when the planet is almost closo to the horizon, it will require a good telescope to observe tbcm: even assuming, what is problematic^, that such an instrument will render all of them visible.

There wouldseem to be some reason to expect Shooting Stars in April, during two intervals; tbe first between tbe 4th and the 11th: tho second between tbe 17th and Sith of the month. Watch should, therefore, be kept about these dates.


[We do not bold ourselves responsible far tbe opinion* of our correspondents. The Editor respectfully requests that all communications should be drawn up as briefly as possible.]"

*.* All communications should be addressed to the Editor of the English Mechanic, 31, Tayistoekstreet, Coven.. Garden, W.C.

All cheques and Post Office Orders to be »nade payable to J. Passmoke Edwards.

CONSUMPTION OF FBOGS IN FBANCE.-Tbe Echo du Luxembourg states that the exportation of frogs from that е France has increased considerably of late. Upwards of 200,000 were sent in three weeks by »ne dealer, and on one day 30,000 were sent by tho ■am* person. They are sent principally to libelms, Nancy, and Paris. A thousand frogs fetch 13 francs (10s 5.1.1, and weigh 50 klls., or about one cwt. .\<> duty Is charged by the French Custom-houee on frogs. At It bei ins. 25 pairs of frogs' legs can be bought for 60 centimes. The autumn and spring ara the best limes of the year for frogs.

COMPOSITIONS FOB THE BOTTOMS OF VESSELS.—Mr. Glbbs, of Milton-street, City, proposes to coat the bottoms of iron vessels, to preserve them from fouling by tho employment of a mixture of tallow, or other greasy or fatty matters and resin, to which Is added a saturated solution ef sulphur (m caustic or carbouate alkali or lime). In which copper has also been previously dissolved. The compositions are prepared by the agency of heat or otherwise, and they are to be applied hot to tbe ships or vessels by means of a brush. The composition is prepared by taking sulphur, suoh as Is known In commerce under that term In the proportion of 171b. to 521b. of potash leya of 35deg. strength, and lib. of pieces or plates of copper, wbich are all mixed together in a vessel heated by steam or otherwise, tbe heat being kept up until the sulphur and copper are thoroughly dissolved. In another vessel, heated in like manner as aforesaid, Is mixed tallow in the proportion of ;{-wt. to lJcwt of resin or resin oil, and the heat Is to be kept up until the mixture Is well liquefied. The two mixtures thus separately prepared are to be mixed together and thoroughly amalgamated by agitation In tho heating vessels.

I would have every one write what he knows, and as much as he knows, but no more; and that not In this only, but In all other subjects: Fer such a person may have some particular knowledge and experience of the nature of such a person or such a loontain, that, as to other things, knows ne more the» what everybody does and yet to keep a elutter writes this little pittance of his, will undertake to write the whole body of physlcks: a vice freni waenee great inconveniences derive their original. —MontaijrM'* Euau*.


Sib,—"J.T." p. 040 says: "It requires at leñateo* (meaning. I assume a 61n) refractor to see the Satellitesof Uranus." Will he kindly tell ine where there is m 7tu. In England which will show the two brighter ones; or an Sin. that will exhibit all four of thee» Moons? The possessors of such Instruments should. If they be readers of The Esclihh Mechanic, In the interests of science publish the names and addresses of their makers In your columns.

In answer to "Jupiter," (21-30), p. 042, the cheapest form of Equatoreal wirh which 1 am acquainted! is the invention of a Mr. Vallance, and Is described witbv engravings, at p. 394 of your second volume, INo. 52). A much more elaborate one is figured on p 284, Vol. 8 of Tbe English Mkchanic, (no l'JJ); and thlav latter possesses tbe advantage of sdjustability to differeut latitudes; or is of the form known as the"universal equatoreal." The tripod staud shown in your engraving, though, should be carefully eschewed, as vibration, greater or less, will take place with the best possible wooden legged support. A brick or stone pier Is the only legitimate one. Home and Thornthwalte, the opticians, of Newgate-street, London, make a cheap and efficient mounting on thla principle. If, however, "Jupiter" seeks excellence ami not merely low cost, I have no hesitation in saying that the most perfect form of equatoreal extant 1* that of Cooke and Sons, of York. A Dallmeyer object glasson a Cooke mounting would be the very luxury o» observational astronomy.

