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{•8980766, and- - = 5-85, which 20

S?7780766.-J. K. P.

14371].—A TRIGONOMETRICAL DIFFICULTY.—I am afraid that " Poor Lad" has not sufficiently studied Mr. Todhunter's pvevious explanations, or rather has not brought anyknowledge of algebraical bracketing to bear upon the subject. The given expression is—

3(Slog.3-l) +l(4log.3-2) - 5.(2 log. 8 +1| 5 'take away brackets)

=9 log. 3

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C. H. W. B. f427G.]—GUTTA-PERCHA. —Gatta-percha may be dissolved by chloroform, and also, I believe, with bisulphide of carbon. The notation may be made any thickness, from a clear fluid to a thick paste, and the gutta-percha resumes its original state after the evaporation of the chloroform or other solvent.—Tiios. Fletcher.

[43831 .—CONTINENTAL SCHOOLS.—I can recommend to "Anxiety" the college of Melle, near Ghent, and the commercial school of the Josephitcs at Grammont, also near Ghent, as the best he will be able to find. These two establishments are very highly esteemed, both in Belgium and in other countries. The Trinity College of Louvain is also a very good one. For prospectus and particulars, write to the director of St. George's College, Croydon, Surrey. E. V. D. S.

[42830— CONTINENTAL SCHOOLS.—I should recommend the Rev. J. G. Pfludorer's classical, mathematical, and commercial school for young gentlemen, in Kornthal, near Stuttgart, as one of the best and most economical schools on the continent. The institution is under the supervision of the Royal Council of Education of Wurtemberg, and comprises, bosides the private apartments of the principal and his family, and the tutors' apartments, a dining hall, three large and airy dormitories, one large study, six school rooms, ft large gymnastic hall, as well as a playground, 15 acres in extent, containing a large lake for beating in summer and skating in winter, a cricket ground, shrubberies and woods. The country round Kornthal is an intermixture of vineyards, fields, and woods, and is within an easy distance for excursions to the celebrated Black Forest, Solitude, and Hohenhetm: is therefore situated in a healthy climate. The community of Kornthal forms a religious settlement, in some respects similar to those of the Moravians, and singularly free from all temptations to vice. A physician resides in the village. Should "Anxiety" require any further details, he may apply to A. Tolhadsen, 103, Dale-street, Hulme, Manchester.

[4285.]— GAS MUFFLE FURNACE.—I fear this ia not practicable without an enormons consumption of gas, even for a very small niufflo, and also that a strong blast will be necessary. I use a blast gas furnace for small crucible work, and I find In the most perfect form of furnace I can get it requires a consumption of 18ft. or 20ft. per hour, and a bellows blast of 6in. water pressure, to heat a2Un. x 2iu. crucible white hot. The burner I use is similar to Griffin's blast gas burner. I should also fear the continued breaking of the muffles, from the great difficulty in applying the heat gradually.— Thos. Fletcher.

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kindly describe the silver coin figured above, and give
approximate value? Actual size. Preservation good

Why are horizontal engines preferred to verticals ?—A
Young Tyke.

[4308.]— MODEL MILL.—Will some one favour me with directions fur a clockwork arrangement to drive a model mill 7—A Young Tyke.

[4309.1— BARTON'S SELF-ACTING FEED-WATER HEATER—Would S. Crompton my what kind of a float Barton applies to his heater (see p. 369) ?—,1. H.

[4310.] —DESTRUCTIVE SOAP POWDERS.—Canany practical chemist among your very numerous and able correspondents inform me whether a simple method exists of ascertaining whether any " soap powder" oontaining destructive acid has been applied to linen sent to the wash 1 Paper collars havo superseded linen, bnt till paper shirts are adopted most of us have an interest in preventing processes which reduce in so few washings this very necessary garment to the consistency of tissue paper ?—Sans <">■--. -.i . - j--.

[4311.]-EMIGRATION.-Would some one ir»o knmc, be good enough to give us a little information about our East Indian possessions as a field for emigration. Is there not a good opening there for a few mochanics and an odd cotton clerk and railway clerk or so. An advertisement I saw lately offering £16, £'18, £20 per mouth for spring makers and wheel tyrors leads mo to ask this question.—Aquilldh.

[4312.]—ROCKING CHAIR.—I have bought arocking chair, and when rocking in it, it leans forward, consequently It is very uneasy sitting in it. Can any one suggest how I can alter it without taking off the rockers •> —Easy Back.

[4313.]—SILKWORMS' EGGS.—Ought the eggs of the common silkworm to turn a kind of brownish colour about a week after they are laid, or should they keep a bright yellow until a short time before they aro hatched next year ?—C. U. B.

[4314.]—RULE WANTED.—Will some brother reader give a rulo for finding the contents of a weight of a kuown length and breadth? For instanoe, I want a weight 6011)., must be 9in. long, 14 jin. broad. What thickness will it be in the wood pattern? An answor in plain figuros will suit best, as I do not understand algebra — Good Wobds.

[4315.]—CLEVELAND IRONSTONE.-What is the cost of the Clovoland ironstone f. o. b. in the Tyne, and is it shipped to Newcastle in the raw or calcined state?

[4316.]—A DIFFICULT QUESTION. —In the honours paper of the subject " Applied Mechanics," in the science examination just past, the following question is given. It is so ambiguous, that I spent one of the three precious hours of the examination in endeavouring to comprehend it, and for the life of mo I could not determine whether there wore two or three enclosing rings, so I gave it up. Since then, I showod it to a bachelor of soienco and he finds it as difficult as I did, and for the samo reason. I propose to submit it to my fellow-readers, in the hope that some one of them will kindly explain it. At the same timo I think a protest ought to be mBde against the practice adopted by some of tho examiners of putting questions which are of the nature of a puzzle Such a practice is likely to bring tho papers into contempt, which is most undesirablo The question is as follows :—6. " Built-up guns are made of concentric rings, the outer hoops, or rings, being shrunk or forced upon inner tubes with a regulated tension. Supposing tho external diameter of the inner tube to be lain, and that the substance of its covering hoop is to have given to it an initial grip of 4 tons per square inch of its sectional area ; the exterior diameter of this second hoop is 18in. and is to be covered with a third hoop, having an initial grip of 8 tons per square inch of its sectional area; will you work out in arithmetic the difference of dimensiona which will afford the above conditions ?"—Student.

