Abbildungen der Seite
PDF

minus XW7) A"9513s., and principal, £917».: in the third year, interest (on the further diminished debt) i'91 Is. 7d., and principal £95 18s. 5d., and Ho on ; the interest diminishing every year, and the further payment of principal correspondingly increasing. It will be seen that this "problem" is certainly capable <>f solution i whatever shorter methods may be used) by the very Amplest rule* of arithmetic—R. M.

[4138.1—NETS.—1 think a polite note with a stamp enclosed, addressed to Mr. James McQueen, the landlord of the hotel at Tlghna Brinagh Kyles, of Bute, near (Ireenock, will enablo " Scolopendrum" to get a barrel • «t old nets, iiuite good enough for garden purposes. They stand well, and I used to got my supply at about lAd. or 2d. per pound—in fact, the price the paperniaker pays for them to bleach into pulp. As to the preservation mixture—time past the fishenuon used ,mk bark; since it has risen so high in price, I learn their viodiu operandi is to boil a proper quantity of catcben, put the nets iu while the water is hot, and let them re-it till they think they are duly saturated, then Uft them and stretch in open air to dry. It's labour lost now-a-days to make your own nets, for human Angers cannot compete with machinery at net-making; the cost too is low. If our friend "8." will look in your London Directory ho will Hud plenty of Al makers. One, Alien, about Euston-square, can give a first-class job; I *lo not know him, but I can speak confidently as to his work.—Joe.

[4134.]— STAINS ON* CLOTH.—Let "H. A." take two ounces of the best logwood (proutut) and boil it in one quart of rain water for five minutes. Also, in another vessel, dissolve ono ounce of soft soap in half a pint of boiling water. Then mix the two solutions together. Then strain through a cotton cloth, to remove the logwood grounds from the solution. Whilst the - <lm ion is hot sponge the parts affected with it very freely. Then hang it up to dry, when he will find his trousers no longer spotted but jot black. — W. L., Tuxton.

14148.] — RAMtiBOTTOBTS PISTON'S.—I send you a sketch of a piston which will do for " Ono in Need." It is simple and efficient. It is made -imply with a block ring, to take out of the cylinder to change the rings. I

[graphic]

also send you a sketch of a cylinder and valves in the place of Carai&h valves. It is simple, with one face with pistou above working in a cylinder ring, which can be made by screwing under tho valve cover with a joint bteam-tight. It will require little or no packing. There should be n small pipe to each valve to take the water should there be any. dd valve spindles, c c pistons, >> b valves, a steam pipe, tt piston rod of cylinder,/cylinder. Further information will oblige.—Ws. Harrison.

»4150.]—BOILER FEEDING.—I think "Amicus" might feed his boiler by the old method, which was to have a pipe (say 10ft. long) fixed upright on his boiler, over a hole over which a valve fits, opening outwards. When it is required to let water into his boiler ho must raise the valve by means of a rod passed up the pipe— the water iu seeking its own level will pour into the boiler (in spite of the pressure) until the air can counterbalance the water, which, when it has done, more water should be poured hit ■ the pipe, if it is required to have more in the boiler.—W. H. Thorpe, Reading.

i'4159.]—VINEGAR.—If "E. H." will look up any work on brewing, or any good cookery-book which treats of the same, he will find the proportion of malt required to the gallon of water for tho production of good ale. Tho same proportion would answer for his vinegar. The first stage in the production of vinegar from wort, or the juice of any fruit or vegetable containing sugar or starch, is to induce tho vinous fermentation. This can be brought about by a free exposure to atmospheric air at Ji suitable temperature, but can be at once induced by the addition of a little yeast. To convert tho vinous fluid into vinegar in tho ordinary way is a very tedious process, and consists in allowing the bungless casks containing it to stand for a period, it may be of many months, under a free circulation of air, until the fermentation entirely ceases. A number of years ago, in a foreign southern land, I happened to be sojourning with a family having large and noble possessions, amongst which were three immense orchards entirely of appletrees. (The peach-trees were of too small a value to be so congregated, and were planted in the fields and by the roadside.) It was the time of autumn, and it was a. puxzle to any one to make out what was to be done with all the apples, as there was no poasiblo market for them, the estate being far inland. At last the fruit-harvest came; the orchard gates were thrown open, and the whole available population, bipod and quadruped, was utilized to reap the fruits. Scores of bushels lay wasting on the green tarf, and the very pigs would often aplit up the fruit merely to recover the soeds it contained. Well, the apple mill and cider press having been put in order, dray-load after dray-load was carted away to be ground and squeezed and boiled and bottled or oasked into eider, apple-butter, and, last and largest of nil vinegar. Of course those to be dried were peeled, cut, and cored by a little machine for tho purpose. I can assure " E. II." it was a jolly time for the negroes—the slaves, I mean. They were excellent judges as to the progress of the first stage, the vinous fermentation ; and it was difficult to determine as to whether those dftiii

children of the sun or their glittering, flashing rivals, tho myriad insects of every hue, enjoyed tho apple-harvest most. Hut now for the vinegar. I found my friends, who had had a cooper at work for some weeks, had no other idea but to fill their casks and allow them to stand for months under a shed until the vinegar should become fully tiaed. This part of the process fairly exhausted my patience, and I at once set U> work, with the assistance of the cooper and a couple of negroes, to construct an apparatus wnich now, after this long preface, I shall describe in a few words for tho delectation of "E. H." Take a barrel of goodly size, put in the bung, drill the bottom full of i)in. holes with a centre-bit, set it on end 6iu. above a kind of hopper, the latter with a lip to conduct into stock casks at a lower level. Fill tho cask looselv with shavings, pat in the head, also drilled full of holes: hang a lot of worsted threads through the latter holes, so that the fluid can frieklo down upon the shavings. Now elevate the cask containing tho vinons fluid sufficiently high upon a gautree, and. by means of an ordinary tap to regulate tho flow, allow the fluid to percolato slowly through the fermenting-cask. As the fluid passes over a vast inrfaoe, it is exposed to the action of the air as the latter rushes up in the opposite direction (a good deal of heat being evolved). Tho acetous fermentation proceeds at a rapid rate, the process being repeated f necessary.—Alexandra.

[4167.]— EMIGRATION—." KausaH Emigrant "should send for Triibner's "Catalogue of Scientific Works;" ho will there find names of books such as he requires. I have seen a small work on Kansas recently in a bookseller's. I forget tho author—ho should enquire.— Alexandra.

[4169.]—RUST JOINTS.—There are various recipes for the treatment of cast iron borings, of which a socalled "Rust Joint" is to be made. In all such operations simplicity is to bo commended for many reasons. Let " Amo Vohis" first prepare his joint by bringing tho innor joint rings of the flanges togethor—screwing up tho bolts lirinly- in this condition there should be an annular gpaco between the flanges of from \'u\. to Jin. in width, a strand of rope-yarn or any soft fibre should now be stuffed to the bottom of the joint, so as to prevent the jointing material from being driven through in the process of calking. A good hammer, a calking-irou rather thinner than tho joint, and a flat piece of wood or sheet iron should ho in readiness. Now tako a snitablo quantity of fine cast-iron borings, free from dust, and which may be passed through a sieve to remove large pieces ; next dissolve a very small piece of sal ammoniac I chloride of ammonium) in water, say a drachm to a quart, (fa) the absence of sal ammoniac to mix up the borings with, the urine of any animal does quite as well). Now mix upon a flat board, or iu a pot or pan, the borings, with sufficient of the fluid to cause them to adhere together in lumps when eompressod in the haud. It is now ready for use. By means of the calking iron, and ihe piece of board or plate, stuff tho moist material into the joint to a depth of lin. or so from the bottom, all round; now calk it down with the iron and hammer until it sounds perfectly solid, as thongb it struck against solid iron (this is the most important of all). Now againrepcat the process of filling, then the ealkiug, and so on, until the joint is filled to the very surface. It requires a considerable time, and the most careful hammering,tomake a perfect joint, as, if there is the slightest trace of Boftness, ateain is sure to escape, and gradually increase the leak. The joint should rest for at least twelve hours beforo being put under pressure. It will be observod that immediately after mixing the borings with the saline fluid it becomes quite hot, showing that powerful chemical action has beon set up, the fact being that tho immense surface of the innumerable particles of iron already in contact with the atmosphere, at onco, through the presence of the moisture, and the destruction of the balance by the presenco of an unstable salt, begins to absorb the oxygen of the air. Now it must be observed that as the oxide of iron is being formed, it is held in solution by the still undecomposed chloride of ammonium, which accounts for tho mixture remaining black for a time. This is useful in so far that it gives time for the operator to complete his joint before the solid oxide is really deposited. At this particular stage, were steam or water turned upon tho joint under pressure, it is clear that the solution of iron-oxide would all bo washed out and leave tho clean borings all but useloss; but when time is given for the complete decomposition of the ammonia chloride, and the gradual evaporation of the component gases, the oxide is as it were precipitated, and forms a solid cement between tho particles of iron. Rust joints very often prove a failure through a neglect of principles. It is evident that an over-dose of sal ammoniac, a very common error, must be a source of failure—that the rust cannot form during tho presence of tho free salt.—Matrix.