I am unaware that I ever promised to do more than examine tbe region round about Mizarand Alcor. I am very certain that I never set myself the dreai and difficult task of gauging the mngnitsAol every point of light 1 might pick up. However, as amatter ef fact, the weather has been so wretchedly, bsd It the last month or two, as quite to put a stop to stargazing. If your correspondent will ensure me a night at once moonless and cloudless, and state Ш your columns fcr what data lie ha* secured it, 1 win devote that night to his Interests.

Apropm at the 3in. telocope which showed Jupiter 1 Satellites before sunset on the 26th of last February, I may observe that its definition must beremarksbly sharp, as muet also your correspondent's eye; ana further, that the air must havcb enexceptionally clear on the occasion to which be refeis. The Instrument of which he speaks could show P. larls (a 2nd raagnltune stari at;2 p.m. ou a sunny day, were the ai tolerably free from vapour, but thsn. as he knows, the Pole Staris In the least Illuminated part of tho sky. I «ouostlon extremely if he could pick up a 3rd niagntTude star in any portion of the Heavens under the> circumstances specified.

The " Irish Mechanic " (208), p. 660, will find that 2in. is the.minimum aperture of a telescope with which, he can hope to dJ any good whatever lu astronomie*» observation; and the range of this is very limitedIndeed.

"A Poor Lad " (2140), p. 21, «bould, by all moan», expend his £2 in tho purchase of a 5ln. speculum. Assuming it to be properly parabolised, It would и equal in separating power to au achromatic of tog snme aperture, i.e., would divide double stars 0*« apart; while, according to Browning's formula, it» light-grasping power would be equal to that of ai object glass of about 42in. In diameter. A 2}in. object glass could not possibly divorce anything closer than a pair of stars 2-'5 distant from t ach other, anda standard llth magnitude star would be its minimum, visible, while with a 5ln. speculum your correspondent would sec those of the 12 3 magnitude

"H. F." (2199), p. 22, should read Vols. VIII. aaoV IX. of the English Mechanic.

"Ethardo" (2221), same page, has only to push in the eye tube ofj any telescope sufficiently beyond Use point of adjustment for ordinary sight, to suit hi* own.

If " Neptnne " (1224), has been a subscriber to theEnglish Mechanic for any length of time, he must know that I have, over nnd over again, declined resolve Equations, or, In fact, to execute any merely mechanical computation, or "do sums" in any shape or way. But, even if I made an exception In hi» favour, I could not do It wl'.h the data which be gives. There is not a single syllable about the refractivo or dispersive indices of the crow» end flint ? lasses that he proposes to use. The sole item of inormation is confined totbe assertion that be means te> use a crown lens ol 6ft. Win. focal length. Now. if he> has got hold of two of Chance's discs of glass, of which» the dispersive powers »re, probably, somewhere about -055 for the flint, and -ОЭ9 for the crown, I do not see

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ordered to make a map of London from them ; and
whether he would he contented with them en the
ground that tbey might possibly be useful in ao re-
mote a contingency? ,

There is a popular superstition that the materials
forthe useol thecomputers of the "Nautical Almanac
are supplied by the Koyal Observatory at Greenwich.
Is the theory of the Jovian System beneath the nolle,
of that August Establishment; or do the Heads of t
consider that(»o the servaats say) "it !» net their
Place " to help to r.move, what I must persist in
considering to be. ablet from our National knliem.rla?
I fear that We have bare only another lllu«tratlon
ot the truth of t»e old pr.verb, that, " What la every-
body's bu«lnes«,is nobody's business."

I suspect however, that, after all. It Is merely
a question of money. Tables are a.m.what .ostly,
and until publtc optelon is hroueht to bear very
much more directly upon the beaa. »f the Stat,
than It 1s now, there will always be great diffi-
culty In getting pecuniary aid from the Exchequer-
for anything, the us. of which doea noi appeal
Immtdfately to thejofflclal mind. As far as the
Immediate object of this dlton.»lon Is concerned,
though the abolition of a single embassy to one or
th. beggarly Hula German Courts would pay for the
tables Wndwl at once. Th. first year's salaries of
th. hangers on who Idle there at the Public
Cost would more than suffice to secure us trustworthy
data'to eliminate a glaring disfigurement from what
is,otherwise, a perfect marvel ef aeeuraey.
A Fellow Of The Rotal As-rlWfrOincAt. Society.