[4317.]—SIZING.—I mix '20 packs of flour at once for sizing, and when fomented it is very yellow, can any of your correspondents inform me how I can bleach the same, or how I can make it white ?—John Bdey

[4S18.]-COMET.-Will "F.R.A.S." kindlv give the situation of the " comet" which he says is in " Serpens," so that it may be found without an equatorial? G C'

[4319.]—SPECULUM POLISHING.—Will Mr. Purkiss be kind enough to describe his rule and method of finding the exact size of tho small plane or flat for auv aperture, and whether his polisher goes as regular at thoeudof the polishing, or whether it does not go in "fits"? How long does he take to polish the surface "till no trace of grain is left"? Will not rosin answer to harden the pitch with ?—G. C.

[4W0J -BREAM FISHING.-Will any of your readers kindly inform mc what will entice bream to the hook ?—


[43zl.J-WATERPROOF.-WiU somo reader inform me how to soften a waterproof coat 1 it has got quite nard.—J. 0.

[43*2.] -SEWING MACHINES.-Any one versed in
the above would oblige by solving this difficulty. The
material soeins dragged into the teeth of feeder, and a

wV,nh„ r.°!. f!!d'! a/e 7u0Imd l"'ounJ tbe Poil" Of hook,
without the threads the feeder acts very well The
machino is a Wheeler & Wilson's.—H. W
tJZSl"lr°n A^S BURNING._ThankB to onr bIj .
friends Mr. D. F. Ashton, and Mr. Joseph Leicester, for
nhB.'lTMM S on glass painting, 4c. Will either
oblige me with all particulars of flues, etc., to construct

an oven or kiln as used by glass painters, Ac the dis tance of the fire from the grate to the bottom of the oven, and what ■ upports arc used to keep the oven in iu place,and what is the best material for the ovc-j as I am about to replace my old one, which is of iron ?-'

[4*14.] -FAN BL A8T.-I should be obliged if som.TM would instruct me how to make a small fan blast to heil small pieces of iron about lin. thick. I should like to ». a rou-rh sketch of one, and a simple plan, so that I could niako it myself. What size would the Ian have to h„TM G. Cook.

[4325.]-PLANTING.-What is the proper time el year for slitting and planting house plants ?—M. N.

I43M.1-POLARISCOPE FOR LANTERN.-WUUom, ono amongst your numerous readers kindly give me> description of the above for a lantern Sjln. conde n», as I want to add one to mine 1 I want to nse the onb nary front lenses, or microscope combined with it i diagram would bo useful ?—E. H. J.

[4817.]-WANT OF PRESSURE.-Wonld anv read* help me out of my difficulty 1 I am in charge of t. egg-end boilers, they having been in for fourteen von.-. I get the steam up to 91b. pressure, when it will fall i, about-111, I should like to know the cause. I bill"TM it to be in the flues.—A Stokes.

[48-28.1-MOUNTING MICJBOSCOPIC OBJECTS-I am at a loss to know how to mount some objects. I Cm manage flat surfaces, such a. wings of insects which? steep in potass until traneparent, then stick on witi Canada balsam, finally putting on the thin glass cover Should heat be applied to the glass to ensure a firm" adherence. If I want to mount an object which ban thickness-for instance, a cricket-I am at a leu, for if done as above, the ton thin glass would be such a great distance from the glide. Another thing is the iX* Ac of flowers. Are they fit for mounting when "i picked, or should they be put into potass?' If so hoi long to remain in, or is there a better wav to preps-. them? If "H. P." will kindly answer me thesTqnel

-£ BI H ° * gre"tn oth(OT " "'«"•

voL^i1 _THE. MICROSCOPE.-I am glad to see from your ".Answers to Correspondents,- that Mr. C. C Smith

J T„Y\ i-tPp1/ """T*011 0D the microscope. No. I should like to ask him what kind of insirumen! he would advise me to purchase. I want one that will An the various insects and animalcnis to 6e found in , pond, the starch-cell, of a potato, or the narking, in the wings of the neuroptera. 4c.-in snort an instrument that will serve to while away a leisure hour, without being extraordinarily perfect, and conwonentlr apensive.—Sabbas.

[4330,]—WALL DEC0R.ATI0N.-Cin any one tell mo how to prepare a wall lor fresco painting J-fabkb.

[4381.]-STONE FOR TRISlLET8.-lhM.»,MnUty of stone to cut for trinkets. Can anv brother readn inform me which is tho best way to cot it}—F.H..

[4332.1—BLACK GLASS OF ANT1S10NY.-1 4l not know the proportions of Autimonhun and Siliriom to flux for producing the glass of antimonv [Blackl.Sable.'

[4383.—LANCASHIRE BLACK.—Will auv reader say what is the composition of "Lancashire black," htm it is prepared, and used as on tools?—Ajrxtous.

[4334.]— ECLIPSE OF THE MOON.-Would anj ot your readers tell me why, when the moon was " eclipsed" on the night of the 12th, she was distinctly seen ot dark copper colour? I exacted the moon's disc to d» appear altogether. Is it the refractive qualities of oar atmosphere which cause it ?—Lunaji.

[4335.]—IRISH MOSS.—Will any reader inform w what Irish Carrigaime moss is used for, and where woali bo the best place that I can find a market for the samtr —an Irishman.

[43S6.]-TONGA BEAN WOOD.-A friend of me gave me a small piece, coming from Australia; colli

Bernardin,' or another correspondent give me son? particulars about that wood, he will oblige—T B W

i t«f .]rHO-LLOW CANDLE3.-Ca*idlcs with thiw longitudinal holes nre made in Paris. How are fb] made, and what advantages do they possess over otter candles?—John X.