[4183.]—CHARCOAL BISCUITS.—An easy way to make them is to subject ordinary biscuits to a current of superheated steam between 500-1 and 600° Fahr. Provided an issue is kept open for the steam as largo as the area of tho pipe introducing it, I know of no danger attending its use. Steam of the temperature above given will carbonize a piece of deal l(in. square, in a uniform manner to its centre. The subaiauecs carbonized should of course be protected from the air until they get cool. —associate.

[4191.]—DOG-MUZZLE.—I enclose a sketch of dogmuzzle that would suit "Bunting " r4191). It will allow the dog that wears it to drink easily and prevent him

[graphic]

[4198].—OOINB.—No. 1 Is a curious blundered production of probably some English die sinkers; for " Hipaniola" is the name of Cuba, a Spanish possession, and lias nothing to do with the Brazils.—D. T. Batty.

[4195.]— SENSITIVE FLAMES.—-F. W." asks for in formation regarding sensitive flames, and the apparatus used in producing them. The latter is simple, the former not quite so simple; for it will require cousiderabhspaco to enumerate all the proportios of these remark able phenomena. The apparatus would consist of a gas holder, orbagforcontiiiniug tho gas (hydrogen,carbonir monoxide, &c.\, a burner with suitablo tubing attached, and a series of different sized tubes. The theory generally accepted for the production of singing flames is the Buccessive explosions produced by the intermittent combination of the atmospheric oxygen with the loaning jet of hydrogen gas. Tho note produced by the apparatus, when in action, does not essentially depend on tho length of the tube used—it is influenced also by the size of flame, as the following experiment will show:—A tube, 25in. long, wa* planed over au ignited jet of hydrogen; tho sound produced was the'fundamental note of the tnbe. A tube, lajin. long (half the size of tho previous one) was brought over tho $ame flame, but no sound was obtainable. The flame was lowered, in order to make it as small as possible, and the tube last men tionod was again brought over it. It gave a clear mel odious note, tho octave of that obtainod with thc25in. tube. The 25in. tubo was now brought over the same flame; it no longer gave its fundamental note, but exaetlv the same as that produced from the tube of half its length; thus we see that although the speed with which the explosions succeed each other depends upon the length of the tube, tho flame haa also a voice in the matter—that to produce a musical Bound, its size must be such as to enable it to explode in unison, either with the fundamental pulses of the tube, or with the pulses of its harmonic divisions. M. Von Schaffgotsh's experiments form tho subject of a very interesting paper upon ttnnitivc flames, and Prof. Tyndall has followed in his steps with (as might be expected) additional results, which were published iu tho Pkiloiophieal Mtigazins for July, 1857, a few extracts from which I will subjoin pro verba. Ho says, "In the first experiments, I made use of a tapering brass burner, lOjin. long, having a superior oriflco, about l-'20th of an inch in diameter. Tho shaking of the singing flame within the glass tube, when tho voico was properly pitched, was so manifest as to he seen by several hundred people at onco. I placed a syren within a few feet of the singing flame, and gradually heightened the note produced by the instrument. As the sounds of the flamo and syren approached perfect unison, the fiaine shook, jumping up and down within the tube. Tho interval betwoen tho jumps became greater, until the unison was perfect, when the motion ceasod for au instant. The syren Btill increasing in pitch, the motion of the flamo agaiu appeared, the jumping became quicker and quicker, until it finally ceased to be discernible. While repeating and varying these experi ments, I onco had a silent flamo within a tube, and ou pitching my voico to tho note produced by the syren in the tube, tho flame, to ray great surprise, instantly started into song. Placing the finger on the eud of the tube, and silencing the melody, on repeating the experiment the same result was obtainod." That the shaking of tho flame to which Prof. Tyndall refers proceeds in exact accordance with the heats is beautifully shown by a tuning fork, which gives the same note a.i the flame. If the tuuiug fork is loaded, so as to throw it slightly out of unison with tho flame, when the former is sounded and brought near tho flamo the jumping* are seen at exactly the same intervals as those in which the beats are heard. When tho tuning fork is brought over a resonant jar or bottle, the beats may be heard and the jumping seen by a thousand peoplo at once. By changing tho load upon the tuning fork, or by slightly altering the size of the flame, the quickness with which tho beats succeed each other may be changed, but in all cases the jumpfngs address tho oyo at the same moment that the beats address tho car.—A. E. Tucker.

[4199.]—IRRIGATION.—The most economical expedient I could suggest to " Gcorgo " for raising a supply

[graphic]

biting. No. 1 is a side view; A, wirework, s $ » faco and cheek-straps; C, bottom strap, split bin. or 5in., according to size of dog; B, neck-strap; D, ring made of rather stronger wire round the jaw; E, space between two bottom wires, to allow dog's tongue to lap up the water. I have strapped many of them, and know they answer tho required purposes very well. S Annum.

of water for hi3 meadow is represented in tho uccoinpanying rough sketch. I have seen it in operation, the littlebuckots formed of bullocks horns, working away day and night, quietly and gracefully, far from any habita tion, and giving no trouble. The sketch requires no description. If " Robert" cannot fall in with a party near home to undertake the construction, and he furnishes me with his address through the Editor, I will forward estimate.—Matrix.

[4206.]—CHROMATIC FAIRY FOUNTAIN.—This is produced by dissolving various salts in strong spirits of wine. Chloride of copper, which gives green, and chloride of strontian producing red, are chiefly used, but chloride of calcium and. othor salts may he used. Sulphates do not answer because they are mostly insoluble in spirits. The spirit is forced out of the jet, either by heat, or better by means of strong prossure by condensed air, and spreading over the walls or ceiliug to which it is directed is there fired, and produces the well-known beautiful effect—Sioma.

[42iai —LEVEL.—" Apprentice" can fix his glass tube with whitelead or piaster of Paris, or guni-water thickened with plaster of Paris. Of course, it is as well to fix it as nearly true as yon can at first, hut it will require adjusting, by scraping the bottom of the wood truo after the cement has thoroughly set.—J. K. P.

[4*23.]— DEFECTIVE BATTERY.

the feVrulc should be covered with brass, but also the
plug at the bottom or extreme end of the joint. The
nuraber of rings on the various joints is n mutter of in-
dividual tagte, but the *' trolling " should certainly have
more than the other tops.—Hampton Wick. N.

\ t4341.] — BRICK OIL.— Brands says:—" Those, ■The silver is to^'fiat) oils cannot be volatilized without decomposition be'soldered to a strip of copper at the top by the usual which takes place at a temperature of about 600°. . . If tinuiau's solder and chloride of zinc. If the silvejris tne vapour bo collected, it is found acrid, sour, and coated with mercury, it must be heated red-hot with a empyreumatic; it was formerly employed in pharmacy

Bunsen's burner or otherwise; platinizing is a most siniplo process if carefully conducted, but it is usually done too quickly, and then it is soon destroyed. It is possible, however, that zinc may be deposited on the silver, which often happens in compound batteries when one cell has neutralized its acid; in this case, the only way to remove it is to dissolve it off in acid, placing it in contact with one or two clear silver plates.— Sigma.