the subject, from some good treatise, such aa " Her— schel on the Telescope p" as his queationa at present evidently show he needs more information than spaco will permit in the pages of the Mi c Ham... for although four words would suffice to answi r his qneotloha, I fenr the lniermation would not be of much

... r w c tO him. W. rcBKISB. _

THE SUPPO 8ED PLANET, YULOAN. Sib.—Some or yonr readers may be interested in learning that another systematic search for the auspeeu <! Intra-mercurlal 'plaint, Yulcan. commenced, on March 20. Thire will he about twenty-five gentlemen engaged in the affair, mnny ofwhumarelnthepoaeesslnn oi very powerful telescope.. The observation, will extend over the period fr»m March 20 to April 10. During this time the solar diacs will be continually under observation when risible. Th. following are the names of observere, together with a descriptionof the telescope, employed and the times of observation :—

Srn,—Many thanks to Mr. Praetor and "V.R.A.S.,"
for their answers to my question on the above subject,
and particularly toMr Denning, whose concise atifl ap-
propriate letter (page 043), is all that could bo desired.
1 regrot that I eann.t aay so much for Mr. Grover'a
letter con the aame psgei, and had he given the same
attention to my remark, that he supposes I have
failed to give to Mr. Browning'a remarks in the
Student. Mr. G 'a letter might have been more to
the point; as It is, he makes the question (If I under-
stand him rightly) a question of cAromaficiiy, instead
of one of nlatirt luminoriiy. In my letter 1 purposely
avoided the word cofour, to prevent mUcouceptlon,
but aa Mr. Grover'a letter la almost exclusively on
colour, it falls, so far. to touch the Lest, how-
ever his remarks should be considered by some of yonr
readers to be a satisfactory a.swer to the question In
hand, I cannot allow them to pass unnoticed. In the
first place, there can bo no doubt that large apertures,
combined with high powers, are necessary to bring out
delicate gradations of colour or chromatlcity -, but the


BVr,—The following table will probably meet the requlrementa of Mr. A.J. Smart (SOW) p. 642.

•' lenorance, Madam, pure ignorance. Slay mSwedto vindicate myself in the same way with reference to the eba.gc brought against me on p. rv E'eTMomicron"of Joking at his expense? D Arrest ., ionret I did know, the name of the computer of It. XDhVm.rto 1 did not know. I was thankful to »f.mTMron" for the offer of what I know would be B.eiul to a considerable number of observers, and I Jo^lc 'what 1 believed to be; hi. apeUing on trust.

ifTrAC ifUr hl'Ary>«-*

It It will afford Mr. Proctor the very smallest satisfaction 1 will confrisibat I think it extremelyllkely that I was wrong In mv coajecture aetothe possible node ofacfioaef an object (.-lass of large aperture In rendering 5«lar detail visible ; but at the same lime I must as.trre blm that It was not to escape making this admission that I terminated the discussion. as far as I was concerned. To render myself amenable to the charge of ceasing to argue when I find argument going against me, I ought, as It seems to me, to continue to arras when I am on the winning side; win raft ■ it is noiorloua te every one of my brother readers oi the Shclish Mechanic, that 1 have eschewed discussion *'• mifio on every moot point whatever. I have In the outset aaid my aay, and if ever a second letter from me has appeared on the same subject, it has been merely explanatory, or to remove some misconception 4>f my meaning. 1 suppose that there are very few ■men of science who would value, or defer to, Mr. Froetor'a opii.ion more than 1 should j but even tmch deference and appreciation would not prompt me to crumple np a polemical pewter pot merely that I

ml^ht flgnrc among Mr. Proctor's "strong meiK" \£m„7j; I "imagine, doea not apply lo the broad