I J'?r?-ArJ>KAU?JIT FtIR^ACE F OR SMELTING LEAD ORE.-Could any of you; readers inform me ko» to erect a draught furnace for smelting lead ore 1 1 lun a relative writing to me on the subject who is living Hamilton White Pine, Nevada, U.S. He can procar, plenty of charcoal and wood to heat it with, but the Mai mitcrial at hand to build it with would bo stone, vttei he can get in blocks—Thos. Peabson.

me of a hand-book of the above game, which is said k

nlaTMr?f>0Titm*^SI1 C^°\' both ,or spectators Bi plajers? I have for a long time wanted » hTMv„(ttt

- for a long time wanted a booked Itabove description, but could never come across iff Perhaps some readers, if allowed, would trive a desertion in our Mechanic—Velocipedist.

[4340.]-LAMBORNE'S VELOCIPEDE. - Will «: Lamborne kindly give a description, size, Ac, of his foar wheeled velocipede on which ho went 5i miles in S hours? It is the opinion of many that the bicycle will oh out as far as travelling goos, and the four-Wheeler take its place.—Vklocipedist.

ITM};] -KILMARNOCK OR BACK-WHEEL BICYCLE.—Will any reader who has ridden the conimoo bicycle, likewise either of the above, state which hi easiest to propol. Have anv great distances been ridden

£?, .e.m?u Y aeems to !* 'he Pror motion for the legs. What is the length of the cranks of tho " Kilmarnook" which appeared in the Mbchanic, Nos. 216 and 23iT' Please give a description of the stampings or pedals KB the feet, and their distance from the centre of the saddle at the commencement, and likewise the flni-h of the stroke Will this bicycle ascend hills aa weU as the common bicycle? I am not the only ono who would wish to have this query answered.—Vklocipedist [4342.1-READINGS FROM THE GLOBES.-St

B~ would feel muoh obliged for the title of the be-A

and most recent "Treatise on the Uso of Globen." In Tate s Astronomy (Gleig's School Scries), pago 87, it 19 i8l"?ii" In ^S1*110. "' 'be present Uuuo, tho north polo of the needle points about 44° to thc» westward ol the north." Is this correct? The date of publication ia


roar Mechanic ol Jane 14, 1807, your correspondent

i-Liver" gives a drawing of windmill for working luthe.

'A3 I have the drawings, will "Liver" kindly give the

/ dimensions of the mill as under, without trouble or

g sending another drawing. 1.—The thickness or sliRft.

f 2 —Length of wands from centre of shaft. 8.—Size of

slips of board for the wands. 4.—Size of wand frame in

which the slips of hoard are to be fixed. 6.—Size of

wood for wand fraine. IS.—Diameter of driving wheel,

and how to be fixed on the shaft for driving the


11344.1— WEIGHTS OP CHEMICAL SOLUTION'S.— Would Mr. "G. E. Davis," " Sigma," or any of your chemical subscribers kindly inform me how to calculate the weight oi soda, hydrate of soda, and carbonate of soda in solution at different specific gravities. For instance, -oppose 1 have a solution of soda ash, 10 tons nt i*)J Twaddol (or any other degree), how can I ascertain the weight of pure soda, hydrate of soda, or carbonate of soda crystal), what I ought to obtain from it; also what weight, supposing the hydrate to be only 60 per cent., and the crystal eoda to contain 10 equivalents of water. An answer with calculations worked out will oblige.—Alkali. [4345]—CRACKED BOILER PLATES.—Wanted a composition thBt will stand the fire between a east-iron plate and a cast-iron boiler that is cracked, the plate being bolted on. Borings and red lead have been tned, but they are not permanent.—T. L.

[4*46.] — CONCERTINA.—Can any of my fellow readers give mo assistance in the following:—I am trying to make an English concertina (dimensions of bellows, 9in. by 6in., with six doable ribs), and I wish to know oi what compass it would be best made? Can the reeds be purchased ready finished? or would it be. better to make them myself? If Bo, of what scale, and of what metal ?—James Robson Rekdell.

[4347.]—TUNING BY EQUAL TEMPERAMENT.— Will any practical musical reader explain concisely, but explicitly, the equal temperament method of tuning in your journal, as applied to pianoforte or organ?—


[4348.]— rROBLEM.—Will "C. H. W. B." or "Bornardin" bo good enough to solve the following without trigonometry, using Euclid only (Book I.) ?—Pleaso draw a figure (a), two forces of 100 pounds each, act upon a point at an angle of 150". Find resultant. (Ans. = 61-76881b.) (»). Forces of 60 and 1601b. respectively act upon a point, at an angle of 130°. Find resultant. (Ans. = 1401b.)—Aaicus.

[4349.]—HEATING HOUSE WITH HOT AIR.—Will any one who has tried the American Bystem of heating houses with hot-air from cockle, &c, describe how the Hues are arranged, as also the cockle or hot air stoves ; what time it takes to heat an ordinary eightroomed houso; whit effect this h it air has on the general health of the inhabitants—with any other remarks Applicable.—Scot.

[4350.] —B Arometer,etc—I have a desire to possess A barometer, 4c, at a moderate cost, in order that I may be able to make observations, and have seen your descriptions of the Polytechnic barometer, and Solomon's now compound set (pages 8 and 128). Which would answer my purpose beat? or would an aneroid barometer be better than either of the others? Is it of any consequence where a barometer is placed, say in a hot room or cool passage of a house ?—K.

[4351.]—CASE FOR FERNS AND MOSS, described by " A Dentist," on page 259.—What depth should the soil box be made? Should any arrangement bo made for draining the moisture away? Would not the box bo improved if lined with lead, to prevent the wood box from rotting 7—K.

[4351.]—CONIC SECTIONS.—Will " F.R.A.S." or Mr. Proctor, kindly decide waothor in conic sections the *' vertical piano" of the "parabola" must be exactly parallel to the slant side of the ooue; or in other words, whether in a ri;»ht cone the plane that cats the cone so as to form a parabola, must run parallel to the one slant aide of the cone. If so, must not the oonic section that Is not parallel to the slant aide, and approaches it, be an ellipse, and the sec:ion that increases its distance from the slant side, be a hyperbola? Personally I am pretty certain as to which s correct, but should be obliged by an answer?—A Uusa: Minohib.

