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too high, and consequently dangerous, und this high pressure may vary from loz. to 6001b on the square inch.—J. H.

[4030.]— HEAD INSCRIPTIONS ON STONE—The letters are cut deeply, and with the Hides as square as possible (tho plainer the letters the better) then a strip of cold lead, a little larger than tho size required, is laid in, and hammered with a wooden mallet till the incised space is perfectly tilled (the hammering requires much care). The surplus lead is then scraped away, loaving the surface quite smooth.—W. H. A.

[4033.]—SLIDE REST.—I called "J. D. L.'s" attention to my letter of October 15, last year, correcting the description given by "Levers ur no Lovers," of the way of making a worm-wheel; and since that " W. H. N." has given a method in answer to the same correspondent, which is more faulty still than the first. I can say "proved" U my directions, As 1 have made many for single threads, and one for double, and one for triple thread, and I kuow, from having failed without in my first trial, that the notches must be first cut in with a circular cutter in the dividing machine, in order to ensure having tho desired number, before they can bo finished with tho hob or tap, and I am perfectly sure that any one who has tried to do without will say tho same. The reason is this :—Say vou want a wheel of 120 teeth to work with a screw of -15i"n. pitch or 6j( threads to an inch, as is the case in my dividing apparatus. This will require the circumference of the wheel to be 181n. at half the dopth of the teeth, at which point the diameter will bo rather less than 5lin. Now for the total diameter of wheel, we must add the depth of tooth —viz., half on each side, which in this case is (say) |in. full, making tho total diameter (sav)5Jin. exactly,andthe circumlereuce over all will be l8--i57in., giving room for rather over 123 spaces of 15in. each ; so that if we started cutting as "W. H. N." proposes, we should get 128 teeth instead of the 120 that we required—to say nothing of the fact that the teeth would be ont of all" shape, from tho job being commenced with a tap suitable enough for 128 teeth, but not coarse enough by ]-40th of its own pitch for making 120 teeth on that particular diameter. Proved.—J. K. P.

[4034.]—BOAT STEERING.—The power will be increased exactly in proportion to the extra length given to the arms of the yoke.—J. B.

[4040].—WHEEL GEARING—Bevelled wheels to run well must bo cross sections of two cones, whoso axes are tho axes of their respective shafts, and the apices of the cones therefore at the point where these axes cut each othor. One of these cones being given there can be but one of which the side under these conditions will exactly touch through its whole length tho side of the given cone. And therefore there can bo only one bevelled whoel which will gear properly with a given wheel on the same shafts. Both wheels must be therefore changed to give altered speed.—J. B.

[4054.] —MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION WITH POLARIZED LIGHT.—If " H. P. " will, with your permission, kindly give his promised hints, I am sure they will be highly acceptable to many of vour readers, as well as to myself. Muspratt calls acetic"acid " the banc of the brewery ;" and a ready method of watching this intruder and instantly detecting his presence would be valuable to me and many of my '• great posterity." Acetic acid is specially mentiuued {Circle of the Science*. p. 85) as a polarising substance. Perhaps " H. P." would kindly give a handy chemical test for its presence and strength. I find the microscope very valuable, and have ordered a polariscope.—John Barleycobs.

14071.]— DRAUGHT IN BOILER.—Open up the flue running into the chimney and clean all out thoroughly— the larger these flues are the better—aud govern the draught by the damper. Will find there is nothing the matter with the boiler in making bad draughts.—J.H.

[4075.]— SOLDERING SOFT METAL.—For soldering soft metal use bismuth, 8 parts; tin, 8 parts ; lead, 5 parts. A little mercury will make this more fusible, addition of tin less so.—J. B.

[4077.]—WATER ANALYSIS.—" Aqua" I think expects too much of the volumetric system of analysis. If he will give the names of the solutions obtained from Messrs. Griffin & Sous, I may perhaps be able to answer this first part of his query. He must not expect to be able to estimate the organic nitrogen, carbon, the nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, and ulhuminoid constituents by nsing litrated solutions; the nearest approach to wnat he requires is Wanklyn's process, which is scarcely more than a series of ammonia determinations. For full details of this I refer " Aqua " to " Water Analysis," by E. T. Chapman, 5s. (Triibner), or if he particularly

wishes it, I will give an outline of the process George

E. Davis.

[4083].—CLEANING WHITE CORAL.—Muriatic acid diluted with four times its weight of wator will answer the purpose. He must let the coral remain in the solution and watch the effect till satisfactory, then wash well in clean water.—An Old Reader Of Tbe MeChanic.

[4083.]— CLEANING WHITE CORAL.-Place tho coral in a running stream for a week or ten days, turning it once or twice to let the stream impinge on the different sides.—J. B.

[4084.1—COMETS.—In reply to the query of - W. R." the following may be interesting:—The comet expected by astronomers is known as D'Arrest's; it has not, t believe, been detected yet. Mr. John Birmingham, of Tuam, and Mr. George J. Walker, of Teignmonth, have hoth made repeated observations for the re-discovery of the comet, but thoy have not been successful in their efforts. The position of the comet on the 29th inst. is predicted to be RA, 15h. 27m. 52s. and NPD 77J 59'. On this date it should therefore be situated a little to the north-east of the star Delta in Serpens. The comet, if visible, certainly cannot be seen with the naked eye but only with the assistance of the most powerful telescopes' The comet recently discovered by Dr. Winneckc, is unfavourably situated for observation. — William F. Denning, Hon. Sec. O.A.8.

[4085.]— PERRY'S MICROSCOPE.—" Salopian" is informed that the distance between the lens and object glass is Jin. The microscope can be had for 80 stamps from the maker, E. Perry, Sherbourne-road, Birmingham. (Seeadvt.)

[4087.]—GLASS PAINTING. — I herewith furnish "Sable" with browns aud blue. For brown use flux,

which is formed thus: glassof lead, lib.; pearl ashes,6oz.; borax, 4oz.; arsenic, loz. This mixture, treated like tho one given in No. 12, p. 28fi, prodnces a very soft flux, with a strong vitrifying power. Glass of antimony (black). By the mixture of tho red and yellow as given (p. 286), a great many browns may be produced. Blue: to the above flux add a sixth or au eighth part of ultramarine, and keep it in fusion till the ultramarine vitrifies. To darken the colour without increasing the quantity of ultramarine, zaffre fluxed with borax may be employed. A deep and very good blue may be prepared by zaffre, 1 part to 4 parts of either flux with a little borax. Vitrify the mixturo in a strong fire, and prepare it for use by levigation. A strong body of this colour will give the effect of blackness. For a weaker blue, the quantity of zaffre must be diminished. As I do not know where "Sable " resides, I cannot say where he can get them, only at any respectable chemist's.—D. F. Ashton.

[4087.]—RAILWAY GUARD'S WATCH.—A good English " frame " lever is the best watch anvoue can have for keeping time; the "three-quarter plate,"'though more expensive, does not go better, and anrthing worth having will cost £5 and £6. Persons who do not mind going to a little more expense to be Huro of a good watch, and always perfect time, can get one with a compensation balance, rated, for £n to £'12. Thoso are all in Bilver cases; they can be had in gold for about £6 more. I do not enclose a diagram, as it would be impossible for any one not acquainted with watches to toll a good from a bad one. The holes absolutely necessary to be jewelled are five in number—both the balance holes, always jewelled in every watch, both the 'scape wheel holes, and one fourth wheel, or seconds hole. It is a mistake to go to a jeweller's or silversmith's either to buy or to have a watch repaired, especially a person to whom money is an object. I speak to those who wish to possess, and to those who value, a good watch, and with no intention to injure anyone. Tho reason is obvious, it takes at least ten years at the bench to become a good workman, not a thorough one. The less jewellery in a watchmaker's "show" the better the workman, and I may as well include Dutch and American clocks, and cheap watches in the same category. Not that good watch-makers do not keep such things, but because they will rather be found inside the shop, or perhaps hidden quite out of sight. They are acknowledged only to prevent tho loss of a sale or a possible customer. It is needless to say these remarks apply only to London and tho larger towns. In the country watchmakers aro everything,—" umbrellas to nieud," teapots, and even opticians.—Nobody.

[4005.—SILVER COIN.—I made a mistake in reading on the sketch KAROLUS REX. FR.. Mr. H. W. Henfrey is quite right reading RICARDUS REX—Bernardin.

[4113.]—PHOSPHATE OF LIME—This valuable substance is used to a large extent as u manure: is kuown also as "coprolites," and is found in the tertiary beds of mou>.tainous districts, such as Norfolk "Crag; but before using, it is usual to purify it by tho addition of sulphuric acid, which liberates a portion of the phosphoric acid—under the influence of which part of the bone-earth is rendered in the form of tolerably pure superphosphate of lime. Tho use of this as a manure is to keep up the supply of mineral matter in the plants. If these mineral bodies be present in the ground in small quantities, and if frosh crops be continually carried off without provision for the return of matter so removed, the land will, in process of time, become exhausted, and sterility will be the inevitable result. It is now well known to tho practical farmer that the superphosphate, when drilled in judiciously with the turnip seed, stimulates the growth of the plant in the earliest and most critical stage of its existence, and in this manner secures a far more abundant return than when the supply is omitted. Phosphate of lime is used also in medicine, and is obtained chemically pure bvthe following process:—burnt bone or animal charcoal is put into largo pans, and hydrochloric acid is added in the proportion of about 15 gallons for even- cut. of charcoal employed, then the pans are filled" up with waterand stirred daily for about a week; the charcoalis then allowed to settle and the liquid drawn off into a suitable vessel, and common soda is added, until it no longer occasions a precipitate; this is allowed to settle. The liquid, which is a solution of chloride of soda or common salt, is drawn off and the precipitate repeatedly washed with water, until the presence of hydrochloric acid cannot be detected by nitrate of silver'; it is then strained to free it from the water as much as possible, pressed and dried, and is then ready for the market. The charcoal whioh is left in the pans furnishes (after washing) animal charcoal—pure for organic analvsis. Phosphate of lime is taken as a medicine principally in the form of "syrup of the hypophosphites," and is used where disintegration of the human frame exists.— A. E. Tuckeb.

[4114.]— METRICAL ACT.—Not having the statutes at hand I cannot speak with ccrtaintv, but I think that the Metrical Act passed in 1864 or 1865. Iu reply however to " Inquirer" and to "Blacksmith " (page '831), I give the subjoined tables of equivalents between French and English weights and measures from the "Engineer's Pocket Book ": —

Measures of Capacity.