[4227.]— PIKE-FISHING.—I am afraid an amateur angler nut for only a day's pike-fishing is not likely to obtain much sport unless he has a friend who knows the water. But as "Citizen" wishes for apparently complete instructions I will do my best to help him. If the water is fairly clear of weeds spinning is tho most killing, as it is likewise the most attractive, method of angling for pike. Tho requisites are a rather stiff rod, a rccL and ruuaiug lino of about 60 or 80 yards of plaited Hilk, with a stained gimp trace. Now take a nice medium-sized gudgeon, and insert the tail-hook of vour spinning-flight through tho fleshy part of the tail brfngingit out as near the- tail-fin as possible. Draw the tail up till it nearly forms a right angle and fasten in position with the sinail reversed hook. Pass the lip-hook through both lips—the upper one first, as the bait is a gudgeon—and you are ready to try whether there is a fish that will bo tempted. The flying triangle of hooks should lie loose alongside the bait, and not be hooked into the fish in any manner. I presume " Citizen " will purchase a spinning-flight, and does not therefore require information as to the method of making it; but I would advise him not to have one with loo many hooks. Now let him take the rod in his right hand, and unwinding some yards of line, which will lie loose at his feet, with a swinging motion send his bait into tho stream and holding his rod near the surface, begin drawing in the line with his left hand, and between each' draw make a backward motion of the rod with the right hand. The object of this is to keop tho bait constantly moving. Don't take the bait out of the water until it is quite close to tho bank, as Mr. Jack will often make a rush for it just as the tempting morsel is about to be withdrawn. In hot weather work near tho top of the water, in cold at the bottom. Supposing a flsh makes a bite you had better strike at once; as tho matter is still disputed (some anglers say you ought to let the plko retire with his prizo and not strike till ho has "shook the bait") you may try both methods. When once your fish is hooked never allow the line to bo slack, lint keep a strain always on it, and if ho gets amongst weeds the line being tight may cut its way through them, but if slack you will be sure to lose your flsh. When vour fish is exhausted draw him goutly to the bank and gaff him if you have that implement; if not, grasp him tightly behind tho shoulders and pitch him on the bank, but be careful, as a pike has very sharp teeth, and will let you feel them if you give him a chance. The haunts of pike vary according to tho season of tho year and with the naturo of tho water; but it usually prefers a still unfrequented spot, plentifully supplied with weeds and flags. The neighbourhoods o'f reeds, docks, bulrushes, and the broad-leaved waterlily are its favourite resorts. The pike spawns generally about March or April, and in rivers they begin to get into con.lition again about June; but in still waters they are some time longer. On tho Thames pikc-flshiug is illegal between the 1st of March and the 81st of May. Trolling differs from spinning in being the only method in which you can flsh for pike in water that is so overrnn with weeds or bushes and stumps that a spinningbait cannot be worked. For trolling, a pair of hooks aro placed close together so as to lie on either side of tho bait's head; their shanks are weighted with lead and .iih'.oil to a gimp trace, which is passed through the body of tho bait and mado fast to the lino. The motion of the gorge-bait in trolling is principally produced by its descent headforemost when thrown in, and the subsequent raising and lowering in circles; but, in fact, tho bait should never be allowed to remain still. In " trolliug," time must be given the pike for swallowing or pouching the bait before striking, which will sometimes ocenpy him as much as 10 or even 15 minutes, according to some authorities; but it is just as well to try a gentle romi ..dcr now and then, in case it should not be a fish after all. It is rather ludicrous to see a man with his hook fast in a Btump, waiting for the pike to "pouch " before he strikes.—A. T., Statues.

[4230.]—A GENERAL ROD— I do not think "Pedestrian" can have a better rod than the one recommended by Mr. Pcnnell, which ho has proved. 'It consists of two ash butts, 8ft. 2{in. long; the one 3Jln. in circumference at the thickest part, the other, 8Jin.; at the top, just below the ferrule, they should be respectively 2 u-lSths and ljin. in oircumference. The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd joints should each be 8ft. 2{in. long, with circum

under the name of "philosopher's oil,'" and as it was
often obtained by steeping a brick in oil and submitting
it to distillulion, it was also called "oil of bricks."
(Brande's " Manual of Chemistry," pago 1129.) Lapida-
rios and gem engravers use it with their diamond
powder, according to HoltzaprTel [soo Vol. Ill, pouiix.)
He says it is obtained by putting a red-hot brick into
oil, but 1 cannot find the passage.—J. K. P.

[4249.]—COIN.—Austrian medal of Francis I. and
Maria Theresa.—Bernabdix,

ferences at thick ends of lj.12, and liu., tapering to 1 j. 1 H-lhthB.andj respectively. The "trolling" top should be Jit.10m., with a circumference at thiok end of lin..

bo -., Ivhu a circumference at thiok end of lin. whilst tho fly top should not measure more than 11 lotus round. The bottom-fishing top may be 2ft. Sin. long, with the same thickness, but the spinning top should bo only 1ft. Sjin. in length. The total lengths of the various rods that can be made out of these joints will be as follows:—a double- handed fly rod, 16tt. ljin.; a single - handed fly rod, 12ft. 4in.; a trolling rod, 12ft. 4in. By changing the top joint of tho double-handed fly rod for the "bottom" fishing top, it forms an excellent rod for worm or creeper fishing; and by substituting the spinning top it does admirably for trout fishing with the minnow. By taking away the large joint and butt, and nsing the smaller butt, a useful single-handed fly rod is formed, which Mr. Pcnnell prefers to any other in his possession. Tho joints and tops should be made of greenhcart, and the butts of ash; use hammered brass ferrules, as they are much the cheapest in tho long run, and not liable to In-oak; and by all means have the bottoms of the joints doable brazed to prevent sticking from damp. Bv douMc brazing I mean not only that the part which tits into

NOTES AND QUEBIES.

[4259.]-LONOITUDE.-What would bo the simplest and most practical way for a person with an equatorial, unfurnished with a transit instrument of any kind, of ascertaining his longitude with any degree of correctness ?—H. A. C.

[4260.J-MAGNITUDE OF STAR.-Has not the star the 3rd of the triple 5 (y. 2379) Aquila) increased in point of magnitude in tho last two or three years; for I seo it with 8}in. aperture and power of 240. romiiUrnhhj britjhtsr than the dehilissima of ll between el and t'i Lyra*, though Webb speaks of one as of the 14m. and the other two 18m.—H. A. C.

[4261.] -COTTON SPINNING.-I want to know what tho distance should be from centre to centre between the 1st and 2nd,2nd and 3rd, 3rd and 4th rollers of a dr.iwiug frame, to work fair open Egyptian cotton, to spin no's and 90's weft; also how a draught of eight ought to bo divided between them. Perhaps some of your correspondents interested ill cotton spinning will favour mo with their opinions. I wish " B. W. H." would favour us with a rule for equalising draughts. I have thought over the matter but must confess I cannot lind out what he means.—Country Lad.

[4262.]-CORNISH ENGINE.-I thank " J. K. P." for his answer to my query; it was the engine valves I wanted to understand, and I do now. I should like the drawing of cataracts if ho will send it to tho Enolish Mechanic. Another thing I want to know is the rule for the parallel motion, especially the extra piece used in some engines to carry the plug-rods.—F. P.

[4263.]— ENGINEERING.—Will some kind brother reader answer the following questiou:—What steam power would bo required to drive one pair of 4ft. stones in a mill in order to grind five bushels per hour V—A Provincial Miller.

[4264.J-MATHEMATICAL.-I shall feel very thankful if some one will answer this question:—" The water in a canal lock rises to a height of 18ft. against a gate whose breodth is lift., calculate the total pressure against it "— Schoolboy II.

[4265.]-FIXING AND COLOURING PRINTS ON GLASS.—Will some of your correspondents tell me the best method of Axing prints on glass, and then painting them from the back, giving them tho appearance of painting on glass, and should it bo oil or water colour — Lalla Kookh.

[4266.] -WATER GILDING.—Would some brother reader refer me to a good practical work on water "ilding naming the publisher and price J—J. C. 8.

[4267.J—RE-WORKING VULCANIZED RUBBER.— Can any brother reader inform me if I can dissolve and re-work into sheets, say lin. thick, a quantity of old vulcanized rubber? Ihave noticed other correspondents seeking information respecting this popular material. Could not Bomo of our London friends give us a good description of the treatment in manufacturing vulcanized rubber, and oblige.—Economy.

[4268.]-GILDING.-Will any of your numerous correspondents kindly inform me of a receipt that will cover brass or other metallic ornaments with a thin coat "' £old!„DJ', simply dipping them in tho solution, also what wul clean them tit for that purpose ?—A. W. F.

[4269.]—ASSOCIATE OF ART DEGREE.—Will Mr J. Harrison, A.A., kindly favour me with further particulars, or whore I am to apply for them, in respect of this degree, as to when, were, and what forms, Ac. Ac aro necessary at each examination, and whether it is open to public competition or not?—A. W. T.

[4274.J—CUPELLING.—What is the best and na,st practicable method of cupelling ?—Student.

[4275.]-TESTING GOLD.—Is there a better method to ascertain tho purity, Ac., of gold than simply te-tin» jt by the application of pure nitric acid to its surface"'— Student.

276.] -GOTTA PERCHA.—Will any of onrkind enrre*.

ponthjnts inform me if it is possible to dissolve ;nm»

- to a liquid state, and if so, and I pour it upi,n

porcfta

or into anything, will it become as hard as it was before

dissolving it.—A Potter.