Bellow or The Royal Astronomical Society. mi "^ rf. ^w ^ >hadf Al an fnltlince 0I th,8i i

may mention that when using a Sin refractor, by
Wray. simultaneously with my Bin. reflector, the dark
bells have appeared much darker with 3ln. than with
91n. aperture, notwithstanding the advantage which
tie reflector possessed over the other in point of defi-
nition, and a precisely similar effsct was produced by
diminishing the aperture of the mirror. Just in pro-
portion aa this diluted the brilliancy of the bright
belts, so it rendered the dark belts still darker, and
thus the same relative contrast between the light
and dark belts remuined unchanged, whatever aper-
ture was used; and more than this, when the air baa
been unsteady, I have always found tho belts more

fiositive and conspicuous with a small, than with a
arge aperture. I canaot quite agree with Mr.
Grover'a opinion that no pigments or materials with
which we are acquainted can be made to accurately
represent the differences which do exist: and yet he
has Jnat admitted that "Mr. Browning's drawing Is
too vivid In colour." Perhaps Mr. Grover can throw
a little more light upon this apparent paradox. In the
meanwhile, my humble opinion is, that at the period at
which Mr. Browning'a drawisg was taken, Jupiter
appeared even more vivid than the engraving in the
Student, and 1 cannot.f or my own part, scetho slightest
difficulty In finding pigments that would have exactly
expressed thia brilliancy, without the heaviness and
opacity which now exist in the engraving, and which
fault, I cannot but think, Is more the result of acci-
dent than of any error In tho ori^inaJ drawing. Again,
the final paragraph In Mr. Grover's letter will not bear
criticism, for if delicate gradation of shade require to
be Bo muoh exaggerated to give sufficient Intensity to
the lights, how Is it that artists are able to give in a
painting the relative degrees of light, shade, and per-
spective to tho clouds of a summer skv, and yet pre-
serve throughout such a gl.wlng luminosity as to far
exceed .the brightest tints of the landscape? Unfor-
tunately for the science of aBtrouomy, It would seem
that but few skilful draughtsmen enlist their talents
in her service, and so diflicultles aro made of things
which ought to be comparatively easy; If, however,
we are yet to gain any further knowledge of the phy-
sical constitution of these remote worlds, it can quly
be by scrupulous accuracy iu observation, dcllaeation,
and description, and anything emanating from so
good an authority as Mr. Browning certainly deserves
criticism, and that is far more than can be said of the
miserable atteaupta at planetary drawing which too
often find their way into public journals and treatises
on astronomy. .

In answer to the question by " Iota (page Zi). I

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With reference to the request of " T. A." on p. 068,1
must regret toy Inability to make even a guess worth
listening lo, as to the reason why the more refrangible
frays ot the spectrum are absent at times from the
light ot the sky. 1 have myself noticed when photo-
graphing, that the time of exposure which sufficed ok
one day was wholly Insufficient on another; but, In-
asmuch as this deficiency of actinism seems te follow
no law, 1 was always content to recognise it aa a fact,
without attempting to account for It.
•A Fellow or The Kotal Abtkonohicax Society.


8r»,—I freely admit, in limine, the correctne-B of «he ase.rtion of" W. E. P.," p. 14, that, " It is the duty «f computers attached lo that (the "Nautical Almanac') establishment to uae, and not to form tables." The Superintendent ef the "Nautical Almanac,"as such. IB by no means bound to make his own. All he h as to do is to aee that the compu'atlonB executed by the aid ot thoae supplied to him are correct; and that Mr, Biud this, and doea It with the very utmost efficiency, no one la readier to allow than lam. . The question, however, 1b a little wider than this. 8wely your correspondent does not mean to contend that a mass of observation, of Jupiter's Satellites has not accumulated which wonld hare sufficed, a long time since, to have formed tho basts of tew and improved tables f Suppose that a man had, In the year ISM, gone up the top of S. Paul's Cathedral In Lon4ou, and had taken a aeries of horizontal angles sub«ended by the various visible church spires. Suppose, .further, that year after year he published his results to the decimal of a second of aro, admitting oandidly Kll the time that his theodolite Was Bo abominably ■centered and badly divided that it could not be depended upon to read within 3 degrees 1 Assuming mots, I say, should We not bo a little disposed to laugh »t our hypothetical observer, when, In this Year of <irace 1870, he defended the publication of ouch admittedly erroneous results on the ground that they (night some day prove of the greatest use, in correcting the theory of Instrumental construction and ad| astments? I wonder what Sir Henry James would »»y if be were restricted to anoh materials and

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Th ere are several gentlemen who intend making •olar observations at Irregular times. These include J. Birmingham, Tuam; Henry Tratt, Brighton j Edmund Kelson, London; Cm. H. Chichester, Fartown, Huddenfield; H. M. Whlttcy, Penarth; and A W. Blacklock, of Manchester.

Should a transit of tho euspected planet occur, the position of ita path across iho solar disc, the time occupied in the transit, and its apparent diameter will be carefully noted. If the observer possess micrometric apparatus, measures of its position on the disc will also be made.