LitTM 1 ~ l'?60778 pint.
"lre ( = 0-22O0967 gaUou.
Decalitre = 2-2009B68 gal.
Hectolitre = 22009668 gal.


Gramme = 15483 grains
Do. = 0-643 dwt.
Kilogramme = 2-679 lb.
Do. = 3-205 lb.


Measures of Length.

Millimetre ^ 0-03987 in.
Centimetre = 0-893708 in.
Decimetre = 3-937079 in.

( = 3<l-!)7079 in. Metre J = 8-280M992 ft.

( = 1098633 yds. Kilometre = 1098-638 yds. Myriametre = 6-2138 miles

Superficial Measure.

Square J = 1196088 square
metre 1 yards.

Are = 0098845 rood.
Hectare = 2-471148 acres.

Any bookseller will procure from the Queen's printers a copy of tho Metrical Act, with table of statutory equivalents, for a shilling or less.—J. B.

[41150— TROPICAL FIBRES.—The book in question has for title "Tropical Fibres: their Production and Economic Extraction, byE. G. Squier, formerly Ministor of the United States Id Central America. London: Sam. Madden & Son, price 6s. I wrote to the firm, Sam. Madden & Son; but my letter returned with tho

words •' unknown." If I can get the book I wffl «n ,„ another number, sonio more particular, alwm (1 Bernardin. ~ "* iL~

[41160-AIR-STRUNG PUMP.-If "Coal Miae," .a take his pump out, ur rather the pipes that nrTinTi water he will find that the short Vipe, XahSw the blast hole piece, is what is called blast hoeSL? that is. all the holes, or nearly so,aremoreorle-< ,i ■ up with dirt, so that the water will not enterfii2TM to follow the bucket in its upward l^XV^. "Coal Miner" is not aware that when the bo"• deconds m the pump barrel, the greater part ol the ", S"C? UlS between ""= u»<*et»'»1 "lack isforccd thrr.uthe bucket valve, provided the clack is air-ti-ll-' consequently there is a partial vacuum or emptv «Z the atmospheric pressure pressing upon the top-id. , the bucket, so that if it is oulv a 3in. pump the, e i, ugi nearly, additional weight to" he lifted at each upili stroke of tho bucket. The blast hole piece is 5 short pipe, perforated with- a number of hole, at it! sides, with a wood plug driven into the bottom tn> Sometimes they are put in without a blast hole pi,..' with only a plain pipe open at the end instead. If tt blast holes are air-tight, the water will not ascend throw the clack sufficiently to counterbalance theatiuoapher.. pressure.—Bell Valve. "^

[41170-BULLION IRON CEMENT.-William HxU of.Kourue Brook, near Birmingham, cau supply "8.61; with the above.—Llah. »>».»

[4120.]-FLY PAPEBS—Sugar and water, in whM, bits of quassia bark are soaked is the best thine; to destroy house flies, as the bark is poison to them.-J. B

[41220-DISTILLED WATER.-" Moses" should a* an apparatus for distilling water similar to the cng:-avin"


aud of which the followin K is a description. A is a retort-stand, B a retort, and C is a tpiritkiup ot ani other convenient beating- apparalns, D i« * resse/ cuntaing a small spiral tube endbc in E. When in n»-. the beak of the retort B should be luted in the end ^ the spiral, and tho tube D ailed np with water, which should be frequently changed. The distilled water isdicharged at E.—Walter J. Nicholm.

[4122.]—DISTILLED WATER.-I1 "Mo*M" *»* any quantity of distilled water, he will 6ud the M saucepan of no use. The best plan is to drill a We to the top of the kitchen boiler and nx in It a gas pipecarry it through a cold water tank, if one is near, or a bucket, which he must keep filled, and he will And hiwants supplied without further trouble. He mQ^ arrange his pipe so that he has no lodgment ol water to it, and the highest point must J>e abote the tank.—M. W. G.

[4123.]—SOLDERING BRASS—Nothing better thnu Dr. Burnett's disinfecting fluid—(>., chloride of ziuc. —J. B.

T4123.] —SOLDERING.—I alwa vssolder liras^ with the ordinary flux (hydrochloric acid Killed with zinc); can give others if required.—Current.

[4120.] — DAMP WALL.—If the wall will not bold pasted damp-proof paper, tack it to the plaster and paste the ordinary paper upon It. The damp-proof paper cau be bought at the paper-hanger's.—Llah.

[4136.]—WALL PAPER.—Wash the wall before papering with two or three coats of shell or seed lac dissolved in naphtha or methylated spiri". till a slioht glaze appears on the face of the plaster showing that H will not absorb more.—J. B.

[41280— WATCH-MAKING— heg to Inform "Couvpeusating Balance" that the jewels are fixed Into watch plates by being fitted into brass settings of their own. and they are fitted into the plate, and kept in tleirplace by two or sometimes three small screws. I think tm it would lie a difficult thing for am- one to do, withTM the apparatus and the practice of a watch jeweller, wtu regard to the magnetic balance, I am sorry to say tn>' there is no cure but to put n new one, and also a ne» pendulum spring. I am not aware of any means oi destroying the magnetism of a piece of steel except t; making it red-hot, which of course would spoil a watcbalance.—Henry Chapman.

[41290—FISHERMAN'S NETS.—For garden, takf» hank of sallmaker's twine, rub about half an ounce » common fat on it, then dip it iu Stockholm tar, put «■* eud over a pin or nail, and put a stick through thei otK

Eart, and twist it until all the tar is squeezed out ol lint see that every part is coloured ; then ball it off »»■• as worsted, and fill your netting needle (this yon <*° make). Now stretch a piece of stout whipcord along'1 headline, same length as net required, and begin at in^ right hand, and work towards the left, forming a clovehitch with the twine round the cord, every inch for si^t of mesh (Fig. 1), then form a second tier of m*su'" passing the needle up through the last mesh, now toward the right hand, underneath, over, and under i«

[graphic][merged small]

net, the same as ships have worked round their " poop," made from stoat whip-cord or ratlin line. Put two iron bolts horizontal, as far apart as length <M net refiaired bearing in mind that when finished and seized into its proper place, it works up one loot in every ten, make one end of the lino fast to one of the bolts, and miss it over the other bolt, until you have got as many parts as width of net required—all this to be stretched perfectly tight, and all the parts close together. Take a rule and chalk, and mark the place for the seizings, or tvinos tying every alternate two with twine. Suppose vim wanted a net which when done, was to fill up a 3M6C 30ft long, by 'Min. wide, and the size of the diamonds to be 6in. by 3in., then the length between the bolts should be 33ft. and the number of parts of line on stretch nine, and the distance between chalk marks for seizings Sin.—W. W. Larkjn, Scarborough.

[41800— FERN CASE.—If the design is too heavy, cut the legs off level with the top of the box and screw into each a length of 3 iron gas pipe, and get alight metal rib made to go round the top, which can be screwed to the top ends of the tubing. The clumsiness depends on the style of work; mine is as light and elegant as a case a«eds to be.—T. Fletcher.

[4183.]— SIDEREAL TIME.—If " W. H. C." is in pos session of a transit instrument he will find little difficulty in setting his clock to exact sidereal time, and a# curtaining its performance. What he will have to do is to make It work Oh. Om. 0s. at the instant of the passage of the first point of Aries, or the intersection of the ecliptic and equator, over hiH meridian, and to ascert am whether it continues to do so or not day by day, and i f not what is the variation. The passage of the commencement of Aries itself does not admit of observation, «s there is nothing to mark its position in the heavens; bnt" W. H. C." will find in the " Nautical Almanac," or in ■ Dietricbsen and Hannay's Almanac," a list of stars whose right ascensions have by continual observation boe n very accurately determined, and as right ascension is nothing more than the distance in time from Aries,"he may observe one or other of these stars instead of that point. At the instant of the passage of the star chosen for observation over the middle wire of his transit, the time by the clock supposed to be going should show the right ascension o! the star. If it does not, the deck must be altered by the difference. He will no doubt have been able to set his clock so that this difference shall not be very Urge. After he has in this manner brought his clock into some accordance with the heavens, he may, by comparing the time which it gives with the right ascensions of several stars taken from the almanac, obtain a difference for each object, and the mean of those will give the difference on sidereal time for any instant, called the "clock error." The daily sidereal loss or gain, i.e. the "rate," may be ascertained by a comparison of the errors for different days. Having found the "clock error" and " rate," he may if he pleases correct his clock for both—for the first by moving the hands, and for the latter by the means provided for regulating it, but if they are small he will perhaps find it better not to alter the clock, but to allow for them as a correction. If " W. H. C." is not furnished with a transit instrument, he may perhaps contrive some substitute for it, such as the smooth edge of a board placed accurately perpendicular and at some distance due south of a small hole in a metal plate. With his eye at the hole he may observe the stars as they disappear behind the board, or, if he likes to arrange it so, as they pass from behind it.— Henry T. Vivian.

-STAINS IN CLOTH.—"H. A." can take the

[41340-stalns out of his cloth with liquid ammonia, by applying it to the red spot. A small quantity is sufficient.—J. M. [4184,]—STAINS IN CLOTH.—" H. A." can remove the red stains that he speaks of by ammonia or any other strong alkali, the object being to decompose the organic salt (sulphate of picrine, I believe) which is formed by the sulphuric acid combining with the materials'of the cloth.—A. E. Tucker.

[41370— BRAZING BAND SAWS.—" Subscriber" must bring the two ends of the saw close together and fasten them, then take a small pan of charcoal and place it under the endB, and then direct the flame of a blowpipe upon them. The ends will soon become red hot, when sprinkle some borax (powdered) upon them, and then add your solder with a piece of iron. The way to make the solder is to melt 3 parts of brass filings and 1 part of silver in a crucible, and this when poured out must be filed away and the filings put into a solution of sal ammoniac in water. Wheu wanted fur use this must be taken out with a piice of iron rod and laid on the ends of the saw until melted. When the ends are firmly united and quite cool yon may file off the superfluous solder. I do not know that this is the best way, but it is the way I have always seen it done.—F. W.

[4141.]—ELLIPSOGRAPH. — I have an instrument such as Thomas Smith wants, which I made in 1857, and sent a sketch of to the Engineer, on November 7th that year, and it appeared about a fortnight after in that paper. It is exactly suited to isometrical drawing, as there is only one adjustment—viz., an expanding crank for any sized ellipse up to 8 inches, so long as you donot require to alter the proportion between the axes, and you can strike the complete oval without moving the instrument. I have not time to make a drawing of it just now; it is rather troublesome and expensive to make.—J. K. P.