[4278.1—FRENCH METHOD OF DETECTING ADULTERATION OF OILS.-TO "BERNARDLV "-In his note on vegetable oils, Bernardin speaks of a French method for detecting the adulteration of oils. Ho would oblige me by explaining it more fully.—E. V. D. S.

14279.1— Why are dry gas meters preferred in this country to wet ones, whereas on the Continent the hitter are generally used?—E. V. D. S.

[4,m]-AQUARIUM.-Could any correspondent of the Mechanic tell me how to preve'nt the water of an aquarium fr. .m getting greenish, and what kind of plants would grow in it ?—E. V. D. S. ^^

t*2811:-MAP PROJECTION.-Will any brother subscriber kindly give the rule for projecting'the world according to Mercator's projection ?—Ionoramcs.

[4282.] - CONTINENTAL SCHOOLS. - Having a numerous family of boys to educate, with a certain but linuted income, and not being myself engaged in anv business, would any ol yoor nuuiorous readers kindly assist by informing me where on the continent I could obtain a first-class mercantile education on the mo«t economical terms, in a healthy situation, where I could myself remove to and reside, where house rents and living are cheap.—Anxiety.

[4283.]—WARPED CABINET LLD.—I have in my possession a veneered stationery cabinet, the lid of which is slightly warped. Can any brother reader inform me to get it hack to its original state without causing

[4270.] -CHEMICAL.-Will some kind subscriber tell me the simplest way of reducing caustic magnesia, carbonate soda, and oaustic potash to the metals magnesium sodium, potassium ?—Xknophon.

4271.—A TRIGONOMETRICAL DIFFICULTY —Will any gentleman bo kind enough to assist mo out uf the following difficulty? Mr. Todhuntcr, in Trigonometry for Beginners, p. 85, says:—

"8 (8 log. 8 - 1) + -j (4 log. 8 - 2) - j-<2 log. 8 + 1)

(„ 16 5 I 8 5

97 117 _

= Jo 1°(S- 3 - 20 = 2.7780766."
Now I cannot understand the process by which he gets
16 51
g- — "J Ac. Please explain in full.—Poor Lad.

[4272.]—CRUCIBLE.—What crucible will best stand
a strong lire and a very penetrating flux, such, for in-
stance, as what is generally called glass of load, &c, and
what is the best method of annealing crucibles?—
Student.

[4273.1-SPLITTING WHALBBONE.-Can you or any of your correspondents kindly tell me how to split whalebone? Also the kind of whalebone most suitable for the purpose, and where obtainable ?—Enquirer.

tho wood to crack ?—J. B.

14284.]-ALABASTER GLASS.—Would Mr. J. Leicester be kind enough to put me In the way of making alabaster glass, as the reciiie given cm page 408 Vol Y turned out a very hard green glass. I avowant to know now I can analyze glass, or where I can get it analyzed? —J.

[4285.]—GAS MUFFLE FTTLVACE.-C<mM any correspondent give me a sketch of a gas muffle furnace? —J.

[4286.]—ALLOYS FOR TIN FOIL.—Will some reader inform mo the composition of the alloys lor tin foil, the same as they wrap tobacco, cocoa, 4c., in!—E. S.

WOOLLETT.

[4287.]—COTTON SPINNING.-Can inv ol your numerous readers inform me what work I should consult for the building of a mnlo head stock tor cotton spinning?—J. P.

[4281.]—FORCE PUMP FOR TRRIGAT10K.-Mv Mn is a tea planter in India, and is sadly in want ol seme means of watering his tea plants in a dry season. Can any brother reader inform me what Is the best portable force pump, and what kind of hose is most suitable to an Indian climate? Also, the price, and how far the water can be thrown ?—W. B.

[4289.]—DANIELLS BATTERY—I Bhould feel much obliged if "Sigma" would kindlv give me iustrnctions for keeping a common Daniell's battery in good working order. I believe it is similar to those useil at telegraph stations—copper and zinc plates, with plain water, and crystals of sulphate of copper. My use for it is to control my transit clock in the observatory here by the astronomical clock flxed in the cellar of the dwelling house. I find that the zinc plates soon get foul, and tho action is uncertain. It has given me some trouble for a Ion; time past. At one time the permanent magnets are in fault, at another the battery; and any instructions that wonld save me all this annoyanee, wou3d be valuable.—H. C. K.

[ocr errors]

[4290.]—FOOD.—Can any reader recommend a good work on food. I mean as regards its actioai and value in cases of dyspepsia. I remember seeing a book advertised called (I think) the "Dyspeptic's H and Book." which I believe would suit my purpose very well— Tau Tau. *

[4291.]—MAGNETIC BATTERY.-Our ever ready and obliging editor, in reply to my quer.- ■ n How to Make or Construct a Magnetic Batten-, re u red me to back numbers; but the only information 11 btained was from Raymond Willis, p. 209, Vol. X, ,o the" Utility of Magnetism," but who further expres r s his hopes in the magnetic battery being one day invent' d. I have always been under the impression that such did exist, hut if any of your scientific princes can set mo on the right track I shall esteem it an exceeding great favour; and' at the same tinio how to obtain a strong current. —Beriro..

[4292] .-FRICTION IN STEAM CYLINDERS.—Mr P. Jensen, whose able articles on the " Friction in Steam Cylinders " are now appearing in our columns, will much oblige me if he would explain how the formulas given on page 294 are derived, or refer me to any book where Mr. McFarlane Gay's formula; are given. On page 845 Mr. Jensen describes several lubricators—Ramsbottom's, Roscoe's, Wilson's, Clement's, and Sohauwecker's—without, however, giving illustrations of them. He (or some reader acquainted with these different forms) will greatly favour me, and I have no doubt many readers of the Enolish Mechanic, by sending sections of these lubricators with letters of reference attached to the different parts.—A Constant Reader.

[4293.]—MILLERS.—I should be obliged to any of my dusty brethrou who would favour by giving their exi>e~ rience on the comparative merits of balance versus fixed rynds.—2. Information as to the most approved apparatus for cleaning and preparing Ghirku and similar wheats.—J. S.H.

[4294.]—BREWING.—A brother reader gave a linn how to brew a small quantity of ale. I have tried his plan, but it is no finer now than when it was brewed

l weeks ago. Will any one oblige me by saying how uT,e browed so that it will «ue without the use of

Boxxm

it can be brewed so

finings, as they so soon turn it sour.—W. Wood.

[42951 -HARMONIUM.-IMPERFECT TUNING.

Wffi Mr. Hermann Smith kindly till me the true cause

and remedy for the following defect, which I find to bo

almost invariably the case m harmoniums. Take the

octave for instance, time it quite perfect with medium

pressure of wind, then with greater pressure, lower note

will beioo fiat, and with less pressure, lower uote will

Do too sharp. With the double octave, this is still more

yerceptible and mostly worst from middle of key-board

down to base. It is tho same with other interval

■besides the-octaves, but not so easily detected because

of the tempering of thirds, fifths, Ac.-amateir

TcXEB.

r.1296.]—GALVANIC BATTERIES.—Will " Sigma," or some kind lellow-reader, tell me tho relative proportion of surface that bichromate. Smee's,Bunsen's, and carbon, and zinc-in-sulphurie-acid batteries must have to give off the same quantity of electricity as Grovo's battery.

J. 8.

[4297.—GALVANOMETERS.—Isball fool vory grateful il "Sigma" will tell me the best form of galvanometer or other instrument for showing the strength of the secondary current in ordinary induction coils that £?ive no spark.—J. S.

[4298.1-CHLORIDE OP SILVER.—What is tho reason of chloride of silver turning blue after evaporation ?— E. H.

[•1293.] —SILVERING CLOCK DIALS.—Will a "Morayshire Man " explain more fully the process of silvering clock dials. I have tried his process without success, the the result being ft dark deposit on the dial which the varnish does not improve, the silver also seems to rub off again.—E. H.

[1800.]— SAUSAGES, Etc.—Will some kind reader iniorm rue how to make sausages, polonies and potted ■meat, such as commonly sold by pork butchors.—SackXess.

[4301.]— DISSOLVING VIEWS.—Your correspondent ■who a few weeks back said he had had sevcu years experience in painting dissolving views would greatly ohlige me and donbtless many others of your subscribers if he would kindly say the mode of procedure. Any useful hints from any source gladly received by this Scribbler.

[4933.—MADAGASCAR MATTING. — I find this matting advertised in several papers by MM. Bontor and Collins, 185. Oxford-street, but have not seen it. I wisn lo know tho material it is made of? I suppose is the same as the Rabanncs matting made with the fibres of the palm-tree (Jojw raffia).—Bernardin.,

[4303.]—CAST IRON.—Is there existing n spocial •work on the different sorts of cast iron 1 Particulars will oblige.—Z. D.