The fact that the period of maximum frequency of the solar spots has arrived -will give additional Interest to the observations. I will duly report to you particulars of the result.

William F. Denning, Hon. See. Observing
Astronomical Society.


Sir.—With reference to Mr. Denroy, I cannot help thinking that his friend's illness wns not can»edby the composition on the back of the stamps, which consists only of dextrine, or starch-gum ; and so far from being unwholesome, is actually nutritions. It Is far more likely to have been caused by some *»f the red colouring matter, which so easily comes off. In wetting a quantity of stamps, some portion, more or less, would

firobably he swallowed. By the way, do you suppose t Is generally known that peony and twopenny stamps cost more to print than the higher-priced and more elegant varieties, the former being copper-plate printed and the latter surface printed. This seema a curious anomaly. Let me thank several who have answered queries of mine lately, and congratulate you on the improved form of our Mechanic. A. S. C.

may tell him the announcement by Mr. Wrayas to
the separation of the close pair y> Andromeda, by Mr.
Buckingham's refractor, was made in 1 he "Astrono-
mical Register " for September. 1867 (rage 2»li, and aa
he speaks of the glass being "Just finished, the obser-
vation referred to must then have been quite recent.
The central distance between tho components of this
pair is commonly estimated at half a second. 1 he
late Mr. Dawes' measure in 1803, was 0*-59 ; most 00-
oervers agree as to its being rather over half a second,
although Mr. Browning, in his "Plea," says it Is
under half n second. Al any rate, the discrepancies
arc not great. I believe tho two stars still keep about
the samo distance, no widening having been as yet oo-

B0Wita regard to Andrew Johnaon'B inquiries on page fusion."' H ••' Hugo"" wlli'kTnuiy waft a little, he .ball
21,1 should recommend him to read a little more on | have my Ideas upon algebra. L. H. w. B.


Sir,—"Hugo" rightly complains of my slip in not putting signs, but he has In tho latter part of his letter overlooked the fact tlint I have noi taken the square root, or why do I use the sign *J ?Asan excuse for carelessness I must plead Illness. I Bent a solution to the problem without revision, as I could scarcely bear to look at a paper, and hence this con

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Sir,—I am a miller of 24 years' standing, and do not remember that I ever met with a scientific correspondence between men of my trade until I saw it In your Mechanic.

With your permission I will make a few remarks on aome of the assertions of your " dusty " correspondents. I am not too old to learn, and if I get hold oí an idea that is erroneous I am thankful for correction.

J. Sharp says, in No. 258: "As to stones working well when out of standing balance, it only proras the stones are in running balance." 1 :i.-k him kindly to explain, as I have a i о ion that If the face of a pair of stones Is true, the bedstone level, the driving irons and pitch of cogs of both driver and pinion correct, a standing and running balance are the same. My stones are balanced by Clarke and Durham's patent balance, and I have invariably found irons, face, &c.f correct, after I had given them a perfect standing balance; the running balance was exactly the same. This I prove not only with a twig or chip, but I place a gas jet on one slue of the stones when running, and go on the opposite side and look between them, when if there is the slightest variation in the face it may be seen.

But I have one pair of stones on faulty universal irons, and on them I find a standing and running balanceare not the same; from which I infer that if the above conditions are observed, a standing balance will suffice. A boy's top, when not truly turned, or with a crooked peg, would scarcely spin upright.

If my memory does not deceive me, I saw, about ten years since, an advertisement of the *' patent balance," and to me it conveyed the idea that millers were at a loss to account for their tstoues dragging when at work, and the "patent balance " proteased to remove the evil. It fs true many millers cannot account for it, looking only to the face of the stones for the cause, and lurgetting Irons, level, cogs, <Vc. Thi* has often come under my notice, and surprised me. Vf hen I first saw the above advertisement, I said, " If a stone will balance standing, it will running," and I am still of the same opinion, aftei seven years* experience with the " pntent balance."

Probably "Cumberland Juhu" may glean a hint fram the above.

With reference to Mr Lomax's " Improvements in Driving Millstones " (No. 259), I cannot help but think it must bo a great nuisance when takiugoutof or putting into gear the stones. I thonght the fly-wheel was intended to keep the engine steady: if not, millers should take tbe hint, and take care their engine has two cylinders. "Prevention Is better than cure."