[4145.]— OIL VARNISH.—The best varnish for oil paintings is made of mastic and turpentine. Copal varnish is moro durable, bnt the mastic varnish is more commonly used, as it can be removed and renewed with less risvi to the picture. A warm dry atmosphere is absolutely necessary for the successful varnishing of a painting, which should be thoroughly dry to prevent any subsequent cracking.—Dig Am Ma.

[41460— BOOKS ON PRINTING.—A "Young Printer" will find Honghton'B "Printer's Practical EverydayBook" to answer his purpose best. It is a foolscap 8vo., of 150 pages, which makes it very convenient for the pocket; and considering the amount of really practical Information contained in it, 3s. 6d. is not too much for it. It may be had of the author, Lily Bank, Tulkethstreet, Southport. There is another, published by Mr. Crisp, of the Independent, Yarmouth, about the same price. If not already a subscriber, I would strongly advise him to send at once three stamps to 8, Bouvorie* street, London, E.C., for a specimen of the "Typographical Dictionary," ftt present issuing with the

"Printer's Register." It and the " Register " are only 2d. monthly; and the " Dictionary," when complete, cannot fail to be of the utmost service to all "Young Printers."—T. Johnson.

[4147.]—COIN OR MEDAL.—"Exergue's"coin is onethird of a farthing, coined for Malta in 1827.—Henry W. Henfrey, M.N.S., Ac.,

[41490—ELECTRICITY AND EPILEPSY.—It is exceedingly unlikely that electricity can do any good in this disease, nor can medicine do more except by attending to the general health. Epilepsy is either due to an organic defect in the brain, derived from ancestry, or in some cases to the formation of a "cyst" or parasitic inmate within the head; and in neither case can any direct influence be exerted: good food, proper air and exercise, and cleanliness, are the only agents.—Sissi A.

[4150.] —BOILER FEEDING.—" The Giffard Injector" is considered the best substitute for the force pump; detailed in our Mechanic, Vol. X., No. 240, Oct. 29, 1869.—J. H.

[41510—OKCHIS--The orchis described is moat likely "Orchis Fusca," which is larger than "Orchis Ustulata," but sometimes hardly distinguishable from it. —Treskixian.

[41530—COLOURING IRON WIRE.—" A. E. O " can colour his iron wire, which must be bright and clean, with green lacquer, by heating the wire on a stove and dipping it in, if it is in the bundle; if not, he could use a brush; he will find this give it the required brass colour. Pins are coloured by boiling them in tin shavings and cream of tartar in water, which gives them the white colour.—J. M.

[41540— STEEL PLATE.—" H. W. H. " must put his steel plate in quick lime, pounded very fine. This will keep it for many years if it is put in a dry place.—J. M. [4154.]—ENGRAVED STEEL PLATE.—The best plan for "H. W. H." to preserve his plate is to let the wax stop on it, and kcop it in a dry place.—Peter Pindar.

[4155.]— LANTERN LENS FOR PHOTOGRAPHY. —It is not only possible to use the same lens for

fortraiture and magic lantern, but easy to accomplish, am doing the same thing he wishes to do. First obtain the focal length of the lens, then place a picture in the lantern; with the rack-work move the inner fittings containing the lenses to the centre of the outer fitting, measure from the picture to the centre between the two lenses, the same distance as the focal length, make the nozzle of the lantern the i length to receive the lense at the distance just obtained. For price of lens see the sixpenny sale column.—W. H.

[41580— WATER PUMPS.—Rule to find the number of gallons a pump will lift per minute. Square the diameter in inches, and multiply by length of stroke in inches, and by 002838, and by the number of strokes per minute. 8 x 9=64 K 10 = 640 x '002833 - 1-818120 gallons In each stroke, x 20 = 36'262400 gallons per minute.—J. H.

£4159,] —VINEGAR.—" E. H." may prepare a very good vinegar for domestic purposes by adding to each gallon of syrup composed of l£lb. sugar, and 1 gallon of water, a quarter of a pint of yeast. If kept for three days at a temperature between 77° and 863 (25° and 30° Cent.), it will be sufficiently acetified to allow of being drawn off into the ripening cask, where loz. of bruised raisins and loz. of crude tartar are to be added to each gallon of liquor. When the Hweet taste has entirely disappeared, it should be drawn off into bottles and corked down tightly. It is stated that such vinogar will contain as much as 5 per cent, of pure acetic acid. From 2 to 3 per cent, is the average strength.—A. E. Tucker.

[41600— KILLING MOTHS.—"J. C. S." will find "Benzine Collas " answer his purpose. The insect to bo killed should have some poured on it, when death is almost instantaneous. The benzine seems at first to destroy the colour; but on evaporating, which it does in a minute or two, it reappears. I have collected for five years, and never use any other poison. N.B.—The benzine sold for burning will not do.—A. S. C.

[4160.]— KILLING MOTHS, Ac—If your correspondent, "J. C. S.," will drop his moths and other small insects, which he intends to preserve, into a jar of carbonic acid gas, he will have a most certain plan of keeping them entire and perfect; besides that, the insects are not tortured, as they are killed instantly. By keeping the carbonic acid gas in a stoppered bottle it will last him some time, so that he will not require to make fresh every time. Any respectable chomist will supply a jar of gas or the material for making it for a trifle.— Dragon Fly.

[4168.]—LEAD STICKING TO STEEL.—" Anon" will find that if he blackleuds his steol before hardening it, the lead in whieh h* hardens will not adhere to It, as actual contact will be p* * vented between the lead and the steel.—Henry Chai'man.

[41650—ASTRONOMICAL.—T. Ronnd, Handsworth, may convert heliocentric latitnde and longitude (L and I) into geocentric (L' and P) by means of the following equations:—

c = 8 + 180* - I
. R cos L
tang 0 =

[4160.]— KILLING MOTHS, Ac—The quickest and best method of taking the life of an insect intended for preservation is as follows:—Frame a tin or metal box air-tight and water-tight Buited to the size of the insect, having carefully placed the insect inside, float the box on the surface of boiling water, the heat generated inside will suffice to speedily and mercifully kill the insect. After the lapse of a few seconds the struggles of the insect will cease, take the box offtho surface of the water, dry the outside of the box and proceed to set the insect in the usual way. After the insect has remained for a few days undisturbed, remove the braces and pins, and I defy any one to preserve insects better than by tuis mode. To re-sot insects badly preserved, obtain a fish globe, place some silver sand at the bottom, damp it, pour off superfluous water, take some blotting paper, press it on the damp surface of the sand until it likewise becomes damp, place the insect to be re-set on the surface of the damp blotting paper, then get a cloth, thoroughly wet it, squeeze all the water you can out of the cloth, fold it into several thicknessos, cover the mouth of the fish globe, and having tied it round, place a plate on tho top of the globe to prevent evaporation, after the lapse of 24 or 48 hours the insects will have become relaxed and can be set afresh; but they must be set directly they are removed from the globe as they dry very rapidly. The latter part of these instructions do not strictly relate to the question asked, but I have added them, thinking that to the uninformed they would prove useful.—G. F. Smith.

[4160.]—TO KILL MOTHS.—Drop a little chloroform on blotting paper and place it in the box where the moth is; this prevents pain (if insects have feeling), afterwards stab, with a bone blade dipped in prussio add, the thorax. This will entirely destroy life at once.—T. J. C. C.

tang <p = tang {9 - 45') cot £ c
e = 9O^+0-Ac

sin'- tang L

tang L' =

sin c I' m $ + t, L, I, and R, the distance of the planet from the sun, and S and r, the sun's longitude and the radius vector of the earth, are supposed to be known quantities. L, I, and the log. of R my be found from the planetary table* for any given time, and S and the log. of r are given In the "Nautical Almanack " for every day in the year.—Henry T. Vivian.

[4168.]—THE VALUE OF A TE8TRTX.—In answer to "B.," I think that the word Testril in the passage of Shakespeare referred to is only another version of M Tester," viz., a sixpence. Further, sixpences are mentioned in the preceding lines, and this line says " a Testril aUo."—Henry W. Henfrey, M.N.8. Ac.

[41690— RUST JOINTS.—Take one of sal ammoniac in powder (by weight) two flowers of sulphur, eighty iron borings, made to a paste with water, to set qaioklr.— J. H.

[41730—CLEANING GALVANIZED VESSELS.—Tho simplest plan is to scour them with a strong solution of hot water and common washing soda; but I should recommend your correspondent to have the vessels painted, or if used for hot water and soap, to use best tinned vessels, as galvanized iron attracts soap in such a manner as to cause this deposit, which is disagreeable and unsightly. —Peteb Pindar.

[41750—OLIVER CROMWELL'S SHILLING.—The ordinary shilling of Oliver, dated 1658, with the obverse inscription "OLIVAR. D.G. R.P. ANG. SCO. HIB., Ac. PRO.," is worth from one guinea to two guineas. Atthe gale of Mr. Duncombe's cabinet, June, 1869, one in splendid condition sold for £2.—Henry W. Henfrey, M.N.8., Ac.

[Mr. Batty values it at from 12s. to 80s.] _

[4176.]—CALL AND'S BATTERY, Etc.—The flrstport of this question I hare already dealt with. The other I cannot reply to.—Sigma.

[41770—BEES AND BEE KEEPING.—"Anon" is sorry that he cannot give a more precise address of tho publisher of Payne's Bee Book than Paternoster-row, the prico he thinks was one shilling. Probably Mr. Neighbour of Regent would be able to give more precise information, as "Anon" well remembers Mr. Payne speaking of that house. The additional box, or glass, or straw hive, called by whatever name it may, should have no entrance holo in it. Any old cigar box, or American cheese case, or butter keg, capable of holding from 51b to 201b may be used. If "Anon" had not mislaid Payne's ^ book he would willingly have given it to " Apiator"— there is nothing like it for simplicity. Mr. Payne conceived it better that the hive should have a board under it distinct from, and not fastened to, the board which is nailed on any old stump, as by this means the hive could with ease be bodily moved from one place to another. The hive must be quite flat at the top, and not fastened down with mortar; the bees do that part of the business themselves.

[4182.]—GALVANOMETER.—If "T. B." will refer to Vol. IV., p. 149, and Vol. VI., p. 494, he will find a modo of making a galvanometer. If.these do not suit him, I will give him full details for making a galvanometer, needle instruments, &cM through the columns of the English Mechanic. The following references relate to galvanometers:—Vol. IV., p. 6; Vol. IV., p. 199; Vol. VI., p. 155, 177, 494, 495; Vol. VIII., p. 59; Vol. IX., p. 179.—Current.