8789 Aviary, 21-4.

8795 Vulcanizing Rubbor, 214.

3806 Polishing Faceted Gold Chains, 215.

8807 Painting Stone., in Jewellery, 215.

3808 To " Seuex," 215.

8812 Condensing Engine, 215.

8814 Mondoza Pulley, 215.

8M15 Fastouing Emery to Leather, 21j.

3816 Pressing Ladles and Shovels into Shape, 21.>.

3830 Wire Covering. 215.

8831 Plant for Starch and Corn-flour Manufacture, 215.

3832 Burnishing Plate, 215.

3838 Printers' Furniture, 2:17.

8840 Mushet's Steel, 237.

3841 Grinding Drug Seeds. 237.

8842 Steel Wire. To tho" Harmonious Blacksmith, 237.

8844 Entomological Query, 237.

8849 Stuffed Canary, 238.

8854 Hcribling Long Fleece Wool, 288.

3855 Piano Felt, 238.

8857 Ticture Mount, 388.

8i*58 Hole in Earthenware Jar, 238.

8S59 Florentine Bronze, 288.

8870 Springs aud Axles for Waggons, 2o8.

8872 Yacht Building. 238.

8875 Bleaching Powder, 238.

8880 Veneering, 238.

8881 Dyeing and Colouring Grass Leaves, 2oS.

3885 C'anoe, 288.

8888 Alarum for Dutch Clock, 238.

3889 Preparing Canvas, 238.

8893 Precipitating Gold, 233.

3903 Rad Rheii, 238.

89O0 Repairing India-rubber Combs, 239.

8910 Conical Winding Drums, 202.

3912 Revolving Frame for Shop Windows, 262.

3914 Wood Eugraviug, 202.

8915 Nail Bags, 203.

8916 Painting Boiler, 262. 8J17 Ice Chest—Ices, 202.

3918 Enamel 262. „ „—

3919 Galvanic Band. To " Suffolk," " Amateur,' 262.

3923 Geometrical Drawing, 362.

3924 Silent Fans, 262.
8925 Position of Magnetic Pole, 262.
3926 Forcing Water, 262.
8928 Re-manufacturing India-rubber, 262.

3933 Hypophosphite of Iron and Quinine, 262.

3934 Organ Accordion Stand, 262.

8935 Dissolving Shoop's Horns, 262.

8936 Fast Colour for Sheepskins, 262.
8942 Making Butter, 202.
8945 Paint for Boats, 262. „,,„„„
8947 Re-melting Hard White Paint, 2t>2.
3943 India-rubber Tyres, 262.

8951 Bamboo Nuts, 202.

8952 Loam Pans, 262.
8958 Namos of Parts of Bellows, 262.
3961 Bisulphide of Carbon Prism, 262.

[merged small][ocr errors]

8962 White Lead, 262.

8963 Oak, Walnut, and Mahogany Stains, 262. 3965 Organs, 263.

8968 Kiln, 203.

8969 Copper Boilors, 263.

USEFUL AND SOrENTLTIO NOTES.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

3649 Pianoforte. To the " Harmonious Blacksmith," 166
2655 Archery, 166.
2657 Forbes' Knitting Machine, 166.
Water Meter, 166.
Arm-chair, 166.

Copper deposit on Cast Iront 166.
Artificial Teeth, 166.
Draught Wanted, 166.
Casting Silver Balls, 166.
Hydrogen Gas for Balloon, 166.
The "High Peak " Velocipede, ISO.
Landscape Painting, 166-
Copping Mule, 166.
Engine Chimney, 166.
Arnold's Chimney Ventilator, 166.
Greater Pthah, 167.
Mill aud Forgo Work. Rolling, 167.
Inlaying Fancy Wood, 167.
Pasteboard, 167.
Relacquering Brass Work, 190
Lace and Buttons, 190.

Cotton, 190.

Chrome Black, 190.

Wire Tacks and Nails, 190.

Seamless Felt Skirts, 199.

Blocking Black Lead, 190.

Transparent Paraffin, 190.

Barometer Tubes, 190.

Float for Boiler, 190.

Seasoning Wood, 190.

Dentistry, 190.

Deposit from Soda Crystals, 190.

Contrivance for holding Iron Rods, 191.

Cleaning and Refilling Barometer Tubes, 191.

Faulty Engine, 191.
Emerv Grindstones, 214.

Ear Boring. 214.

Fog Horn. To the "Harmonious Blacksmith," 214,

8781 Photography, 214.

S784 To Watchmakers, 214.

3785 Prices for Sawing Timber, 214.

8787 Tempering Buffer Springs, 214.

8788 Bono Breaking, 214.

THE DANGERS OF CHEAP CONFECTIONERY.— Whv is it that, after eating a few only of these beautifully coloured sweets, our child should always suffer the pangs of colic, although he often surreptitiously abstracts twice the quantity of loaf sugar from the cupboard, and isnone the worso for it? The answer has already been given by many authorities, to the effect that there is no more unblushing and licensed poisoner in tho world, than tho unscrupulous manufacturer of cheap confectionery.

FLIES ON HORSES.—The Journal of Chemiatry gives the foUowiug as a preventative of horses being teased by flics—Take two or three small handfuls of walnut leaves, upou which pour two or three quarts of cold water; let it infuse one night, and pour the whole next morning into n kettle, and let it boil for a quarter of an hour. When cold it is fit for use. No more is required than to moisten a sponge, and before the horse goes out of the stable let those parts which are most irritable be smeared over with the liquor, namely, between and upon the ears, the neck, the flauks, etc. Not only the gentleman or ladv who rides out for pleasure wiU derive pleasuro from the walnut leaves thus prepared, but the coachman, the wagoner, and aU others who use horses during the hot months.

THE CONTINUOUS CURRENT IN HEMIPLEGIA. —Dr. Althaus mentions the case of a man, aged fiftytwo, who, whilst writing, suddenly lost the uso of the right arm. There was complete paralysis of forearm and band, and noarlv complete anaesthesia of hand aud Angers. A current of twenty-two ceUs of Danioll s battery was applied to the left hemisphere for one minute on several occasions, aud the same was applied to the radial and ulnar nerves, with tho effect of restoring the power of the affected arm completely.

REPOLISHING JEWELLERY, Etc.—Mr. A. Allan, writing to the Scientific American says that after makiug a number of experiments he is convinced that a solution of cvanide of potassium in water is equal if not superior to any compound that can be usod for cleaning jewellery, the liquid cleaning all those parts of the work which neither brush, bnff, nor thread could reach. Here is the method: dissolve one ounce of cyanide of potassium iu three gills of soft water, turn up tho end of a piece of brass or iron wire into a hook, attach to it tho article to be cleaned, and immerse it in tho solution, shaking it backward and forward tor a second or two, then take it out and rinse well in clean water. Wash it with warm water and soap to remove any film of cyanido that may remain: rinse again, dip into spirits of wine, and dry in boxwood sawdu-it. The advantage of dipping m spirits of wine is the Immediate drying of the work without any sticking of tho sawdust to it. When done with tho solution, put it in a bottle aud cork tightly. It may be used again and again for some months. Care should be takeu not to wet the fiugers with the solution and uot to inhale the odour, as tho cyanide is a violent poison.

STEEL AND IRON RAILS.— A correspondent of Engineering, writing on the adrantagc of Bteel over iron rails, after describing the condition of a eteel rail which had undergone two years and nine months of almost incessant shunting operations, where iron lasted only from three to six months, says:—" No small advantage of steel over iron side-rails to points cousists in the gradual wearing down of the former, which permits the adjacent point rail to lie close, whereas side-rails of the latter material often crush inwards, causing points to be out of gauge."

SOFT SOLDER, AND SILVER SOLDER.—A strong easv-flowing and white solder for jewellers' use (according to a correspondent of tho Scientific American) is composed of lead one purt, and tin two parts. When the lead Ls melted put in the tn and then throw in a small piece of resin as a flux. In soldering fine work wet the parts to be joined with muriatic acid in which as much zinc has been dissolved as the acid will tako up. It is cleaner than the old method of using Venice turpentine or resin. To make silver solder, put into a clean crucible pure silver two parts, clean brass one part, with a small piece of borax—melt aud pour into ingot. Tho solder flows easily and clean.