[4352.]—WE WING.—Will some kind flax, woollen, or •cotton spinner inform me if they have any scientific method of Knowing what number of, or lease of samples o' vara, when they are very small and without nam > 'f, grey and bleached? Also, I have small samples of cloth, linen, and cotton, grey, boiled, and bloachoLl white, and woollens only woven and finished. If any manufactnrer could tell me a correct method of ascertaining what number of yarns for warp and number for weft alter the various processes named above, I should be obliged?—A Weaveb.

[4353.] — ROAD MEASURING. — Can any fellow reader inform m>5 if there is extant any machine used Jot measuring roads, Ac, besides the pedometer?— J. T. 8.

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Ice Chest—Ices, 262.
Enamel, 262.

Galvanic Band. To " Suffolk Amateur," 262.
Silent Fans, 262.
Position of Magnetic Pole, 262.
Forcing Water, 262.
Re-manufacturing India-rubber, 202.
Hypophosphite or Iron and Quinine, 262.
Organ Accordion Stand, 202.
Dissolving Sheep's Horns, '202.
Fast Colour for Sheepskins, 262.
Making Butter, 202.
Paint for Boats, 262.
Re-melting Hard White P.liut, 252.
India-rubber Tiros, 202.
Bamboo Nuts, 202.
Loam Pans, 202.
Names of Parts of Bellows, 26-.
Bisulphide of Carbon Prism, 252.
White Lead, 262.

Oak, Walnut, aud Mahogany Stains, 262.
Organs, 263.
Kiln, 263.

Copper Boilers, 263.
Value of Coin, 287.
Brittle India-rubber, 287.
Round Zinc Wire, 287.
Brioks and Pottery, 287.
Books, 287.

Works on Soap-making, 287.
Engine Indicatiug, 287.
Stuffed Birds, 287.
Yellow Dye, 287.

Electric Motor for Sewing Machine, 287.
Artificial Fountain, 287.
Organ Movement to Harmonium, 287.
Atmospheric influence on Electric Clocks, 287.
Muslin Dress, 287.
Gun Barrels, 287.
Dressing Stone, 287t
Heating Boilers with Gas, 287.
and 4235 Melting and Casting Metal, 287.
Pricking Barrels of Barrel Organs. To *' Adept," 2£7
To " N. S. Heineken," 287.
Medical Electricity, 287.

Arts Examination, Royal College of Surgeons, 287
Army Commissions, 287.
Woulffe's Bottle, 287.

Tuning Bellows for Harmonium. To " Eleve
Organ Stops. To "Harmonious Blacksmith
•' Adept," 237.

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THB ENGLISH MECHANICS SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY, MANCHESTER.—Sib,—I beg to inform you that this society met, as already announced, on the 6th inat. The chair was taken by the President (Mr. J. M'Ewen), and the husincss of tho evening commenced with a paper on " Light," by Mr. Baguley. The speaker, in a short bat well-worked essay, explained the Huyghenian and Newtonian theories of light, as weU as the analysation, dispersion, and recomposition of rays. A discussion on tho subject read followed, in which many of the members present took an active part. Amongst the objects shown to tho society was a splendid microscope and a newly-invented eyeleting machine. Persons not yet members m ly become such by applying to the Secretary, 103, Bale-street, Hulme.

VICTORIA LEGAL FRIENDLY SOCIETY.—The annual mooting of the members of the Liverpool Victoria Legal Friendly Society, for the purpose of passing the accounts and other annual business, was held at Liverpool recently, Mr. Timothy Crowley, president, in the chair. The financial statement showed that there had been collecto I trutn the 28th May, 1809, to 27th May last, £48,853 19 J. 5d., aud there had been paid on 4181 insurance claims and grants during the same period, £16,804 17s. 2d.; on collectors' commission, £10,9620s. .LI.; managers, agents, and collectors'salaries, £3,258 13s. 6d.; officers, clerks' aud auditors' salaries, £1,034; committee and collectors' fees for transferring names of members, £537 8s. 2id; officers and others visiting country districts, and agency superintendents' salary and expenses, £446 4s. 10> d. The sum of £7,421 5s. Ojd. had been saved during tho year, and the total worth of the society on the 27th of May last was £26,945 16s. 6d.

GRAPE-SUGAR MANUFACTURE.—The production of grape-sugar, or glucose, appears to be extending with considerable rapidity in America. Factories for the purpose have been established in New Orleans, Buffalo, and Brooklyn. When grain or potatoes, yielding starch as the material for the manufacture, are cheap, ami sugar is high-priced, the business will provo profitable; but a reversed condition of things, very likely to occur, will make the results quite different; and it i's doubtful if tho manufacture can be made a permanent industry in view of the unlimited facilities for making sugar from boot-root and other saccharine plants as soon as our producers have acquired that practical knowledge of processes which has enabled European sugar-makers to build up a production of the staple as vast as it is permanent.

INDIA-RUBBER INEXHAUSTIBLE.—The belt of land around the globe, 500 miles north and 500 miles south of the equator, abounds in trees producing the gum of india-rubber. They can be sapped, it is stated, for twenty successive seasons without injury; and the tree stand so el Jso that one man can gather the sap of eighty in a day, each tree yielding, on an average, three tablespoonfuls daily. Forty-three thousand of theso trees have been counted iu a tract of country 30 miles long by 8 wide. There are in America and Europe more than 150 manufactories of india-rubber articles, employing some 600 operatives each, and con-mining more than 10,000,000 pounds of tho gum per year, aud the business is considered to be still in its infancy. But to whatever extent it may increase, there.will still be plenty of rubber to supply tha demand.

AUSTRALIAN LEECHES.—The Melbourne Argus states that a largo c.nujument of leeches went to England in April by tho steamship 8omn-8et*hirc. It appears th it s jme parts of Australia abound with leeches, aud those which frequent the Murray River have a good repute for biting freely and lcavingno inflammatorywound or mark behind; they are said to rival the speckled

leech of Northern Europe. Measures wore taken some time ago by a Melbourne firm for the conservation of the Murray leeches, and their contracts with the fishermen in tho Murray district for tho past season oxeooded half a million. But the intercolonial demand is almost equal to tho supply. The leeches sent to England were packed in boxes of soft clay, made to resemble as much as possible the muddy bottom of the river which is their ordinary resort. It is said that the prime cost of leeches sold in Europe must exceed two millions sterling per annum.