[If all readers were like "Current" we should not be so often required to repeat information previously given.—Ed. E. M.]

[4185.]—SILVER COIN.-In reply to "H. R. G.," his coin is a silver consular denarius of the Roman family of Lucretia. Obvente, helmeted head of Pallas; X. (for the value) in front, and TKIO. Reverse, Castor and Pollux on horseback with lances in rest. Underneath, CN (eiua) LVCR (ctiut), and in the exergue ROMA. This coin was probably struck by Cneius Lucretius Trio, moneyer to the Republic in B.C. 219. Common: value 2s.—Henry W. Henfrey, M.N.S., Ac.

[Mr. Batty has also kindly answered this.] [4188.]—SOFTENING ASH TIMBER.—Steam is tho usual agent, but where practicable boiling in water is the very best means. The great thing is to have the right quality of ash: some kinds will bend, some won't. Ouo locality will yield prime ash, another close by, with equally good soil, will yield inferior. The timber should be heavy, tough, and cut from a good butt; no matter if three years cut and seasoned. A splinter from this quality of ash will peol or pull off toughly, and run a long way down the plank beforo it gives way. Half-an-h oar's boiling will soften 2iu. square. Then have everything ready, for Bharp is the word. Out with your stuff, from the boiler to the mould, and screw or wedge it up without u stop stay, or hesitation," and leave it to cool for a few hours. If " J. L. B." fails again he may blame his timbor.—Paddy.

[4189.]—CONDENSER.—About fifty Bhoets of tin foil, of the suitable size to the stand, would probably answer. The quantity varies according to the battery power used, and this with the quality of the Insulation. "Electron " had best try by commeucing his condenser and watching tuo action at ho adds shoot after sheet. Toe sizo of the Bauson cell used is of little consequence so it is sufficiently largo for his wire; it is tho number iu series that is of importance, as this supplies the force for raising the tension, and this mast depend entirely on his insulation, and may be from two to six cells.— Sigma.


[4192.1— CUTTING GRANITE.—I had a piece of granite to cut and polish, very little larger than tho piece ho wants, and I got a piece of sheet iron, and with the aid of sand and water cat five aides while it was on tho block as trne as I could to the size I wanted. I then sawed it from the larger piece, find let It into a piece of soft stone. Thon I got a small slab of Robin Hood or Hare Hill York, and rubbed untilit was quite smooth, aud thcu got a piece of snake stone and a little putty powder, and rubbed until it was quite hot, and gradually a fine polish came on it, though it took a great deal of time and patience. Perhaps "Chemicus" may live nearer a place where they polish granite by steam power—if so, he can no doubt get it done choaper and better that waj.—J. W. G. S.

[4105.}—SENSITIVE FLAMES.—I fear that a satisfactory answer to "F. W.*s" query would occupy more space than should be allotted to one reply. Tho only apparatus "F. W." will require consists of—1st, small izlnxs tubes (open at each end,) ranging in length from lOiu. to 40in., and in diameter from 5-10ths in. to llin.; and, 2nd, a series of small jets (differently sized orifices in a metal pipe will serve the purpose) capable of giving a small flame of adjustable height. "F. W." has simply to place the tube ovor the flame and proceed to experiment. He has to bear in mind that the size of the flame, and length and diameter of tube, have their influence over tho result, and that he cannot expect to succeed in obtaining "grand" results at the onset. Further information can be obtained from Dr. Tyndall'g lectures on "Heat—a Mode of Motion/' p. 254 (last edition.)—H. P.

[4196.]—GAS COOKING.—We often bake bread with the oven as sketched, bat it hardly pays, as will be seen from the following comparative consumption of gas for different purposes. Bread, Sft. of gas per lb. weight; meat, 1ft. to Hit. of gnu per tb. weight; small fruit pie, 2ft. to 2Jtt. of gas per Id. weight; large pan of potatoes, 2ft. of gas per lb. weight; to boil water, 1ft. to 1 ut of gaa per gallon. To keep 1 or 2 gallons of soup or stew boiling steadily, 1ft. of gas per hour; toasting broad, about 2ft. of gas for 8 large rounds; boiling eggs, £f t. of gas The abovo are from careful experiments with a meter registering small quantities of gas, for the purpose of testing the comparative cost with coal, and the result has been that tho fire has been entirely discarded for several years. In fact, we have been in two houses and have never used the oven once. All our cooking is done on the kitchen dresser under the window, without any trouble or dirt.—T. FLetches.

[4201.] —RED LEAD.—The dry red lead draws in the oil if made up quickly, and seems to dry. Oil must be added till this tendency is overcome.—J. II. ■M [42010—USD LEAD.—" Staem *' could keep his red lead soft by putting it in a jar that has got an air-tight stopper, same as colour tubes.—J. M.


[4203-3— PARIS.—I wish to go to Paris for a fortnight. Can any one who has boon inform me as to the best way of proceeding so as to see the place in as complete a way as possible, and not be too expensive? I should start from London with one or two companions. —


(4304.]— DRAWING-PEN.—I am aspiring to become a draughtsman, but find groat difficulty in using the drawing-pen. After making perhaps half a dozen strokes the ink collects above the pen points, and I canuot produce a stroke. I have Indian ink at 3s. the oanoe, and * good pen* Will any of your numerous readers give uie a few hints as to the management of the drawing-pen, and kindly inform me whether there is any medium that could be mixed with the ink to cause it to flow txoely, though not so as to blot the paper?—T. M.

[42i».j — NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. — Thanks for information obtained respecting my query, bat I think there has been a slight misunderstanding. I applied at South Kensington previously to my writing to yon, and was informed that it was no use my attending only in the evening, and my business does not permit me to go at any oth - time. The fee also being £i) for a course of four years, no artisan his a chanoa of going there. Could any reader tell me of any other class th it meets in the evening only, or where I could gain any information respecting any ?—G. E. J.

[4208.3— CHROMATIC FAIRY FOUNTATN.—Could you or any of your numerous correspondents give me the detailsof the lllaminating portion of the Illuminated Chromatic Fairy Fountain, with the mode of producing various colours ?—Jet.

{43070 — BLACK DIAMONDS FOR DRILLING.— Will any brother reader inform me where I can procure black diamonds for drilling ?—W. MottTOiT.

[49080 — ADULTERATION'.—Knowing the interest yon take in the parity of articles of food, psrhaps you or some of the contributors to " oars," could inform me how I might get examined a sample of tea (so called), just purchased in this neighbourhood. It contains a large quantity of positive dirt and dry twigs—very fesv grains of tea to be seen. Could I acquaint the authorities with the subject in any way ?—J. Moody.

[4209.J— WATER-WHEEL.—Will any of your readers inform me what description of water-wheel I could have erected, and what power could he obtained from a ttin. supply pipe (without pressure), and only 5ft. fall from pipe to drain below. Also what sizo wheel and diameter of pipe would be required for lo-bos*e pjwer. Is the turbine better than the ordinary water-wheel ?—J. Rom.

£12100— SIGN WRITING.—Would any of our corret-pondeats give mo information upon sign writing?— Brush Hand.

142110— B1LAGA. OB WHITE FLINT.—Can any of my brother subscribers inform me where I can obtain thenbuTo?—W A.

[4212.]—VERNIER.—What is the simplest and most useful kind of vernier for dividing the 5' spaces in an hour circlo of au 8Jin. equatorial? How can such a vernier be made, and how ought it to bo fixed '.' Also one for the declination circle of 16Jin. Bpau. If some kind friend would give a short paper with instructions how to set an equatorial with regard to N. and S. management of the verniers—levelling with respect to E. and W.— how to rogulate and manage a sidereal clock, &c, he would, I am sure, bestow a great favour on ignorant "beginners" like myself.—H. A. C.

[4213.]—WITH'S REFLECTOR.—At what distance from tho sun ought an 8Jiu. '* With " rejector to pick up Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, and Saturn?—II. A. C.

[4214.]—TACKLE FOR SALMON.—As I think of taking a holiday in tho highlands this autumn, 1 should like to have some advice as to tho kind of tackle to take for salmon-fishing. I hhouid like tv» sot about miking a rod. If anyone would give me a few ideas as to the nvitter. Will any of yonr readers oblige me Bo far?—Doncastbian.

[4215.]—COLOURING TILES.—I should feel much obliged if any of your corrosp mdonts can lull me how I can colour rod roofing tiles (after they have been burnt) so as to give them a dirk brown or blue colour, and to so fix in the colour peruriu'-'ntly by acLU, or otherwise, that it will not wash off with tho rain. The process should not be difficult or costly.—A Subhciiideb.

[4216.]— THE STAR {.—Is the star C (Sigma 20rl4l Hercules divisible with an BJin. " With " reflector at the present time ?—H. A. C.

[4217.]— nARMONIUM REEDS.—I am building a small harmonium on tho vertical principle, for my own use, with two rows of vibrators. My wind chest is divided iuto four compartments, to represent four different instruments. I have one row fixed which represents bassoon and hautboy. These reeds are made by Estcve, Paris, and speak well. This is the size of lowest


note, CC—8 feet value. Now I shall esteem it a great favour if our good frieud "Eleve," or the Doctor, will advise mo what reeds I should use for the other row that will harmonize with those I have fixed, and that will be very soft aud not take up any moro room. 1 should like to use the reeds that represent flute aud cor-anglale, but the reeds generally used are too large for my instrument.

[4218.]—LEVEL.— Will any reader of our valuablo paper be kind enough to inform me how to fix the tube in a wood-frame pocket level?—Apprentice.

[43190—TIGHTENING PIANO PINS.—Will the "Harmonious Blacksmith," or any other practical contributor, kindly instruct me how to tighten the pins of an old piano (grand, by Stodart, 17fW), because it will not keep in tune, and I really cannot afford to buy another. Will "Harmonious Blacksmith " or others give opinions as to my suggestion to drive a small hardwood wedge in the front uf each pin, and so tighten the pins, or else give mo other and better instructions? I would like to do it without removing strings if possible.—Man Of NecksSi Tt.

[4220.]— HUVGHENIAN EYEPIECE.—Will one of our kind readers give me a description of the above, and tell me the kind of lenses to get to obtain powers of 50, 100, and 150 on a 40in. focus; also a good simple way of mounting, centreing, and glazing the same? A small sketch will greatly oblige.—A Subscriber.

[42210—RE-TINNING OAST-IRON HOLLOW WARE. —Will any brother reader bo good enough to inform me how to re-tin cast-iron hollow ware (saucepans, Ac), and say what chemicals are used ?—One In A Fix.