THE EYE.—One of those "facts not generally known' is mentioned by Dr. Baden in a recent communication to oBe of the' Parisian journal. It is that in every eve there is a spot necessarily afflicted with blindness— that where the nervous fibres of the retina join in a bnnch to make their way to the brain. The truth of this is easily ascertained; draw a small cross on a piece of paper, then, to the right, at a distance of about two inches and a half, make a blot of about the size of a common w.ifer; close yonr left eye and fix your right one on the cross; now bring the paper slowly nearer and nearer to the eye; when it is at the distance of about eight inches the black spot will become invisible, but on continuing to approximate the paper it will appear again.

IMPROVED "DOBERELNER" HYDROGEN LAMP. —Dobcreiner's hydrogen lamp, though not exactly a novelty, may be welcomed by many of our readers as an attractive and useful piece of apparatus for the classroom or laboratory. A glass bell of air is connected with the cover of tho vessel, which is also of glass, and contains water acidulated with sulphuric acid. The cover being attached, the bell becomes surrounded by wnter, which rises in it when the air is allowed to escape. This is effected by pressing down tho MiiaU lever (c) at tho top. In the bell a piece of zinc (B) is suspended, which decomposes the water when it is reached, aud thus in a few minutes hydrogen gas has taken the placo of air in tho bell. The lever being now pressed down, the hydrogen is forced on to a piece of spongy platinum in a cage ID), which, becoming red hot inflames tho gas, and by tho same movement the wick pf the lamp is brought into the current and instantly linhted (O is a protecting shield for the platinum. Messrs.'Mottershead & Co., of Manchester have recently imported from France a number of these lamps.

FINE VARNISH FOR WOOD—Tho varnish applied to Connecticut clock-cases, wooden picture-frames, and other cheap objects, is made by mixing two pounds of copal varnUh with half au ounce of linseed-oil varnJah, and the mixture is shaken often to mix it well. The wood is prepared with a thin coat of glue-water rubbed down with fine pumice-stone. In hght-colourcd wood, a light pigment, such as chalk, is added to the glue-water; in dark wood, an equally dark pigment is added. After drring, the articles are rubbed with a solution of wax in ether, thereby acquiring a high polish.

THE VALUE OF CHLORAL.—This comparatively recently discovered anaesthetic has boon found of great value in the treatment of the insane. As a hypnotic it doservedlv ranks with opium, and often procures refreshing sleep when the latter remedy has failed Its use has proved most beneficial in mania, especially of the reourrentiform with absence of sleepand restlessness. Patients wholinve passed sleepless nights, in spite of tho ordinary treatment of opium, henbane, &c., have after a do-e'of chloral hydrate passed a tranquil night, with undisturbed rot. One of its great advantages consists in the fact that it docs not cause headache, loss of appetite, or siokness.

DRYING TIMBER.—M. Violette, in a recent report on some experiments in which he has lately been ongaged says that steam at a temperature of 482- tab., is capable of taking up a considerable quantity of water, ho oxposed several sorts of wood for a period of two hours, to a current of steam at 7j lb. pressure to the square inch, but which was raised to a temperature of 4sV before the experiment was finished. The wood was weighed before aud after it was exposed to the steam, and it was found that elm and oak docreased in weight 1-2 ash and walnut 2-5, and pine 1-3. The wood showed a change of colour during the process, walnut became very dark, and showed

[graphic]

tarry matter formed in the wood, which was found to have a preserving effect on it. It was found that wood thus exposed to steam at a high temperature, became stronger, and that its power to resist fracturo was increased. Oak was increased iu strength 5-9th, walnut i, pino 8-5th aud elm l-5lh. By this process the fibres of the wood were drawn closer together, and maple and pine treated by steam at a temperature of 487°, were rendered far more valuable for musical instruments, than by any process heretofore known.

AMOUNT OF DYES YIELDED BY COAL.—Accordto Chateau, 1001b. of coal tar yield 31b. of commercial and 151b. of pure benzole, from which 81b. of commercial nitro-benzole are obtainable. These 31b of nitrobenzole yield 2'251b. of rosanilinc, from which 8 3,1b. crude aniline red and 1121b. of pure fuchsine may be produced. As, therefore, 1001b. of tar give 1121b. of pure fuchsine, and 10011). of coal only 31b. of tar, 3.0001b. of coal are required to produce lib. of fuchsine. lue total consumption of coal iu Europo for tho manufacture of gas, being about 160,000,000 cwts., this quantity might furnish 53,000 cwts. of fuchsine.

MOBE CONGRATULATIONS.

{Continued from page 812.)

83. The following is the concluding portion of a letter from Mr. Proctor in the List number of Scientific Opinion :—

"A word aa to the journal into which Scientific Opinion ie to bo merged. I believe я great career lies before the English Mechanic. It has lung had an enormous circulation; and amongst its subscribers I could name many of the leading men of scionce of the day. But some time ago it was not doing so well as could be wished. Excellent letters from я Fellow of the Astronomical Society, and other thoughtful students of science, were swamped by a number of silly articles and letters calculated to ruin the journal, despite the large array of its supporters. AU this has now changed. Not suddenly, but with care and forethought, the whole tone of the publication has been modified. The natural result has followed. Men of science are no longer ashamed, as a year ago they might well be, to appear in the columns of this widely circulating journal. On the contrary, they feel that it supplies them with the opportunity of supplying useful information to an enormons circlo of readers. And thus it has happened that, referring only to the subject in which I personally take chief interest, letters or papers have appeared, within the last two or three weeks alone, from such well-known astronomers as Webb, Penrose, Lockyer, and Birt ; while * F.R.A.S.' continues to supply his valuable contributions.

"The English Mechanic deserves success by its pluck and energy, and by the care and skill with which (at least during the hut few months) it has been conducted."

84. "Journalistic Amalgamation.—It is announced that there is to be an amalgamation of oar contemporaries Scientific Opinion and the English Mechanic, or rather that the former is to be absorbed into the latter. In repeating this announcement we gladly bear testimony to the great ability and tact displayed by Dr. Henry Lawson in editing Scientific Opinion, the third volume of which is nearly completed. Of the English Mechanic we have merely to say that it has recently been so improved, and in general style and management has been so altered, that, except in name, it is totally changed from what it was little less than a year ago. It bears evidence of having a masterly hand at the helm." —British Journal of Photography.

85. "I Im ve; long been a silent lover of the English Mechanic, and think it quite time to congratulate you on the very able manner in which it has been conducted of late."—J. W. Dinsoale, Feversham, near Cambridge.

86. "Allow me to congratulate you en the way in which you merge all the lesser scientific publications in yourself, and thereby benefit both your and their subscribers." — Abthcb U N i) к un i LL, Carlton Chambers, 12, Regent Street.

87. "Your paper is worth taking in and reading now, which, for the amount and scope of scientific reading of all kinds, makes it at once the cheapest, the most u se ful, most interesting, and most impartial of the scientific periodicals." — Cornbliub E. Cabdew, 27, Eglintonterrace, Crossbill, Glasgow.

68. "Yoo,are a perfect python, sir, in the manner of your swallowing. I see another journal, and from what I can judge a good one, too, is incorporated. Without exception yours is the cheapest and best scientific journal issued. I am sure that I simply utter the feelings of all our readers when I say that I hope your journal may live long to grace the scientific literature of Great Britain. May the English Mechanic and the sun never set over her realm."—Е. Chamberlain, 8f Mount Vernon, Guernsey.

DOMESTIC EEOEIPTS.

THE following receipts are takon from the Food Journal. But why should we not have original contributions under this head? We venture, therefore, to appeal to our readers—and, as a matter of course, to our lady friends—to sen-1 us, as the result of their experience, useful receipts for tasty dishes for all classes. Wc somehow feci confident that the appeal will not be made in vain.

Préservation or Milk.—The following method of preserving milk is given in a French technical journal as discovered by MM. Orapbin and Rogier. To each litre (1J pint! of new milk add 1$ ounce of bicarbonate of soda or potash, then close the bottle and place it for about four hours in a hot water bath, heated to just below 1941 Fahrenheit. When the bottle* are withdrawn from the bath, dip them in molted pitch, and the milk, will keep for a long time without alteration.

What To Do With The Remnants.—Many prescriptions have been given for the employment of the cold remains of a joint; but, with the assistance of Baron Brisse, we offer a new method likely to produce a more tasty result:—Cut some mushrooms in small slices and steep them in butter. They must then be boiled in stock with a bouquet of herbs, containing a head of garlic in the centre. When the mushrooms are cooked, skim the fat off the sauce, and add capers, anchovy, and a very little vinegar or chopped pickled cucumber. Thin slices of cold roast beef must then be placed in the sanee, and warmed, though boiling should be carefully avoided. When these injunctions have been strictly executed, it is then incumbent on the cook to taste the sauce, and sprinkle the quantity of salt and

{»epper necessary to insure a good flavour. In serving, et the pieces of meat be placed on the dish in the shape of a crown, and the gravy poured over the whole. The bouquet is of course carefully removed.