A Stoheuav.

Sir,—In answer to G. Scott's queries, I beg to ■ay that a pair of 4ft. French burr mill-stones (close), with 12 master furrows 2¿in. behind the centre, and two short furrows to each, ought to grind 16 stones per hour, golog at 130 revolutions per minute. But the quantity depends upon the quality and condition of the wheat, and whether ground " high "or "close," aud also If the exhaust is used. With reepect to the wire machine, there ought to be 8 brushes in a 20in. cylinder going at 400 per minute; but the number of brushes is only a question, of speed. I bad a wir« machine at work about ten years ago; it was 6ft. long by20ln. diameter, with в brushes ; it had 4in. to the foot fall (some machines have more); it made 4O0 revolutions per minuto, and dressed бнкв. of 20 stone each per hour. Tbere were only 34 sheets of wire for fine flour, the rest was covered for white, grey, and brown sharps; the bran went through the eud.

It Mr. Q. Soett is making Improvements in his mill,

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Under tho microscope it le seen to consist of oil globules of various sizes floating in a transparent fluid called terum or whey.

Its composition varies considerably, being Influenced by tho following circumstances :—The age and condition of the cow, the time and frequency of milking, the quality of the food eupplied, the housing, weather, лг. loto these details It is not necessary to enter. The average per centage composition of pure milk is as follows :—

Water 86, casein 5. butter Ц, sugar (lactose) 41, mineral matter 1. The specific gravity is 1*030.

In the above anal) sis the casein represente the "flush and force producer," and " force-producer«"

which develop heat and mechanical force in the system* consist of the butter and sugar.

Few artiales of consumption are more "doctored" than milk. The principal addition ie water, but a* this has the effect of giving a "sky-blue" tinge wui reducing its flavour, it is necessary to employ correctives in the shape of treacle or sugar for sweetening, salt for flavouring, and annatto for colouring.

Chalk, starch, sheep's brains, &c„ are said to be also used; but this Is very doubtful, as their presence weald be betrayed by their insolubility.

The adulteration with water is easily shown by the "Gravity Lactometer." This Is an instrument (Fig. 1> about 6in. long, and constructed to float at certain points, according to the quality of the milk. That the marking on the stem denotes as follows.—At W thelactometer floats ¡u water; at M in pare milk; at 3, 2.1, in milk containing respectively ont-fo*rthtone half, and three-fourths water.

Another mode of testing is by asceUalninç the quantity of cream yielded. Fig. 2 represents a gl**a tube about Hin. long, with a foot, aud with the two upper inches graduated. The tube is filled up to О with the suspected article, and placed aside for twelve hours. Tho percentage of cream can then be read off. Although the quantity of cream yielded by milk i» subject to much variation, yet we ou^ht not to be content with less than it» per cent, from good milk.

Both forms of " testers " can be purchased at a small cost of the operative chemists and opticians.

The detection of the other adulterants ia attended with some difficulty, and involves an acquaintance witli chemistry and the use of tbe microscope.



Sir,—Although "Scrutiny's" query regarding sailing vessels, p. 570,Vol. X.. waa answered by" Cape* Horn^'(page 633), yet I think I can offer a few remarks on ttie subject whtch may be of use, if not to "Scrutiny," yet to some of your young readers who> may have a nautical ambition, and find a difficulty such us " Scrutiny " complains of In his youoger days, in getting his " lugger " to behave herself on a wind. We muet not "despise the day of small things" in mechanics or nautical science any more than in rellgiou, and therefore I will try to help others who are following the path of inquiry as I have done, from sailing models in the Serpentine some forty years ago» to the handling of Her Majesty's ships of larger tonnage than "Cape Horn** speaks of, but in all of whtch the same principle is involved, viz., the centre of effort, due of course to the masting and rig еГ the vessel and trim of the sails set,- however correctly this problem may be solved theoretically when the vessel is upright, all is thrown out when tbe pressure of the wind causes the vessel to heel over, as "Scrutiny " observes, the curve of tbe lee bow beine increased while that at the weather bow is decreased at tho float line,oauslng the vessel to rn-h up into the wind and requiring, as *' Cape Horn "states, a good deal of weather helm to check and overcome; th Ы action of " griping " as it is termed, is common to ail rigs and all vessels, from a toy to a firetrate, and it t » the perfection of seamanship toso adjust tbe " centre of effort, or "trim" the sails and bull of the vessel as to reduce this action to the correct proportion ; a« it is evident that if allowed to exist In excess, the leverage of the rudder surface requtred to overcome/ its force will seriously retard the speed aud, in % storm, endaneer the wringing off the rudder head while, if it Is totally counteracted, so as to cause th w Teasel to carry (as it ia called by seamen} "a elude