[4228.]—PHOTOGRAPHi'.—Can any photographer or painter inform me how to paint a photographic background on oinvas Sj as not to crack?—Old Tom.

[4288.]—DEFECTIVE BATTERY.—Will you allow me to thank you m.»st hoartily for inserting, and "Sigma" and "Ap-Rhys" for their kind and prompt reply to my query (No. 25iM, April 2d) respecting a defective battery? Living in tho country miny miles from a large town, repotted efforts hid to bo made, to obtain zinc plates, Ac. The silver plate, being nearly as thin as writing paper, got rent from the copper. I suppose it is fixed in the trains, and cim? off in removing the oxidation, &.:., which hid largely collected from using running water, but when the battery stopped there was, about an inch entire. Will me soft water in future, as advised by " Siguii." Not having suitable articles for replatiuising, and afraid of not being able to do it properly^ I got a new silver plate, aud would feel most thankful if anyone would kindly inform me as to the material and process of soldering. Is the ordinary solder used? Iu rcplatinisiug the Hilver plate it is heated over a lamp or iron t J drive off th3 mercury? I may add that the battery is one of Suiee's, with six glass cells,six silvor and twelve /,ino plates with Cju. Any information which may enable inn to {et it to act properly will be most thankfully received.—(Jr. F. L.

[4234.]— TREATMENT OF A CHRYSALIS.—Will any brother reader kindly instruct me how to procure the perfect insect from the obr/silig, in ficthiw these that require to be kept dun;), such as tho chrysalis of a death's-head m jth, and those that are kept drier, such as the chrysalis of a buUerfly ?—G. F. Smith.

[43250— ICE.—Will any reader oblige by telling me how to make ice quickly and cheaply, and also how to keep it when made?—A Warm CooNmvaiAN.

[4223.]— FERTILIZATION OF STJJK SBSD.—Can "Bernardiu," or any of your numerous readers versed in floriculture, tell mo tho reason why d >ublo stocks never produce seed? Inform i Li on as to tho msthod of impregnating tho single stocks, so as to secure 75 per cent, of double flowers will doubtless be interesting and valuable to many of your readers.—3aox Rpxka.

[4227.J-PIKE'FISHING.—As the seison for pike has now arrived, might I ask for a few hints from any of your contributors who are fisherman, as to the kind of tackle, method of using it,likoiy haunts to find Mr. Jack, best baiU, aud, indeed, any information that will be useful to au amatour angler out for a day's fishing ?— Citizen.

[4mi-RE-PL VTING.—Would some kind brother reader of our Mechanic inform me bow to re-plate articles with gold and silvor.—M. Hen* Eid&b.

[41290—UNNOTICED QCERY.—WASHING MACHINE—No one has yet answered the query asking for plan of nn easily-made washing machine. WIB some reader do so ?—J. W.

[4330.]— A GENERAL FISHING ROD.—I should feel obliged if utiy of your piscatorial readers would give me some little information as to the making of a Ashing rod for general rifrpose*. I should like to have the dimen sions of the^unts, with the different kinds of wood of which they should be made.—Pedestrian.

[4231.] — SMALL PLANING MACHINE.—Would nur correspondent give me a full description of a small planing machine to fit in the vice for planing up chuck?, small slides, Ac, *iy 12iu* by ttin. by 6in. high? If not iiskiug too much, please let me have drawing, and a. f>.U description, as it will most assuredly be read by a great number of your correspondents, besides—Tomctkh.

[4332.]— UNNOTICED QUERIES IN MAGNETISM. —What is meant by horieesttal and vortical intensity? Secular variation? How do you figure mentally the magnetic curves of the earth, and show their relation to the line of dip? Should be glad if "Sigma" would enlighten me on these points.—F. Peel.

[42380— BICYCLE BRAKE.—Will some kind reader inform mo how the brake of a bicycle is constructed where tho wheels are covered with india-rubber? 1* the facing of it iron or india-rubber, and will it wear out the india-rubber very much?—F. G. C.

[4JJ40— SEWING MACHINE IRONWORK..—Can any reader toll me how to give the ironwork of a sewing miehiuo that smooth jet-black surface seen on those turned out by manufacturers?—J. W.

[4235.]—UNANSWERED QUERY.—I am. eorrr that no notice has been taken of my query (4010, rnehneg and casting metal), page '287, for which I hare been m-«t anxiously waiting a reply. I should be greatly obliged if any reader would assist me, believing that many or* able t<> give the information, and that it would be useful to many readora besides myself, fer which I would willingly repay, through our Mechanic, in any way in my power.—A Bristol Akatsuk.

144860—BAR MICROMETER, Ac—I beg to thank '■JF.R.A.S." for his kind reply to my query respecting \i Ursw Majoris. In reference tothe'44 bar micrometer/* the only place in which I have seen it mentioned is the present list of Messrs. Cook A Son, where it is priced at 60s., the other forms of this instrument ranging in price from seven to twenty guineas. As your respected correspondent has not met with any mioromrters in this form, possibly it may be either some resent invention, <>r else not efficient enough to bring it into general ass. While thanking "F.R.A.S." for hw geuerons offer to measure Xi Ursss, for me, I beg to express the hipe that he will, at bis convenience (and when cirrnmstaneos— instrmnentally—are more favourable}, fatal his kind intention at some future time.—Albebt P. Houpan.

[42370— VINEGAR.—I have 25 hogsheads ot white wine which has turned so completely acid that it can only be considered as wine vinegar. Although it is pure ana far superior to the vinegar made from malt, none of my customers will buy it, so great is the prejudice in favour of the odour and taste of malt. Could some chemical reader recommend how to prepare an aroma ontirely free from injnrious effects on the human constitution, which would give my sour wine the odour and taste of malt vinegar? —grocer.

1423c]— KANSAS.—In No. 273. page 303, J. D. Rogers gives a glowing account of Kansas, which he thinks is the best place to emigrate to. Will J. D. Rogers inform me how much money it would require to reach rXeusas— the fare, including aD? I may state that I am a bricklayer—a trade I do not altogether give my mind to—iu fact I do not like it; yot I could work at it till I go* something else. Any other particulars would be thankfully received through the Mechanic—Isaac R. F.

[4239.]— MEDICAL COIL.—I have a home-made galvanic coil, 5 in. long, case 7 in. diameter; the prim try wire consists of ljlb. No. 16; secondary about 2^lb. No. 26, worked bv a single-cell aiuc and carboa, with bichromate solution. I think it Ls a very powerful coil. When the whole of the bundle is in, it is as much as six

Cordons can stand. I wish to make it useful. Lately I ive been troubled with pains iu the baok and chest. I think it is lumbago. Would "H. P.," who kindly wrote to our Mechanic (page 326), give uae a little information on the above subject. Should he do so. 1 will make known the result in our pages.—Y LsAMtau.

11240.]— WATCH-MAKING.—Will some of oar readers oblige a country watchmaker's app entice with the best method to properly compensate or rate an expansion balance, so as to keep proper timi in various climates; also the best way to cut and pi;"sc them, and what machine is generally used.—Chad<vick Wkavkb.

[4241.] — BRICK OIL (huile de brique, oleum de lateribus).—What may be this oil, and for what is it employed? It costs 10s. a pound.—Curioscs.

[4242.]—INCRUSTATION IN BOILEK&—I shall feel obliged if any of the numerous corrospondeuts of ths> Exolish Mechanic will give me a cheap, tried method, for preventing this.—A New SUBScnuufu, Brussels.

[424J.J—WIRE NETTING MACHINE.—I should feel obliged if any of your correspondents conld instructions how to mako the above, or the name of & firm who make them.—Pbtkb Ptxdab.

[421i.J-KQUISO.NANT FLUTE.—On p. 280 of your journil appeared a communication from "Sable" respecting the Equisonant Flute, which interested me very much—the moro so, perhaps, as I had just met with & treatise bv tho late Mr. Clinton in which this instrument is oiludea to. Having made many inquiries, without success, i am induced to ask if your correspondent will bo kind enough to inform me where lean see oi purchase puoh uu instrument.—S.

[4218.]— SPARK FROM INDUCTION COIL.—Would any kind reader tell me the way to find the length ot spark that can be got from an induction coil.— H. A. R. D.

[42430— COINS.—Obv. two laureated heads, on the one i.s Oino, and on the other Hamerani: legtiad Franc. Roiur. Imp. A. AI. Ther. Avg. Hvn.Bo. R. On tho reverse, two smaller heads': legend jtiternitas Imperii.—F. W. <\

[4250] —ALGEBRA.—Will" C. H. W. B.,'*4* BernaruTT* or some other mathematical reader kindly inform me what parts of algebra, plane trigonometry, and conic sections it is absolutely necessary to read in order to learn the clemeats of the differential and tntegrsl ealtruhm. References ti> bo made to Mr. Todhunter's books on the above nubjccts— A. Daviks.

r*M5.1 —ELECTRICITY AS A REMF.HY FOR EPILEPSY.—I would recommend " T. M." by all uaeanu to try electricity. Properly applied from a proper machine it cannot fail to have a good effect. I am neither a i?alvanlst nor a doctor, and cannot therefore recommend the most de&irable points of application of the poles, an found by experience, in caseslilie " T. M.'s." Bnt this I know, that epilepsy may be the direct or indirect result ol too much electricity in the nervous centres, and therefore requires decreasing. To bring about this, place the positive pole on the back of the neck, and the negative pole on the lower extremities of the body, as the feet, bands, ftc. Let a good quantitative current of feeble intensity pass through the body. In this way increase the application a minute each day, up to ten or fifteen, beginning low. Then decrease in same way*. M T. M.'s" case is just such a one as my letter was intended to reach, and I sincerely hope that the pages of the Mibrob Of Sctence may become the means of expounding the practical way of constructing and applying apparatus suitable for sell management.—W. A.

[4SM.1—GLYCERINE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR C/)D LIVER OIL.—Some time since I heard that plveerine was being successfully administered as a substitute for cod liver oil, and nave inquired at several druggists without obtaining a satisfactory reply as to the quantity that should be taken asja dose. I shall take it as a favour if you, or some of your correspondents, will kindly furnish me with the information required.—H. Jkvons.'