ARTIFICIAL ICE,— There comes from Germany a promise of relief from the extortionate demands of the ice companies. Mr. Franz Windhausen, of Bruns.vick, has invented a new machine for freezing water without tho aid of chemicals. The process takes place in a cylinder, " where the air is first powerfully condensed, then cooled by the admission of water, and finally expanded till its pressure is about equal to that of the atmosphere." By this means, it is asserted, the very astonishing result is obtained of loweriug the temperature of the air to 50- Celsius (4° Fahrenheit), so that when conducted in moderate quantities into a space through which water flows, "the water is almost immediately turned into ice, of whtchoaonnous blocks may be thus obtained if desired." The invention will also, it is said, be applicable to the cooling of large apartment such as theatres, hospitals, and churches.

UNITING PARCHMENT TO PAPER, WOOD, Etc. —It is not an easy thing to join tho stiff, smooth surfaces of parchment paper on to other paper, or on to wood, pasteboard, &u. The paste docs not seem to hold, and on this account this paper has not been so generally used in bookbinding and for similar purposes. Tho difficulty can be overcome in a very simple way. The surface of tho parchment must first be moistened with alcohol or brandy and then pressed while still moist upon the glue or paste. When two pieces of parchment aro to be joined both must be moistened in this way. It is said that tho paper will sooner tear than separate whew it has been thus fastened together. Another way is to put a thin piece of paper between the surfaces of parchment and apply the paste This forms a firm joint, aud can with difficulty be separated. Glue and flour paste are best adapted for unitingsurfacesofparchment. Gum arabic does not answer.

WASTE GAS IN BLAST FURNACES.—Dr. Per- . writes to the Times as under:—" It is reported that four men have beeu killed atironworks in Worth Slafford_Jiire by what is termed 'waste gas from the bla&t furnaces.' Tne poisonous iugredient of that gas is carbonic oxide, and the inhalation of it in very small quantity, whether

Fure or mixed with common air, rapidly destroys; life, have collected and published several cases of fatal poisoning from that cause at ironworks, foreign as well as British. A few year-3 ago th^ engineer of tho Dowlais Ironworks was suffocated in his offijo by the escape of this gas from an adjoining culvert. It is important that the managers of such works should bo acquainted with its highly poisonous nature, and take every precaution to prevent their workmen from being exposed to its influence. As the use of the waste gas from our blast furnaces for heating steam boilers, mine kilus, &c, is extending daily, it is to be feared that deaths from its inhalation may become more frequent than hitherto, unless those who deal with it are fully instructed concerning its action on man. With the hope of communicating such instructions as widely and as quickly as possible, I bog to submitting letter for your consideration."

RUSTING OF IRON.—Dr. Calvert communicated to tho Chemical Society some very useful information on the rusting of iron. Rust is mainly sesquioxide of iron, and it has always been supposed that the active agents in producing it are moisture and oxygen. It seems, however, from Dr. Calvert's experiments, that carbonic acid must be associated with those to produce any considerable amount of oxidation. Iu dry oxygen iron does not rust at all, in moist oxygon but little and seldom, but in a mixture of moist carbonic acid and oxygen iron and steel rust very rapidly. In like manner a piece of bright iron placed iu water saturated with oxygen rusts very little, but if carbon is present as well oxidation goes on so fast that a dark precipitate is produced in a very short time. Curiously enough, bright iron placed in a solution of caustic or carbonated alkali does not rust at all. These facts show that the poiuts to be attended to in the preservation of iron from rust are the exclusion of carbonic acid and moisture, two indications which may bo very easily fulfilled.

A HINT TO IRON SHIPBUILDERS.—In a paper read before the Polytechnic Club of the American Institute, by Mr. Norman Wcard, entitled, "The Ship of tho Future: Shall it be Wood or Irou," after enumerating all the bad qualities of iron ships, and all tho good ones of wooden ones, he says:—" If it were the fact that the Bhip of the future is to be of iron, there would bo loft us but one course to pursue, in order to regain tho ocean ship-building and steam-carrying trado of tho great Atlantic, namely, war—a war with England. We can never hope to excel or eveu equal England in builJing largo and swift ocean mail steamers of iron. I am not here, however, as the advocate of a war with England; for I do not believe thit the ship of thefuture is to be made of iron. I prefer to take the weathergauge of the English ship-builders, by assisting to discover how to make a better ship of the material wc have iu liko excess to the English supply of irou—or take the wind out of their sails, as our yachtsmen did tho other day. And this I propo:so to do by enquiring Into the bad qualities of the sUips they produce, aud by investigation in advance to find out how to produce a better ship than they can make without coming to us, or applying to some foreign country for tho material."

THE OBSERVING ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY.— This society entered upon the second year of its existence on July 1st. The receut election of officeis for the ensuing year haB resulted in the re-election of tho former President, treasurer, and secretary and committee. The Rev. R. E. Hoppell, M.A., LL.D., F.R.A.S., is the president; Mr. William F. Deanlng, the treasurer and secretary, and tho following are members of the committee:—Messrs. T. P. Barkas, F.O.S., James Cook, A. W. Blacklock, M.B., H. Miohotl Whitley, and Albert P. Holden. The sooiety numbers 4J members, and was formed for the purpose of aiding the spread of practical astronomy.



*,* All communications should be fiddrcsRc-d to tlio Editor of the English Mechanic, 81, Tavistocketreet, Covexit Garden, W.C.