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helm," there will be great loss of weatherly qualities and danger resulting from any sudden Increase of wind pressure which would strain the rigging aud sails, and tend to plunge or press the lee bow deeply into a sea

I cannot quite agree with my nautical brother * Cape Horn" iu bis opinion that *• the cause of vessels not steering straight depends greatly on their build." "No doubt such is the case to a certain degree, nnd the great nautical question still Is, What is the beat nliape lor a mailing vessel? but I maintain that the chief cause of bad steering In any vessel properly loaded to her proper displacement is, first, being "oat of trim/* according to her lines or shape, and. secondly, to the sails being not trimmed to the proper angle, <>r judiciously distributed.

The first Is of most Importance in sailing before tho wind and on a wind.

The second is of most fmporfance on a wind and least before the wind. In large voxels it is the pride of her commander and crew to obtain the perfect trim of the sails, while it is the naval architect's pride to calculate correctly what should be the proper trim of the hull, and when these are happily combined a beautiful result is produced, for a full rigged ship in full sail upon a rvind " is a thing to admire." In sailing models, however, it is far different, as there Is no one on boixd the little craft to attend to these points; and though it may appear childish to take up your Tabled space with such a subject. I maintain that it Is not so. lor the skill of the lad in sailing his little home-made model Is really valuable experience, and may become the means of making him a good seaman In after life, and thus maintain our national fame and prosperity. I would therefore ask you, If possible, to allow me to say a few wordB upon 'Model Ve**el«,"for the benefit of some of yonryonoger subscribers and readers, one of whom asked a question on the subject some time back. All models for actual sailing should be rigged in what is called fore and aft rig-, and have Do square sails, so that should they by accident get on " the other tack," they may not become "hove to," as "Scrutiny" evidently describes from painful experience. Fore and aft rigs require the place of the mast or masts to he very correctly fixed, or they will never sail well; this can be very easily found by floating the model properly ballasted, so as to trim by the stern considerably in some still pood, and there with a slight loDg stick posh against her side till the point is found where she will be pushed bodily away. The mast must be placed on a line with that point, or if two masts, equally distant from that line, and the head sails and bowsprit Blade considerably larger than the proper proportion hi large vessels. The rudder must be fixed in tho middle or amidships, and never moved. The whole attention of the young sailor being directed to the trim of the satis, by which the proper direction to the little craft's course can be obtained to a degree of wonderful accuracy, so that she cau be made to run with the wind, or beam, or " close hauled," at pleasure. It Is not so easy to make models sail more off the wind than ■ a beam," and totally impossible to get them to sail "he fore the wind," which should never be the ambition of a British sailor, any more than it Is that of the British soldier to retreat before an enemy. Many a valuable experiment has been solved by aid of the little sailing model, and i: has often been adelight to me to watch the pretty little craft dancing over the mimic waves In our parks, as it has been to see my ship gallantly breasting the mountain billows of the ocean. Ihe Ancient Mariner,

PARABOLISING SPECULA. But,—I trust that Mr. Furklis will pardon my

replying to a question addressed to him, but which seems to have escaped his notice.

"Novice," p 607. Vol. X, states correctly enoueh that the process of parabollalus; a mirror is usually described as flattening the edge, but that the method described by Mr. Furkias seems to be deepening the centre. The accompanying diagram may perhaps make this matter clear to your correspondent. 1 may inentioa that n precisely similar qu**tlou was recently addressed to me privately by a friend, so that probably the reply will be useful to other readers of the English Mechanic as well as " Novice."