[4447.] — CHEAP GAS.—I write to thank " L. M.," and specially "C. D. C," for answering my last query respecting cheap gas. I purpose to adapt both the plan given by "L. M." of regulating the supply of gas to the burners, and also the plan of carburetting the gas on its way from the meter, as practised and found good by the latter gentleman, but before I do so he will grcatly ohlige bv answering the two following questions :—1st. Must I, in order to get any Increase of light and corresponding decrease in my gas bill, use a smaller burner than the ordinary No. 8, which I havo all along been nsing? And, xnd, where can I obtain the benzole he speaks of at 4s. 6d. per gallon, as I have been to at least a dozen chemists, druggists, and oilmen, but cannot get it, some affirming that they know nothing about it, others stating that I have made a great mistake as to prise, and offering me what they state to be chemically pure benzole at Is. 6d. a pint (which is a vast difference to "C. D. C.'s" estimate), and others again benzoline, used in the common sponge lamps. An answer from the gentleman named would greatly oblige.—Cheap Gas.

[4248.] —SILKWORMS.—I shall boslad if some brother reader will be kind enough to answer the following questions respecting silkworms. What is the average number of cocoons to make an ounce of Bilk? What is the price given forrawsilk per ounce? Where can it be sold? —Ver A Soie.

[4349.]— ANATOMICAL MODELS.—In reading vonr widely circulated paper, I have often wondered at not seeing any articles on the construction of anatomical models in it. Could any of your readers or correspondents give me any information as to the mode in which they aro constructed, or as to the materials that are used in their manipulation? I should like to glonn some information on the subject, as I have been often told that it Is both a scientific and profitable occupation, and from the figures I see quoted in price lists the profit must be very largo indeed, somo very accurately constructed models bringing in price as much as from £40 to £150 each. I would also like to know if there are any works printed on the subject.—W. L. P.

[4250.]—MUSHROOM CULTURE.—Will anyone give some instructions on the cultivation of mushrooms, as I understand this is a good time to start the beds 1— J. T. P.

[4361.]—PAINT FOR AQUARIUM.—What is the best paint for the inside of an aquarium, only one side of which is glass? It fill' >!d render tho aquarium watertight, and at the sain ■ time should not injure the fish. If possible, I should prefer a green paint.—Dixi.

C4282.]—ISOMETBICAL DRAWING.—I would be obliged to anyon .- describing the method of drawing the ellipses that - • resent circles in isome'.rical drawing. I have tried to do so bv Mr. Too*. Sopwith's scales, but they do not appear to be correct.—Isometros.

[4253.]—TODHUNTBR.—Willmioof yourhiifhmnthpmatical friends kindly and indulgently give me his opinion on the following:—Todhuuter (Trn'. p. 11), states 41 the circular measure of two right angles is *r." Yet at p. 8, he asserts, "the symbol w is ineariaJily nsed to denote the ratio of the circumference of a cirolo to its diameter." I cannot comprehcud this use of tho word "invariably," and should be glad to h.ive it explained. —Gijixl.

[4354.]— SEA ROUTE.—Can I go by son from Liverpool, or Isle of Man, to London, and wiiat will it cost ?— V. J. Eggleston.

[4255.1—GOLD LACQUER.—I should feel grateful if any of your readers could give mo a receipt for making French gold lacquer for brass work? Also a receipt for making steel bronze as used by Birmingham gas lamp makers.—BBAasronirDEB.

[4256.1—NEW VELOCIPEDE" SADDLE SPRING.—I have recently seen a bicycle with tho s.-uldlo spring carried boyond the guide socket, about 6Ln. over the front of the driving wheel. Cjm uny of you:- obliging correspondents inform me if it is patented, and by whom? The hinder wheel waB very small. Is thcro any advantage in this, if so, what is it ?—T. L.

[4257.1—BOOKBINDING.—I think I have read somewhore that bookbinders Uho something with their glairc so that it doos not matter whether the book is finished at once, or in a day or two's time. Can "Ab Initio " or any other reader tell me it is f A few hints on finishing will no donbt interest m;iny readers.—G. P. T.

[4258.1— STEAM CARRIAGE—Will vonr corre-pondent, signing himself "G. Prew." kindly state where the stoam carriage described in Xo. 273, may be seen, and what is the probable cost ?—M. A.


IN future, if any query remains unanswered for four weeks, we shall insert tho number and subject of the query in this list, where it will remain for two weoks, if not previously replied to. We trust our readers will look over the list, and send what information they can for the benefit of their fellow-contributors.

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Electric Locomotive, p. 166.

Iron Prism, 166.

Coloured Prints for Dec-oration, 106.

Pianoforte. To the "Harmonious Blacksmith," 166.

Sulphate of Zinc, 166.

Chemical solution, 166.

Metrical Act, 166.

Archery, 166.

Forbes Knitting Machine, 180.

Water Meter, 166.

Arm-chair, 166.

Indicator, 166.

Copper deposit on Cast Iron, 180.

Sketching from Nature, 166.

Magnetism, 166.

Artificial Teeth, 166.

Draught Wanted. 186.

Casting Silver Halls, 168.

Hydrogen Gas for Balloon, 166.

The "Huzh Peak" Velocipede, 106.

Landscape Painting, 160.

Copping Mule, 166.

Engine Chimney, 166.

Arnold's Chimuey Ventilator, 168.

Greater Pthrtb, 187.

Mill and Forgo Work. Rolling, 167.

Croquet Rules.—Marking Rings, 167.

Inlaying Fancy Wood, 167.

Pasteboard. 167.

Relacquering Braes Work, 190

Lace and Buttons, T90.

Cotton, I'.ni.

Chrome Black, 190.

Wire Tacks and Nails. 190.

Seamless Felt Skirts, 190.

Blocking Black Lead. 190.

Transparent Paraffin. 190.

Borometer Tubes, 190.

Float for Boiler, 190.

Seasoning Wood, 190.

Dentistry, 190.

Deposit from Soda Crystals, 190.

Contrivance for holding Iron Rods, 191.

Ebonite, 191.

Cleaning and Refilling Barometer Tubes, 191.

Faulty Engine, 191.

Emery Grindstones, 211.

Ear Boring, 214.

Fog Horn. To the " Harmonious Blacksmith," 214.

Photography, 214.

To Watchmakers, 214.

Prices for Sawing Timber, 214.

Tempering Buffer Springs, 214.

Bone Breaking, 214.

Aviary, 214.

Vulcanizing Rubber, 214.

Redness, 215.

Polishing Faceted Gold Chains, 21.7.

Painting Stones in Jewellery, 215.

To "Sonex,"215.

Guaiueum, 215.

Condensing Engine, 215.

Mendoza Pulley, 215.

Fastening Emery to Leather, 215.

Pressing Ladles and Shovels into Shape, 215.

Kid Boots, 215.

Wire Covering, 915.

Plant for Starch and Corn-flour Manufacture. 215.

Burnishing Plate, 215.

Printers' Furniture, 237.

Mushet'8 Steel, 237.

Grinding Drug Seeds, 287.

Steel Wire. To the •' Harmonious Blacksmith," 287.

Entomological Query, 237.'

Stuffed Canary, 288.'

Scribling Long Fleece Wool, 238.

Piano Felt, 238.

Picture Mount, 238.

Hole in Earthenware Jar, 238.

Florentine Bronze, 288.

Label Matrix Making.

Springs and Axles for Waggons, 238.

Yacht Building, 238.

Bleaching Powder, 238.

Re-tinning Cast-Iron Hollow Ware, 238.

Veneering, 238.

Dyeing and Colouring Grass Leaves, 238.

Canoe, 238.

Sewage, 238.

Alarum for Dutch Clock, 238.

Preparing Canvas, 238.

Precipitating Gold, 238.

Walking-stick Air-gun, 238.

Slate Cistern, 238.

Rad Rheii, 238.

Graduating llrass Circle. 288.

Repairing india-rubber Combs, 239.


HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING MACHINE.—The Nrtp. ping and Mercantile Gazette says,—" Mr. F. E. Duckham, of the Mill wall Docks, has invented a most useful hydrostatic weighing machine, which may bo soon in use at tho docks in question. Tho principle of the apparatus consists iu filling tin open top cylinder with water and suspending the same from a crane. A piston is fitted with its rod passing downwards through tho cylinder, and terminating in an eye for the attachment of the go->ds to be weighed. The dial gauge on the cxterioi •Ji »ws the pressure, and consequently the weight sustuinnd. The patentee very justly claims as a merit of his invention, extreme simplicity find portability. A machine to weigh lt> tons weight in itself only 84 tb.

Machines to fio in. the nocket may be manufactured which will provewef ghts up to one ton; and the app;iml u s is applicable to denote strains-up to 100 tons, or more. A visit to the Mill wall Docks enables as to speak of the use of this machine as there applied. The ironclad turn itship Aby**iniat built by Messrs. Dudgeon for the defence of Bombay harbour, is In process of fitment in the basis. Her plate's are weighed on delivery, and, SB they are from 8 to 10 incheB in thickness, they weigh 7 to 10 tons each. At the place of manufacture these enormous slabs are tested and marked, and, on re-weighing, have been found very correct. The Duckham machine used to weigh these iron plates is capable of testing up to 35 tons, and, after two months' work, shows no sign of leakage or inaccuracy."

THE AMATEUR MECHANICAL SOCIETY.—A moe1' ing of this Society took place on Wednesday, the 22n" ult., to view the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich, special permission having been obtained for that purpose from the War Office. The members assembled at the Arsenal at 2 o'clook, when they were conducted through the various departments by Capt. Stoney, K.A., and his assistants. The Gun Factory was first visited, where the method of preparing and welding tho large coils of metal for heavy guns was exhibited, and the guns, in various stages of completeness, were shown. After a short examination of the Pattern Room, they were shown the process of casting, finishing and testing the heavy shot and shell for the»e guns, and then passed on to the rocket manufactory and machinery for producing bullets of compressed lead and other parts of the central-nre cartridges, fur breech-loaders. After witnessing the manufacture and filling of the percussion caps used in these cartridges, they proceeded to inspect the woodshaping machinery in the gun-oarriage department, where is to be found one of the new HoncriefT guncarriages. Leaving the Arsenal a little before six, they started by steamboat for Greenwich, where they sat down to an excellent dinner at the Ship Tavern, at 7 o'clock.