The following are the initials, Ac, of letters to hand up to Tuesday morning, July 19, and uuacknowledgod elsewhere :—

R. Burgess, Dr. Allnatt, Ashcroft & Co., Walter, J. C, junr., \V. H. C, J. H. & Co., E. V. S., D. J. W., Beruardiu, Sainl. Wishart, C. C. Clifford, J. P. 8., H. w. Henfroy, Jesse Lowe (with photo, of lathe work), J. M., Evan Hughes, Stucco Plasterer, E. M. T. Tydeman, C. Draper, J. R. D., L., Mark Steward, Music, D. T. Batty, Mac. D„ 8. Rogers, W. B. Stanley, Patience and Perseverance, W. B. Harvey, Sunbeam, Banting, G. G. Brassey, Jet, Harry G. Newton, Agent, W. M. M., Telescope, J. Miller, Amateur, Jobber, A. J. Adams, Country Brewer, W. Griffiths. Sheffield Flood, Exact Share, Geo. Higgs, Leather, K. T. Z., A Fireman, H. W. C., Somerset Amateur, S. Hewitt, W., T. Gatesby, W. T., R. A. B., Ignorant Irishman, Rev. E. Keruan, Peregrine Pickle, F. G., Edinburgh, H. M., Flautist, G. G. Andre, G. Firth, G. K., H. H. Halley, W. Jones, Vontas, E. D. Cope, Electra, Cuthbert, Virgil, A Mechanic, Would-be Entomologist, N. T., F. X. Wright, Good Words, Nemo, S. W., A. J. Jannan.

A. R. Your letter is too much a puff of the "Doctor Bedfordian system of astronomy." If Dr. Bedford is determined to associate his name with an historical astronomical synteni, ho must begin <U now, take a wider survey of factB, and be less disposed to jump at conclusions. Besides, it would be more in harmony with the modesty and geniality that accompany man's greatness, for him to let others associate his name with a " system " and not do so himself. The insinuation that we are M staff-bound" is simply absurd. Neither Mr. Proctor nor any one else is in the slightest decree " a dictator in our columns," nud wo are sure that Mr. Proctor would bo amongst the first to repudiate such a claim. Our space belongs to those who can All it most worthily. H. G. T.—Described several times. R. E. W.—We cannot make engravings from scaling wax

impressions of coius. W. H. Bayer.—See answer to R. E. W. E. H. Jones.—There is some truth in your remarks, and we have sometimes oonsidcred the advisability of taking the step you suggest. J. Edgixl.—See recent back numbers for discussion as to whether the use of the velocipede is injurious to health. A Working Smith.—See last volume for instructions

to make electric bells. Ignorant.—Longmans, Paternoster-row. Miller.—We cannot. Au advertisement in the Sixpenny Sale Column would probably gain fur you the information. Aquillus.—Send us the information, but make it as

brief as possible. Student.—Yes; order through any bookseller. Cymro— "Gwilt's Encyclopaedia,"*published by Longmans. C. L.—Your views are correct. It is surprising how any

sensible person can think differently. Amateur Philosopher.—We ought not to be called on

to make engravings for purely theoretical enquirers. Niagara.—Your query involves perpetual motion—or an

impossibility. J. Harris.—Your question about the best watchmakers is a commercial one. We havo before said that we desire to keep the educational and commercial departments of the paper distinct. J. B. S., Macclesfield.—Fenehurch-strect, London. T. M.—We cannot encourage private correspondence, therefore your letter is not forwarded. You can nowonly recover your strength by temperate habits, early rising, cold water ablutions, and a virtuous life. Charles Russell, Birkenhead.—Thanks for the list of

millers. Trade And Commerce.—We have received letters during the part week from "Sigma," "Herbert," "F. W. M." "Political Economist," and a "Disciple of J, S. Mill." J. Winter.—In answer to your first question—y es, as you may see announced elsewhere. To your second question—no. Mr. Edward Henri Tode did not originate the English Mechanic. He was uo more the creator of this publication than an empty coal barge in the Thames creates the tide on which it rides. The English Mechanic owes its popularity and circulation, as " Sigma " long since said, to its multitudinous correspondents, who rejoice in mutually giving and receiving useful and interesting information. Northern Mechanic—Carefully read Mr. Spragne's articles. They will give you much of the information you ask for.

A Model Correspondent. "Sable," who, we believe, is a clergyman, and whose article on the Flute is inserted, says,—" I wish only to be admitted amongst the least of those whom you are pleased to call your friends, although I givo place to none as your sincere wellwisher. If you print this article, I shall bo gratified, but if you consign it to the abysmal waste basket and the tender mercies of the redoubtable * Betty,' I shall not be disappointed in any degree."

C. Richardson.—The numbers can be had for 3s. 2d., exclusive of postage.

P. T. B.—We think no harm could result from the use of the Turkish bath, but in a case of disease medical advice should be taken.

X. G-—Write to the publisher of the Journal of Horticulture, 176, Fleet-street.

K. T. Z.-Write to J. R. Willis, 29, Minories.

H. Holdeknkss.—If you refer agaiu to our reply in No. 274, you will see we told you H was impossible for you to gain the information without fuller particulars.

Thr Sixprnny Sate Column is the only place in which can appear queries sent hv J. W., Miller, C. H B (tirwj part), ArtemuB Ward, Purpura, Busy Bee, Nemo,

A Sufferer.—Consult a medical man; avoid quacks. Somerset Amateur.—The numbers announced in print

at the foot of the article are in print, and can be had

direct ou receipt of stamps. H. H. C.—Yes, with a drawing, if possible.

W* ,T," ?; L,~Wc do Publish from time to time accounts

of boiler explosions. E.A.P. (Rochester)—The English Mechanic can only he forwarded by book-post to the Australian colonics. H- P.—Yon will notice that the termination of your communication has been left over. It will appear with your next. E. L.—Yes, the war, if it continues, will to some exten t influence the timber trade. It is already doing so at Grimsby, where freights have advanced 10s. per ton, and timber has consequently risen in price. Many ships of the timber fleet now due are German ships, and havo been ordered to run into Bremen. B. G.—Ynu may bo suro nil the good contributors will be welcome. Some of the other* will undoubtedly be sent to the right-about. Simon Leslie.—The status of Building Societies is a most important question. We fear, however, the Government will do nothing in the matter this year. notwithstanding the favourable reception given on Monday by the Home Secretary to the deputation von refer to. J

A Reader Of Both.—Yes; a visible alteration in the tone of the once hostile and now to bo amalgamated journal is noticeable in the last few numbers. A friend observed to us that, like the swan, its dying utterances were the best. H. A. L.—All tho usual Continental trips will be interrupted, so such information would be useless for the present. R. Hitch Max.—Your plan is not novel, nor do wo think its adoption would bo desirable. What is the "nation " to do with the invention when it has bought it. Tho majority of inventions are only to bo profitably worked by private enterprise. Bernardin.—It was a mistake, and the others have been forwarded. To ensure insertion communications should reach us by Saturday. Anything of importance, however, would bo in time on Monday. J As. Harrison.—Your letter is not inserted, becauso of the contemptuous way you speak of another correspondent.