[We will, in a future number, give other recipes for utilizing cold joints.}

Sago Jelly.—Boil well a teacupful of sago in S¿ pints of water; when cold, mix * pint of the juice of fresh fruit or raspberry syrup (rhubarb syrup will do); boil five minutes, and sugar to taste.

Jugged Hare Of Cold Mutton.—Cut np the mutton into thick, square pieces, resembling the back of a hare; season with pepper, salt, allspice, pounded mace, and a littlo nutmeg; put into a jar, with an onion, a clove or two, a bundle of sweet herbs, a piece of coarse beef, and a tumbler of porter. Tie the jar down with a bladder or strong paper; put it into a saucepan of water, up to the neck, but no higher; keep the water boiling live hours; beforo serving, boil the gravy up with a piece of butter and some flour; if the meat gets cold, warm it in this, but do not let it boil.

89. "Accept my hearty congratulation for the * great fact* yon are producing. I should think there was nothing like it before."—S. R., Lutterworth.

90. "It has sometimes struck me whether the President of the Council, and the men who direct the educational machinery of the country, know what an instrument our Mechanic is in promoting the useful sciences and developing the industrial resources of the commonwealth.'' —saul Rymea, 24, New-street, New-road, Mile-end.

91. "What a difference in the English Mechanic of * yesterday ' and * to-day '! What will it bo to-morrow?'' —W. H. Thorpe, Reading.

92. "For some time past it has been my pleasure and profit to read what some of your correspondents call 'our paper.' 1 have watched its gradual growth till it has "become an institution based on iuuLu:tl assistance aud encouragement, and now, to increase Us efficiency, you announce the absorption of Scientific Opinion."— J. R. D., Coventry,

93. The Enolish Mechanic is becoming quite an institution of the country.—D. F. Batty, 9, Fennellstrcet, Manchester.

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

the greater the libel. In our endeavour to protect oar readers from dishonest advertisers we have recently been put to trouble and expense. All we can promise to do now is to caution our readers not to part with their money unless they have the goods en Mitisfiictyr",^ reference «<r security. Let us have proof thjgjfgtf*T advertiser is dishonest, and we will no longe£gm his advertisement. The Microscope.—С. С Smith says "Havin&poticed the comparative absence of answers to microscopic questions in the Mechanic, I beg to intuíate шу willingness to afford any information in my power on the mechanical manipulation of the microscope аъ the result of шипу years' experience." Mr. Smith has unr thanks for his kind offer. Т* H. В.—We should be glad to hear from you on the

bee question. No. 152 can be had of the publisher. Electron.—The first Atlantic Cable (of 1857) contained seven wires, was 6-10ths of an iuch in diameter, and weighed one ton per mile. The cable of 1865 is l-16th of un inch in diameter, contains seven wircs,and wehcfch 354lcwt. per mile. The cable of 1866 contains seven wires, is 1-16 of an inch in diameter, and weigha81e*t. per mile. Joe.—Plaster of Paris is not so generally need now for stereotyping because of the inconvenience to which compositors are put by its employment. It U btiil, however, used for electros. Your second query can be answered by enquiring at any respectable stationer's. A New Subscriber.—Be sure our readers will judge your receipt by its merits and not by opinions piu»»cd on it by other contributors. Yocng Astronomer.—We do not know the respective merits of the telescope you mention. The maker jou name, however, is a good one and reliable, and if you wrote him, stating your wants and means, he would probably advise you as to which was most suitable. York.—We don't know such a book, and scarcely see и luit you want with one, if, as you say, you have our bock numbers. R. V. Gould.—The question has been asked and answered before in our columns. Paraffin was recommended among remedies for destroying ante. E. T. Scott.—Your advertisement did appear in No.

276. Inductoricm.—A communication from Mr. D. Forbes in this week's " Sixpenny Sale Column," require« your attention. We should be glad to describe your coil, as it would save you and our readers trouble. A. Sephton.—Try J. R. Willis, 29, Miñones, London. J. S. H. And Others.—Mr. Seebobm Ultzen's address

is 21, Mark-lane, London. A Five Years' Subscriber.—СasselTs "Technical Series " would suit you. W. Lkfflkr.—The Patent Office Library, Southamptonbuildings, W.C, is open daily. It ia* entirely free to the public, the only formality necessary being jour signature in a book at the door as you enter. Anxiety.—The question has been asked before, and the opinions elicited seemed to agree that it was impossible to eradicate " tatooed marks " from the skin. T. Russell.—Ventriloquism can only be improved and

developed, and not acquired. It is a natural gift. Delicate.—We cannot understand your query. What

do you mean by " Essence of Composition?" To Millers.—Mr. Thomas Evans writes to say that nothing was farther from his intention than to say anything offensive to a stonemason, and he considers the editor "rather too sensitive;" perhaps во. At all events Mr. Evans did not, in any way, mean to offend. English Mechanic Colony.—J. W. Dinsdale, of Feverвпаш, near Cambridge, wishes to Inform "Alexandra" that ho should be happy to assist him in forming the new colony. English Mechanics' Society, Manchester.—The Secretary writes "I have pleasure in informing you, Mr. Editor, that we have, with your permission, elected you an honorary member of our new society." Imductorium would oblige by sending the proffered information on the intensity coil at his earliest convenience, as a large number of correspondents are asking for it. Space is at his disposal. Andeh.—As wo said last week, Mr. PiggoVa suggestion for a bicycle was an unpractical one. Send photograph. J. P. Caustan* says he will send us diagrams in a few days which will settle the question as to the convexity of the earth. We thought it was settled. Mathematics.—We have several elaborate papers oa mathematics and algebra, including two from C. H. W. Bi^gs and two or three from Gime], and one from J. H. T., but we shrink from inserting them, first, on account of the space that elaborate mathematical demonstrations necessarily occupy, and, secondly, on account of the difficulty of printing them correctly without allowing time for the authors to revise proofs, which is not easily done in a rapidly-printed weekly paper. J. M. T.—Your warm congratulations on the absorption of Scientific Opinion have been echoed by dozens ol other correspondents. We shall have another incorporation to announce soon. R. A. Procter.—Too late.

J.Т.Н.—Letter rejected on account of its length.
A. Tolhausen.—Report came too late.
Next Week.—The Bicycle, by Husband; Swimming, а
Summer Pastime; Microscopic Investigations and
Polarized Light; Prc-Adamito Earth; Cheap Gas;
Geometrical Approximations ; LunarCosmology ; Emi-
gration; The Earth's Centre of Gravity, byL. Hewitt;
Tricycle, by J. Hastings; Electro-plating aud Gild-
ing; Power of Hooks and Strength of Ropes, Ac, due.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

THE WORKMEN'S INTERNATIONAL
EXHIBITION.

THIS Exhibition was oponed by his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, at the Agricultural Hall, Islington, on Saturday last. It is actually, as it has been described to be, a thoroughly artistic and industrial show, perfectly cosmopolitan in its arrangements, abundant in interest, varied and attractive in its contents. The original idea, we believe, was due to a man who has ever been the friend of the industrial order, a nobleman of high taste and great sympathy with labour—the Earl of Lichfield, who has manifested an intellectual understanding of the interests involved through his positive comprehension of the relations that exist between technics and science. We have no space to bestow upon compliments, or we should advert to the generous manner in which the whole undertaking has been favoured by those who are not personally concerned in it, and the admirable style in which the organization of the operative class has been employed to complete its success; but in the first instance the goodwill of those engaged has been its own reward, and in the second the works exhibited are more triumphal as tests than any indiscriminate laudations that could be awarded to them. We think it right, however, to signalise for future example this distinctive Exhibition. It was projected at a meeting of London artisans, but it was promoted also by their employers. They did not desire to occupy their Field of the Cloth of Gold alone; but they invited—let us not say challenged—the first ingenuities of Europe, the artisans whom circumstances only prevent from being artists, and who, indeed, are artists if Cellini was one, to compete with them in that which is a great and distinctive object of our time—to make industry at once moBt capaciously useful for mankind in regard to its necessities, and also beautiful in relation to something higher than mere facilities of use. The Exhibition at the Agricultural Hall includes eighteen classes additional to the fine arts department. With reference to the last, we may at once say that it involves a serious mistake. The number of pictures, which, if genuine, would be gems, is perfectly irreconcilable with what we know of the works purporting to be displayed. It is quite idle to tell us that those famous Michael Angelos, Titians, Raffaelles, Giorgiones, Tintorettos, Correggios, Vandykes, and Murillos, C'araccios, and Da Vincis, have been brought to the Liverpool-road, Islington, from Dalston and lipping. In point of fact, a single glance at them shows that they are copies or replicas. But this was not the fault of the Working Men's Committee. Their intention was, and it has been well carried out, to display the degrees of inventive ingenuity and of manipulating dexterity which individual artisans, without capital and often without credit, can illustrate through their own unaided ideas—unaided, we mean, except by their serious, patient, personal studies. We trust that the men who exhibit at Islington, after surveying the competition between themselves and others, will be enabled more sagaciously to judge about the comparative value of tiicir notions. Thus there are two classes of exhibitors at the Agricultural Hall who illustrate different views of the value attaching to such emulations. The one appears to regard complex ingenuity as the height of excellence, while the other looks upon industry as being worthless, unless practically applied. We confess to a difficulty in deciding upon all cases between the two. It seems hard