THE NOMENCLATURE OF STARS.—Up to the time of Buyer (1608), it is reported that the stars were never otherwise distinguished in Europe than cither by their Arabic names, such as Aldobaran, Klgel, Ac., or by their position with respect to theconstellatlon, such as "in the bead of Andromeda,'' " the first in the belt of Orion," Ac. The maps of Buyer gained him immortality at no great price, simply from Iris employing the letters of the Greek and Roman alphabets to distinguish the stare. The idea, if Original, was improved by himself before the end of his life. a> appears from the joint edition by himself -and Julius Schiller, in which numbers arc substituted. But in our time, Bayer is only known by hie letters, and the numbers employed are those given by FlarasteSd, Piac/.i, Ac. It has escaped the notice of all the historians of astronomy that letters had been used to distinguish one star from another before tho time of Bayer, by-Alexander Picoolomini, of Siena, who was successively Bishop of Patras and Archbishop of his native place. Tho third edition of his treatise "Delia Sfera del Mondo," accompanied by his work " Delle Stelle Fisse," was published at Venice in 1S6S; and throughout the whole of the In 11 < r he employes italic letters to distinguish the principal stars of each constellation from one another, and given some rude maps in which they are employed. Neither Bayer nor Piccolomini at all insists upon the use of letters as an improvement, or even make anv prominent allusion to it in their introductions; although, ae it happens, the namo of either would hardly have been mentioned in our day on account of anything -else in their writings. The work of Picoolomini was sufficiently well known to be translated into Latin and published at Basle in 16G8 or 1S88, so that Bayer way very posmbly have seen it and adopted or adapted the method from it.

MADNESS IN ANIMALS.—The statistics given in M. Bouley's course of lectures on "Madness in Man and Animals" confirm the statement that hot weather is not a cause of rabies. Out of 303 cases recorded In six years, eighty-nine occurred in the spring; from March to May, seventy* four in tho summer from June to August, sixtyfour iu the autumn from September to November, and seventy-five in the winter from December to February. Male animals appear far more subject to the attacks of the disease than female animals. Out of 320 cases of bites from rabid animals, 284 occurred with dogs (malo), twenty-six with bitches, five with oats (male and female) and five with wolves (malo and female). No instance is recorded of any attack on man by a rabid herbivorous animal. Now that we are approaching the dog-days, wo commend these facts to the notice of the chief commissioner of police, and trust we shall have no repetition of the cruel and senseless police regulations as to the muzzling of dogs: to be consistent they should he in force all the year round.

THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA. — This important portion of the brain is placed between the tuber annulare and the foramen magnum, through which it passes into the vertebral canal, and is then called the spinal cord. If the membranes which invest the medulla oblongata are removed and its middle groove drawn asunder, there will be seen four or five bands of white substance asoonding obliquely from one side of the medulla to the other. These bands decussate, some passing above, others below those of the other aide, so that they are interwoven like plaited straw. This decussation is considered to explain the phenomenon, that when injury is done to ono side of the brain, the disturbance of function is manifested on the opposite side of the brain. Thus, paralysis of the left side would be caused by some Injury to the right lobe of the brain. Pressure on the medulla oblongata induces heavy sleep or stupor; while its laceration, even with the point of a needle, instantaneously extinguishea life; it is, however,.placed iu such a secure position as scarcely to be liable to injur).


SubscripUoii* to be forwarded to the Editor, at the Office.. SI,

Ta vis lock-ri tree t. Covsat-gurtfea, W.C.

Amount previously acknowledged .. .. .. A199 19 7

W*e«ee HI II

Ov«-r>,v>ker .. .. .. .. .. O I

Inventor and self-taught Mechanic. .. .. 0 « C

irtsi 0 10

Paddy 0 1 C


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Erratcu.—'*Falcon" writes to correct an error in his description of Templeton's Method of Calculating Pressure of Steam on a Boiler by a Safety Valve. Instead of "the lever being weighted with a weight of 161b." read " 1051b."

J. H. (velocipedes For Sportsmen.)—A small amount of banter may be right enough, bat we cannot find room for a long answer, which consists of nothing but banter.

H. Jeffrey.—The first part of your letter has been amply discussed before. Your suggestion may be seen amongst " Extracts from Correspondence."

Wm. Johnson.—Your suggestion for improved candlesticks is not new, and therefore not worth patenting.

An Ambitious One.—Writo to the Secretary of the Society of Arts.

Nathan.—Any respectable optician will give you the required information much better than any one else.

Yorkshire Amateur.—Get the number, we cannot repeat.

J. Dawson.—You might have saved yourself the trouble of writing, if you had consulted our advertisement pages. The address is Clarke and Dunham, 48, Marklane, E.C.

Boiler Jack.—Exchanges must be paid for before insertion. The scale of charges appears at the head of the column.

Cambridgeshire.—For hints on preserving flowers, Bee Reply 4068, last week.

W. L. G. Wright.—Your best plan is to advertise your invention.

Painter.—Brodie & Middleton, Long Acre, W.C.

Harry Walker.—See latter part of description of the Phantom Bicycle, on page 270.

*'English Mechanic" Mutual Improvement SocieTies.—" Bell Valve" writes, hoping that the "Black Country" subscribers to the English Mechanic will shortly form several of these societies. He suggests that one should be formed in Wolverhampton, one In Wednesbury, and another in West Bromwich, and that members of either should be admitted to the meetings of all.

Albert Priest.—The dry earth system has been described in a former volume.

J. H. S.—Your views on the Patent Laws are in the main correct, and have always been upheld by us. The course you suggest of bringing pressure to bear on individual Members of Parliament is the best way by which a revision of the present law could be effected.

David Fisher (New Zealand). The subscription paid by you to the former proprietor entitles you to receive the numbers from him till the date mentioned. We have sent you the numbers you require. Please include the cost when you next remit a subscription.

Mdb'm congratulation will appear with others.

Edward Steane.—We cannot recommend your Household Fire Escape.

The Cause Of Storms.—Mr. E. Jones, of 115, Royal Road, says: "I hope our good friend Mr. Proctor, or some one else, will give us a paper on the Cause of Storms. Every one thinks he knows what a thunderstorm is. I do not, neither do I think that one in fifty does know."

J. Sargent, Jan. (Finchloy).—"Ido not remember seeing the subject of pre-adamite man discussed in your columns. I think it is one that would interest many readers."

V. Shepherd.—You are wrong. Mr. Perry's address has been given in advertisements and elsewhere several times. Correspondents at least should search before they complain.

"cotton Clerk" and "railway Clerk."—See announcement in this week's Sixpenny Sale Column.

Astbk,—Your symptoms can only be rightly understood by an oculist.

J- r. P.—8ee our imprint at bottom of last page of advertisements. Second query can only appear in Sixpenny Sale Column.

A Constant Subscriber (Derby).—Writoto the District Highway Board.

Mr. Prootor says:—"Sir,—I cannot wholly agree with yon as to the ' Astronomical Register.' I have always thought it very plucky and praiseworthy on Mr. Gorton's part to publish a magazine devoted wholly to astronomy; and if there were nothing else to give the

Register a good standing, the excellent reports of the Astronomical Society's meetings would suffice for the purpose. But I Jiff think the attack on the English Mechanic uncalled for and ill-considered (I withdraw the word * ill-natured,'—writing in extreme haste, and not meaning my words to be published, I used an ill-chosen expression). I am quite certain that if you were to adopt rigid rules for the exclusion of all subjects except exact science from your correspondence columns, you would soon lose many thousands of your supporters." We do not withdraw a single word we considered it our duty to write hist week, as the small attack on us by the publication alluded to was as unprovoked as it was senseless. Of the hundreds of letters which " F.R.A.S." has been kind enough to Bend us, the only one we thought it advisable not to insert was one written some months since, which indicated in a few sentences the poorness and dearness of the stiid publication.

Arthur Green (Bermuda.) — Your former letter was received and has been attended to. The vehicle is a French invention, and we do not know the inventor's address. Its merits are, to say the least, doubtful.

It. Hovenden.—Your suggestions for bringing rain from the clouds by chemistry, electricity, and pneumatics, are far too vague.

Colonisation And Emxoration.—Letters on this subject have been received from F.R.G.S., Maskelongue, Alexandra, the correspondent who suggested an English Mechanic colony, and "M. D." who offers favourable comments on the suggestion. All are pressed out this week by other matter.

*'A Reporter," who defends, in a rather weak way, "Lewis's System of Shorthand," should have sent Mb address. The same observation applies to Amy Jordan.

J. R. D. (Coventry).—The subjects treated in the EngLish Mechanic are too numerous to admit of the order and classification you suggest. You complain of '* wanted " advertisements appearing in our columns, when skilled mechanics are offered, say, 22s. weekly. If you advertised for a violin for instance, and said you would give 5s. for it, could yon expect a good one for the money? It is the same with advertisers who offer ridiculously low prices for skilled labour.

J. R. T.—Simply a notion, and a poor one to boot, or about as good as that sent us for a Bicycle by W. J. Pigott (p. 852) hist week, and which by mistake crept into our columns.

Natural Science and Military Education next week.

Manns And Son.—No stamps enclosed.

F. R. G. S. tenders his thanks to the Rev. W. F. Mc Donald and G. Bennett, Esq., for so quickly and courteously responding to his appeal for Australian papers.

Hy. Chapman on the Flute, next week.

W. E. Maoos.—You are right. The notion is simply absurd, and W. J. P. will not catch us napping again iu a hurry.

Hints to Astronomical Students by Rev. T. W. Webb, next week.

Pitman's Shorthand.—Besides the correspondence alluded to elsewhere we have received letters from Rosebud, J. F. Ballard, J. Bredall, and J. T., all in defence of Pitman's system. Mr. Pitman has certainly a cloud of witnesses in his favour. Gne correspondent, bowever, complains of the frequent improvements which he introduces. F. W. Grierson, in no way discouraged, promises a further vindication of Lewis's system next week.


In obedience to the suggestions of a number of readers, we have decided on appropriating a portion of our space to a condensed list of Patents as nearly as possible up to the date of oar issue.


1769 W. Ralnford, Oxford-street, Improvements in wardrobes 1700 C. J. Fox. 11. Larchin, and J. Dodd, Saint Pancras, improvements applicable to reaping and mowing machines.

1761 J. Ou train, Sevenoaks, improvement!) in rotary engines. 1782 G. Atterbury, West Bromwich, and G. Whitehouse. improvements in apparatus for communicating on railway trains.

1763 H. T. Davey, Chilton-road, Sudbury, improvement* in apparatus for washing and boiling linen and other labric*.

1764 W. R. Lake, Soutliampton-buildings, improvements In fastenings or connections for securing the cables and standing rigging of slup-t. A communication.

1766 A. C. Bamletl, Thirsk, improvements in reaping and mowing machines.

1768 B. J. B. Mills, 86, Southampton-building*, improvements in the process and apparatus for making soup. A communication.

1767 J. Bullough, Accrington, improvements in slasher sizing machines. A communication.

1765 T. C. Brown, Ipswich, improvements in valves applicable to steam or water pressure.

176y C. L. Franke, 18, Wilson-street, Finsbury, improvements in the manufacture of steel.