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In obedience to the suggestions of a number of readers, we havo decided on appropriating a portion of our space to a condensed lUt of Patents as nearly as possible up to the date of our issue.


1«S5. T. Carr, Bristol, arrangament* for cleaning and reducing

i2£r m.11^',",:imlJ*0*9' auJ otQor *eeJs int" n"ur or ••moUna. lHJt, t. Hulden, liraJl.ird, apparatus employed in preparing and combing wool an iothociibros. *•*•»■

1H97 J. Ueuton, Eastwood, Improvemant-i in obtaining motive power. °

1«W E. L. Mocdonolt, TitchfleM-atrcot, improved means of facilitating and vtfocilu:,' iu„ traction of whoei carriages drawn by horae power. *

1Svf"' %l"' A" N"vare- Kinji^-^quare, Goswell-road, improvements in the Mjrao tt:legi-aph printing app%ratu<«.

1;<00 J II. Johnson, 47, Lincoln s Inn held a, improvements in evaporating and boiling or concentrating liquids, and in apparatus employed tfterein. A cuiumunk itioti.

1901 T.Hydeaant W. Wig/ull, Suotneld, improved method* of coiiiiecting together the vertical an 1 horizontal baxa of iron fencing.

iiWi J. W. Hoffman, and F. A. Harriton, Birmingham, improvementa in the manufacture of certain ornamental and useful articles, such a* buttons, knoua fur djjrs and drawers, &c.

1«W E. T. Hnghea, li-i. Chancery lane, unprovemonta in the manufacture of cauitie a Kia. A communi.:ation.

1L"04 W ]t. Lake, Southampton-building... improvements in mechanical appu-mce-* and lurnae^*. A communication.

190.^ G. Burn y and C. Ingall, MUiwall, uuprovements in storing petroleum and other innammablo or explosive lintildK. 19l« J. Young. Glasgow, improvfincnti in lamps. lxml J Roberta on, Niulml, K.-ntrewihire. improvements in apparotvisi to be med in imikuig tubes.

1908 A. Prince, iiiiprovomi.nta in soldiera" litters. A communication.

ltwj J.Bonrne, Grt, Mark-lane, LonIon. improvement- in the means and apparatua employed in cutting various substances.

laiu L. Lo Chovalitr Oaum, Winsley-street, improveuienU in the construction of spiral staircases.

.J?*1. V- R- En?or- improvements in tho manufacture of lace in twist lace machines.

1H12 II. M. Ward, Loop Bridge Mill«t Ballyinaconaghv. improvements in machinery ior spinning and twisting fibrous «ubatancee.

191S J. Asconch blinda and shutters.

1914 W. R. Lake, Southampton buildings, London, improvements in furnaces chiefly designed (or hoaung metals and ores A communication.

1915 F. Tommaai, Paris, an improved submarine hydro-electrie telegraph cable.

.^i6!.?; J' Liser' <i3' Ruo de Be*Qne. Paris, improvements in the building of ironwoiU walls.

1917 K. L. C. ddvornoii, Paris, an Improvement in the moans for producing electric light.

191m A. M. Clark, &j. Chancery lone, improvements in smoothing Ir«nB. A communication.

1919 a Falck, Fairioot-road, Bow, on improved portable refrigerator. r

199D J. J. H'Grath, Cable street, St. George's-in-the-Ea at improvements in the construction of whools.

1921 1. Whitesmith, Glasgow, improvemonU in looms for weaving.

19-23 B-rDobson.T.Tliurnlcy.andJ.SetUe.BoUon.iruprovements in apparatua for cleaning the tinted and top rollers of machines used in preparing and spinning cotton.

V.*Li W. &, Lako un improvid devica for fastening tickets upon woven goods and other article*. A communication.

1W24 T. R«aJ. llalton, improvements in the construction of reaping machine*.

1926 I>. Lord, Great Horton, improvements in aoedding warps in tin; process of weaving.

HanJsworth, improvements In Venetian

1(W7 IT. H.Mnrdoca. 7. Stapic-inn, improvemem. in eombbu

turn locks and padlock*, ami key* U>r the -nice. A c.»3na-dni-»-i •

1WS C. de Berguc. 10, Strand, improvement* i.i mrli^r ,\

punching metal. - '*

l!Mw If. J. Crockett, 6, Canonniirygruve, Islington unnrett

ments lii window aash and easement fastener*.

l'J30 I>. Gordon, Ayr, improvements in machineryor Mian*- ■ lot churning. * I-i-»».j»

1931 J. liensmnn. Ainr-thill, and W. Armstrong, Harnn in. pr.A-emonta m agricultural drill*. J'

ltt.H K.Ed wards. Jlownoprovc-ments in interlaeinn and ioU'lavi- ■ of paper* with thread, and their application to the muQtiU-:, of envelope*.

1*» G. ti. Busaey. Hye-lane, Pcckham, an improved apt-mi , to be at>nd A* a substitute for bird-trap shooting.

VJU K. W. Huberts. Blaby. an improved method or appliesii . for preserving the fronts or edges of stays and corsets.

VJ3S J. Buchanan, and S. Viekrcss, Liverpool, improverac" c th" man n fact tire and rebnrning of animal charcoal.

W*i P. Chaplin, Harlow, improvements in wheels to be uied & railways. A o jinomnication.