that a person trained as B wheelwright should not try his skill upon the manufacture of a piano, and yet it seems an obstacle in the workman's way that ho should go out of his path, and, while he is bound to make bricks, devote his intuitive instincts to cathedral clocks and towers. A large proportion, we are Borry to say, of the talent proved in industrial exhibitions has been thus, if not wasted, misdirected, at any rate so far as the exhibitors themselves are concerned. But the council, most judiciously, have restrained within legitimate limits the ambition of eccentric genius. The eighteen industrial denominations are—the inventive, machinery, decorative art, furniture, ornamental metal-work, glass and china, building appliances, fancy work, articles for personal and domestic use, cutlery and arms, scientific apparatus, watches, saddlery, and miscellaneous leather work, food, raw materials, and miscellaneous, followed by a horrible confusion of the Fine Arts. With the object, patently, of those who exhibit in a complete understanding of the Exhibition and its meaning, we cannot but cordially sympathize, and with pleasure we notice that many exhibitors who have travelled over half Europe with their inventions without satisfactory success come here, undisoouraged, to persevere with them. Mr. George Warrincr, for example, is indomitable in his claims; and should England be dragged or driven into war he would be the unchallengeable cook of the British army. In anticipation of a day when politics shall be made secret, several gentlemen suggest patent ballot boxes. In expectation of a time when women's rights shall be conceded in full, labourers are provided with the means of cooking their dinners in the field, having no resources at home ; and, as if prophetic of the recent weather, Mr. John Wilkins has designed "a summer pillow." We have to note, moreover, Mr. George Galloway's "plan for crossing streets with safety;" Mr. Robert Hatt's "gent's ankle shield," whatever that may mean ; and, with the deepest gratitude, Mr. Charles Loton's "mutes for subduing the tones of the cornet." It will be remarked that in all these competitions there is a total of curious and not very practical ingenuity pitted against another total of that which is capable of being turned into value. It should be remembered by exhibitors who, disengaging themselves from their actual class, venture upon new experiments, that they have to learn from these very exhibitions how far their personal speculations may serve them. It would speedily be found that the toil of years devoted to complicated yet useless purposes will not avail them so far to procure even a certificate of merit, whereas an improved safety lamp warning the approach of gas, an easy workman's shoe, a cottage cooking apparatus, a washing, or a life-saving, or a smoke-consuming apparatus, is worth ten times more than a steam-boat, rat-trap, or a bicycle telemeter, or a cylindrical revolving rampart, or an electro-magnetic music leaf turner. In tho world of theory and speculation we reach a great many impossibilities; and in the world of mechanics we arrive at a great many more. Thus, if we were to put faith in all the mechanical geniuses who exhibit themselves at Islington, we might believe even in such the monster as Mr. Ireland's Prince of Wales's "Trotting Horse Perambulator;" but if, on the other hand, we, being impartial and only interested iu the progress and prosperity of men and classes devoted to industrial pursuits, could persuade them at all, we should urge them not to apply their perseverance, or that which may even be styled the poetry of their conceptions, to forms or improvements of things now utterly and for ever obsolete. It is astonishing to see in the same department with the most perfect breech-loading small anus, patterns of lances, boarding pikes, javelins, the barbarous Danish gun, the matchett, which has gone out of use for a hundred years; specimens of letting in gunlocks by hand, equally out of use; and, as if the contrast could not be made forcible enough, side by side with central-fire and the vertical grip. It would almost appear as if some of our workingclass exhibitors would wish to retain a great deal of that which is old, while approving of that which is new. The sewing machine, for example, is entirely novel. That exhibited by the Messrs. Judkin8 is as new as the last eclipse of the moon; and yet here are exhibitors going back in gunnery to the ancient days of cleaning rods and feathering paddle wheels, and cramp keys and black stocks, and, crcdat Judtcwi, flint locks! Now as an antiquity, this may be interesting, but as a matter of practical value the mechanical concoctions of this kind are of no more importance

than the old-fashioned watchmaker's mandril. Indeed, this brings us to a promise that we shall carefully present to our readers an account of the tools exhibited now at the Agricultural Hall. This department is of an interest which can scarcely be over-stated. It comprises mandrils of the newest form, irnproved>jrills, specimens of glass and china riveted, ratchet braces, turning engines for ivory, moulding apparatus, gold beaters' skin, and especially benches and tables at which tailors and shoemakers can stand to their work. The habitual Kitting of men in this department of industry has been productive of consequences most fatal to their class. It is impossible, although it would be pleasant, to enumerate by name the artisans whose works are conspicuous, in this series particularly. It is a series which comes rarely before the eye of the general public, but the sight of a tool ought to tell us much of the life which is led, and of the education which is required, and of the intelligence which is given by the artisan to his work. How many of us in our common ways understand laying down the draught lines of millstones, the dressing of these stones, the manipulation of the spirograph, the mortising chisel, the filesmith's rasp, the bloodstone burnisher, the Irish contrivance for breaking flax straw, or, let us Bay, as a more simple instance, the sculptor's stool. Some of these are reckoned as tools, and some as machinery. In the latter class we look abroad, and we do not find anything which is equal to the workmanship of our own countrymen, although there are characteristic peculiarities in the foreign manufacture. So Italy has a railway carriage with a first and a second floor; a raft with a safety cord for rivers; engines for crushing olives; wire-drawing machines for the envied work of Genoa, and little model factories, exhibited by the Castellani of Rome, to produce those Roman jewels which were worn, at least in their simiritnde, by the Imperial wantons of Nero's time, and are now equally prized, although, perhaps, not equally understood, by the less critical connoisseurs of the Corso Sterner; and more directly interesting to the mechanic are the illustrations of the application of cast and wrought iron to building purposes, a study which is exhausted, if exhaustion be possible to any branch of science, in the fourth edition of Sir William Fairbairn's standard book. That "the literature of the forge and the foundry is not less important to national progress than the literature of art," is a sound axiom ; but art can never be divorced from true industry. Whatever men love they will seek to beautify. It is only in crude colonising days that buildings without symmetry, wood without paint or polish, and a general disdain of luxury are tolerated. And beauty is luxury, whether it be simple or cheap, or costly and ostentatious. What work can be imagined more enjoyable than that of these Italian artisans cutting shells and stones into cameos, in the style of the great Donatello, master of Michael Angelo, shaping, chasing, even weaving gold and silver, striving to purify every outline, soften every touch, make tender every tint, and, if so we may speak, hallow their labours by practical poetry! Ferdinand Vechi, G. B. Gatti, J. Vaselli, and M. de Lama, representing the Gatti firm, though himself conspicuous as a photographer, may be enumerated: others, indeed, including a large list of English names, deserve personal recognition; but admirably as the council have carried out their plan, they have committed a Arange blunder in the catalogue issued on Saturday last. We trust that no copy of it in gorgeous binding was presented to the Prince of Wales. It is literally worse than worthless, and does justice—we employ a mild phrase—neither to the exhibitors nor to the public. Now, there is no excuse for shortcomings of this kind. The council could not insist upon Belgium being in time with her contributions, or France (which has other matters to think of), or Denmark (which may also be slightly preoccupied) ; but they might surely have insisted upon ll summary of the exhibition, classified and indexed, which, pretending to be official, should not be adeeeption. Upon one point, however, we are bound to offer, on the part of the mechanical exhibitors, an explanation. In the first class, or that of inventions, they are all British subjects, and we were requested to state that the objects not displayed are merely kept under a veil until the bill for protecting them from piracy shall have the Royal Assent. This might have been procured in ten minutes, but, in such matters, there appears to have existed no management whatever. Even the orchestra platform was empty, Kc;.ufc

« ZurückWeiter »