1770 D. Collet, 13, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris, a new or improved bleaching ti^ent.

1771 J. H. Johnson, 47. Lincoln's Inn-fields, improvements in railways and engine*. A communication,

177* I. Bates, Dukiufeld, and J. Taylor, improvements In the bridges of the furnaces of steam boilers.

1778 B. Neville, Ellison Glass Works, Gateshead, a new or improved manufacture of plates of gifts*.

1774 P. Roland, Dublin, an improved bakers' barm or yeast. 1776 L. Hamel. improvements in the mode or method of producing certain colours to be used fur calico-printing purposes.

1776 W. J. Cunningham,480. New Oxford street, and A. Dabb, improvements in mean« and apparatus for cutting type, and carving, moulding, and ornamenting wood, metal, atone, and other materials.

1777 L. Megy, J. de Echeverrt*, and F. Bs/.an, 60, Bouvelord de Strasbourg, Paris, an internal spring coupling and brake for trana

■■•--, or regulating motion.

Glasgow, improvements in locomotive steam

1779 T. Graham, Green Mount-street, Beeston Hill, Leeds, and T. Dixon, of Leek-Lerruce, liunalet, improvements in rotary engines.

17H0 E. Morewood, Britton Ferry, Glamorgan, improvements in the manufacture of tin and terne plates.

1761 J. J. llen,lez, Buenos Ayrca, improvements in ships and vessels.

1762 G. Speight, Spencer-street, Goswcll rood, an improved glue pot.

1763 W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane, an improved mode or process for obtaining glycerine from soap-makers' spent lyes. A communication.

1784 A. L. Holley. Brooklyn, U.S.A., improvements in apparatus for making Bessemer steel.

1766 T. R ehmond, Burnley, and 0. Oatlow, certain improvements inthe preparation of " cops " and " hcald* " employed in the nianu_acture of woven fabrics.

mitting, stopping, or regulating moti

7. Reid, ~" engines,

1778 J.

1789 W. Bpence, 8, Quality-eoort, Crutne*ry-J«ne, iispmrseiiti, In the construction of boxes or cases for containing etgigjiu. crockery. A communication,

1787 H. Pooley, Liverpool, and T. Roberts, an impnrred tav* matlc machine for weighing and registering grain.

17M8 A. Walker. Edinburgh, improvements in window latkei.

17MW D. Forbes. York-place, Portman-Knuare, and A. Prk<. r Lincoln's Inn-fields, Improvement* in the prodacticn cf tea pounds capable of being employed av» manure;*.

1790 A. Barclay, Kilmarnock, improvements in aneltutg ma and other ores.

1791 R. Hudson. Graystone House, Adwalton, near Leeds, improvements in the manufacture of cloth.

179* E. Finch. Beaufort-square. Chep*t*>w. Improvements to machinery for forcing or exhausting »ir or aeriform fluid*.

1798 W. R. Lake, Southampton-building*, an improved nmax A communication.

1794 A. Ruiz and Le Pelletier, 62, Rue de Provence, Paris, c*

firovemeuts in the construction of revolving culler*, applicable t oorns for spinning hemp and flax.

1796 C. Stephens, Admiral's Hard, Stonebonae. improvement* i boot trees.

1796 W. Brown, Portsmouth, improvement* in the con>*tructK<! of ftteam and hydraulic rams used in naval warfare.

1797 P.Jensen, 89, Cliancery-lane, improvements in uoparsi^ for indicating the speed of vessels *na the velocity of mum i water. A communication.

1?W J. Smith, Keigbley. improvements In machinery or appj' ratus for spinning.

1799 A. Stewart and J.Stewart, Glasgow and Coat bridge, im provements in the manufacture of welded iron and steel tube*.

1800 J. Sinclair, Manchester, Improvements in respiratory op paratus.

1801. 8. F. Van Choate, of Boston, U.S.A., improvenwnts ic distilling alcoholic liquors.

WW. G. Rltcliie, Belmont Villa, Tyrwhitt-n>«d, Upper LewUharo road. Improvements in sunshades, tents, tent-pegs, and weather protectors.

1808 T. Wrighton, Stockton-on-Tees, Improvement in apparatus fur lowering weights.

1894. R. Saunders, Croyden, improvement* in breakwater* anil structures for coast protection.

1806 J. Sbackleton and B. Shackleton, Silsden. improvement* hi machinery or apparatus for manufacturing " spool " or paper tube* for use in spinning machinery. A communication.

1H08 G. Thomson, Glasgow, improvements in treating xtnuursriest ores, oxides, or salts, and in making ferr»-manganese,

1807 8. J. FeUows and E. Fellows. Wolverhampton, improvements in planishing, levelling, and creating frying-pans and other metallic articles.

1808 J. Sax, 108, Great Russell-street, Bloomsbury, an improve! mechanical recorder.

1809 8. Norris, 16, Gougb-street, London, W.C and T. Griffith*. Lombard Exchange, London, a machine or apparatus for miiiruz and kneading dough and other ingredient*.

Ihiu J. Napier and W. Cruickshank. Edinburgh, an improved arrangement and construction of portable bath.

lull W. Martin. Nottingham, improvement* in th* menn/artnre of woven gauze fabrics made on bobbin net or twist lace machint,*.

Iwl2 E. Lambert, Eagle, Lincoln, improvement* in the construction and arrangement of stages mode of mm at other similar material, applicable to windmills or other builainjrfi

1818 E. V. de Forville, Nant**, France, improvement* in rtiocipedes.

1814 R. Morton, Stockton-on-Tees, improvements io apnaratc* for cooling liquids.

1816 D. Rowan, Glasgow, nes- or Unproved constructions anJ arrangements of valves and their sctaatinff part*,

1818 H. A. BnnnevUle, l*. Chausw* d Anthi, 1'sm.o newanJ improved apparatus for warming ui veinilaamj camaC"** ami botts, A communication.

1817 J. Clark. Belmont-terrace. Not\ia4biU,t*dia.vm8 me ail** of locomotive engines. .

1818 V. Rastonin. 87. Boulevard Boaa*-Sou.vtU>, Wrw, u»provements in steam engines.

1B19 W. E. Gedge, 11. Wellington-street, Strand, an tnnwvei process of drilling and cutting plane surface* in tb< cianoJirtarcM crystal glaas or metal ware, and an improved lathe iai thi* i*irpj«. A communication. , , .,

1820 J. G. H. Hill, Rouen, improvement* lnhu.usaLng» lot tbutlc stockings stavs, corsets, bandages.

1821 W. E. Newton, improvements in the production « graeoie. syrup, and sugar. A communication.

1822 W. B. Adamsou, Glasgow, improvement* in the manalactari of artificial stone. , ,,._,,.

18JH K, Kell, Bradford, improvements in tre-alia* snd di*uw*# petroleum. A communication. ,,

1824 J. Butterworth and J. B. Hutchinson, Leeds,improveBenu in the making of carriage, cart, and other wheels. .

1826 J. Butterworth and J. B. Hutchinson, improvements in making wooden skewers. , „ t

1886 E. W. Sandford, New York, U.S.A., improvefnctk-Ti brake for cars and other purposes.

1827 W. R. Lake, improvements in rails Tor railw»s»- A txga munication, .

1«*H W. RiddeU, Crosby Hall Chambers, improved »pp»»TM» "* cutting wood into small strip*. fllonienU, or shaving*. .

I82t» W. R. Lake, improvements in breecli loading are-site,**1 in cartridges for the same. A communication. ._.,

PM0 W. Bull, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., King a-road, Chelsea, an uopw^* ca»e for the conveyance of plants.

1881 W. R. Lake, improvement* in candles. A coxnnw»ur*ti '

1888 C. McDeraiott. Brixton, iiuprovements in pencils lot msa lag on linen and other materials.


8745 E. P. H. Vaughan, improvements in the manoisciare ^ fluoride of potassium and sodium, and of hydrate and earbcnst* tf potash and so'hi. A communication.

a7*H C. A. Marriott and E. Holt, improvement* in <te«w eiiSiw

874« P. Fierce, improvements in horse or othei gearing.

8767 C. W. Petersen, improvements in steam and otitei hie bu*u and vessels.

8778 A. Matthlessen, a new or improved insulating aubtane* >w the covering of electric telegraph conducting wire*.

12 H. H. Cochrane, Improvements in machinery or apparatus for working signals and switches on railways.

£.2 P. Jensen, improvements in means for cloning or fasienini neckties, stock*, cutft. and other objects. A communication.

74 W. W. Hughes, improvements in furnaces.

118 G. Thomeloe, a new flexible valve for regulating the llo** fluids in pipes.

242 S. Lewin, Improvements in elevators for raiding and stackat straw.

8W W. R. Lake, improvements in spring bed bottom*. A a® munication.

856 B. Walker in 1 J. F. A. Pflaum, improvements in ciu-tche* va engaging and diMtufanxing parts of mscliinery.

lis H. A. Boiin.villf, certain now and useful improvemaent* »■ macliines for set tint; tvpc^. A communication.

8iW S. Brooke, improvements in the duffers of condensin>< csrduiC engines.

U6y T. L. Livsey, improvements in machinery for "filling <* starching woven tabrir*.

l«w) W. R. Lake, improvements in looms for weaving. A communication. ,

1120 .1. L. Norton, improvements in apparatus for dre^sinft "[lJ furrowing mill stone*.

1176 U. Shaw, improvements in machinerj' for hulling cuttoa seeds.

1185 L. C. Schermerhorn and C. Schenucrhorn, improvements in manufacturing cheese.

l£hi T. Thorpe, improvements in the manufacture of piled fabrics.

1206 J. Ormenv), improvements in looms for weaving.

3767 R. H. Kay and A. T. Richardson, improvements in the manufacture of crape.

87<k> W. R. Lake, an improved apparatus for roasting iron pyritesA communication.

8774 J. Stanton, an improved rebounding wifetv gun-lock.

8777 W. H. Richardson, a new mtthod of indicating or stampinS crystal or glass measures.

H7h1 A. Braduhaw. improvement* in printing machines.

:)7tt4 A. Chuplin, im prove men U in steam boiler*. ,

1 C. Hodiisoji, improvement;, in the manufacture of compotBijl rivetted bauds oi Iron, steel, or other metal to be used as a sabsu tute for wire ropes.

» S. Holman, improvements in apparatus for hinging, adjusting, iid fasten ug gas-retort U Is, covert, or doors.

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