Let A B represent a neeti«n of a speculum of spherical curvature, and let C D, C D, und K F, E F represent parallel rays of light falling upon its concave surface. The rays C D, C h, winch fall near the margin, will have their focus at G, while the rays E F, K F, which fall near the centre, will have their locus at II, farther away from the speculum than G, The process ol parabolisatiou bos for iu object to cause all parallel rays to come to a focus at one point, and In the Instance before us this may be accomplished in two ways. We may work the polisher so us to act more upon the marginal than upon the central parts of the speculum, thereby flattening the edge and lengthening' its focus, or, in other words, bringing out G to H\ or we may


cause the polisher to act more energetically upon the central parts than upon the margin, thereby shortening the locus of the central parts and bringing back H to G. In practice this method, which was introduced by the Kev. H. Cooper Key, is found to be the most certain to produce the required result.

F.8— It seems to me that Mr. Purkiss Is wrong In placing the adjusting screws inside the cell, where he cannot get at them without pulling the whole affair to pieces. Tin-* arrangement makes it impossible to perfect the adjustment under the eye.

AiiTiuii W. Rlacklock, Newbridge,
Uardgate, Aberdeen.

SEA SICKNESS. Sin,—You lately gave a description of Mr. Bessemer's invention tor preventing sea sickness. I understand that a model has been constructed which is stated to work admirably; but I believe this is like many other Inventions, which work well as models, bur are quite useless when carried out OH a large scale. It is well known that the compass always preserves its level position, although it moves up and down and laterally with the heaving and rolling of the vessel; and it would be precisely the same with Mr. BeBsemer's cabin. He seems also to have forgotten that the centre of gravity of the vessel, which is the point of least motion (on which the cabin is to be suspended), alters with every ton of goods shipped or unshipped,

every ton of coals consumed, and also with the pressure of the wind on the sides ol the vessel ; consequently his cubiu would not prevent sea sickness. The vertical motion of the vessel is the chief cause of sea sickness, which cannot be prevented until something is Invented to avoid this mutiou. T. W. Cowan, C.E., l'h.D.

SELF-CENTERING CHUCK. Sir,—" Marine" is in error in saying that u A. B." has put a left-handed screw Into his chuck on p. G31V vol. A. It ts aright* banded screw, and is quite correctly drawn. I know ol a machine with a screw on each end of the mandrel, and the chucks have to be righthanded at one end and left at the other. J. K 1'.


Sir,—I send you a cutting from a local paper, giving Uij account of a road steamer, which, if all that is said about it bo true,cannot be too well known. I think 1 have not seen it mentioned in our Mechanic*, therefore, I send you this clipping, which you may think worth reproducing. T. T. M.

Mechanical skill hat for many years past been engaged in trying to make our great servant steam work upon common roads. Two radical difficulties, however, baffled the ingenuity and zeal brought to* bear upon the problem. Ponderous traction-engines were built on various plans, but always with theresuit that the shocks experienced in running over hard roads occasioned coutluual breakages iu the maehiucry. But now the two difficulties have been overcome by the invention of the road steamer. The road steamer can run on any kind of road. It runs over hard roads and paved streets without jolting, over soft roads without sinking, over muddy roads without slipping; nay, it needs no road at all, for it can run with equal ease over grass fields, through ploughed fields, upon ice, through loose sand, and over frozen snow. Though small aud light itself, la climbs the severest gradients and draws euormous> loads. It owes all its faculties and its exemption from the disabilities of other traction-engines to one device, as simple as it is efficacious. The wheels, which are of great width, arc surrounded by tires of vulcanised india-rubber. These thick ba» ds of indiarubber enable the road steamer to float over the surfnco of the ground without the slightest damage to> the road, while they likewise protect the mrcbiuery from all concussion. The intervention of the elastic tiros between the wheel and the road aets, in fact, in tho same way aB if the engine were running over a tramway of indiarubber. Mr. R. W. Thomson, C.E., of Edinburgh, the inventor of the road steamer, having experienced much annoyance from the defects of traction-engines, and iiudi'ug none able to do worlt for which Tie required them, conceived and carried out the idea of providing the wheels of astcam-engiue to run on common roads with india-rubber tires of immense thickness. When the first patent rood steamer was tried, some two years ago, its success was complete, and far exceeded the expectations and hopes of the inventor. Since then he has been engaged in building numbers of these engiues to send to all parts of tho world, and the record of some of their performances, iu the presence of engineers, agriculturists, and other practical men, will doubtless be found interesting. A three-horse power engiue drew a boiler weighing 13 tons up an incline of 1 in 12, the grouLd being so slippery at the time from frost that horses could not keep their feet. The engine was run through a grass field without leaving a track, ana again through afield covered to a depth of two feet

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