Iitt7 K. Hul^hisun, Glasgow improvements in bleachiai In! improving vi-getable and animal oil* and fat*. ItfSS ,T. Ki-rnhaw, Bolton, improvement* in loom* for weavia; liWd W. li. Harris. Manchester, improvements in the mod- / connecting wheel* and other article* to their nhafL*.

Ii40 Count Sparre, 18, Bouluvort St. Martin, Pari* impt'jn menu In brooch-loading fire-anna.'

1941 A. Cochrane, V, Wilton-place, St. Johns Wood, imiin.*inents in giving motion In «hipa and other floating bodies

liUll V. G. J nekton, Dickbead, im;uuveiuenU in the man-v tun? of cordials.

1943 W. It. Lake, improvement* in buckles for fa&teninttin:< belta, and other like article*. A communication.

1944 W. li. Lake, unproved lacking and Muaaina hooks t communt.'ation.

U>45 T. T. Chellingworth, R, Great Qneen-strcrt \Tn«tjar'Van improved hot-air enginp.

L'M^ H. E. Pavy, Boo du Bac, Porta, impruvc-ment^ in hinied giiiiums or hulJeiB for corn and grain. A conuaonlcation

l!H7 T. Bruce, Monkton. Ayrshire, improvement* in vainp&> z forcing apparatua for hydraulic preases.

194B E. Leahy, Cardington street, Eaiton-iqaare iaprovi miutrt in portable or movable railway-).

lwy p. bpeuce, Newton Heath, ilanrheater, iniprovemcBti is the treatment of newage.

1900 D Nicoll, FeU-street, London, an improved waK-rprx* fabric uppheable for ruj{4, carpets, U*nU, and outer wrapper*. ^

Sir C. II. Pennoll, Woodlands, Weybridge.improremraisis


til re o

19*i C. Holstc, H, CoTent-garden, improvements in the manufacture of pot» or cniciblca aul n gloss tum^ces, A communication. i

W. Marriott, Huddersneld. improvement* in the manofM

iron salts or compounds.

J. P. Barford, Banbury, improvements in carriage jacltj.

1964 M. H. Wiley, Ma*ascbuset(.s, ceitain new ami auetal isprovi'tnenta in oil cabinctn.

1966 G. T. BoaoAeld, Ldughboroagh park. BrixtoD. Imprw menta in warp tension and let-off mrcJiaiUim /or po«ti looms. I communication.

196C T. Holeroft, BiUton, improvomeati in the miitu/acfnre oi nails and spikes.

lil'7 J. Crossley, Ileywood, improvementf in looai f»r nravuu

1963 P. D. He.lderwit.-k, a new or uupn'ved *pi\tTutUi loc counting paper in sheets.

1969 E. liolborow, 1H, Ledbarv-s'-rect, Comnenrisi road, Pselham. improvements in wiodoir i^uh t**u-Mr».

IrtJi) J. T. Grirnn, 77. Upftr Ttuavt-iKcet, impwrement* in reaping and mowing machine*. A coianiuuratioo,


136H W. Young, impro*-eiaen*.« ia crates, picking ca*«, and truvtllera' and other boxc».

vno T. Colas and W. Henderson, imyrovemeots In tiKhvrifl",for Hcutching flax and other flores.

1371 J., improvement-i in preuirinE, cUriiv'iaj, and pieserving vivt'Labli; juices and u^her U<iuid».

14S7 G. 1'. Bousflold, improvements in loom* tai Wwtuw;. k communication.

1*61 W. K. Lake, improvomentri in rnachinf*for Wpptog cy.Un and other flbrouj materials. A ommunicaliou.

14G9 It. Harte, improvement a in mean* and apparatus la efTecting aerial locomotion.

7* W. G. Cunningham, a machine or apparatui ior citanii;. and polishing boots and shoes.

HO E. A. Chameriy, improvements in means and apparatsi far gauging or regulating the flow of water.

'M L. Storue and J. G. Warner, improvements in holts Iff securing porU of the permanent way of railway*.

M \V. l)euiaoii und H. Tooll, improvement" iu it*-am *KiM:

:<7 W. II. Balmain and W. J. Menzu*s, impr«Ted raeau larca veying and storing vitriol.

102 A. Clark and A. Van Winkle, improvement!! in nuctira i'« bottling soda water.

116 T. Restell, improvements in breech-loading arnnatJ abridge».

117 W.Thoroloy, S. Spencer, and J. Wright, improftne:' J steam boiler and other furnaces.

Vli II. A. BoQuoTiUe, improved moJina for warming »ni t^ lating close carnages and boat saloons, A communication.

12fi W. F. Beynolds, improvements in sinps' logs ani *t-siiil machines, and in the rotators thereof.

law G. Baker, improvements in macbinerr for cuttia? «J^T-' for iniitchea.

2ji G. Leach, apparatus for shipping anad unibipping wiiii-"v screw propellers wnilst in deep water. 1278 C. Kxtar, an im;»rorei oruke ap of railways and other vehicles.

Ill E. Leigh, improvements in the construction of Ite p*rsi nent way of rail way 4.

12B T. B. H. Fisken, Improvements in xnichinerj- lor ltn&'■ and softening flax and other nhroaa material. J*j **■ I' unpen, improvem.utj in the manufacture f>f *b/. 14> 11. 1(. Barlow, improvements in nia.chines lor »Mo( A communication. Iwj D. Spill, improvements in tho treatment of xvlfddiae. VJS A. M. Clark, improveineuls in the manufactnrt ol eW and chain cablw.. A curomuniciition.

215 W. R. Luke, an improved method of and apparil^ ;operating railway switches. A communication

aw C. F. Vorley. and T. A. Bochusseu, LonSon imprr^-"-!in producing hp.u and light. *--vu««»», uupi

Jtto A. V. Newton, improvements in the construction sfisSi* machines. A communication. 4Hs» J L. Norton, improvement* In embroidering mMaSC4:»u O. Jonas, improvements in Uie cvintruction ol furs*-'*-* effeet consumption of smoke and saving of fuel

6uo A, JtftKrs.anew and useful macuiue for moaldiner,^ mg, channeling, and aUmping the aolen of buots an J ah^

t>iJ o. WW igner, Improvomcnts in or applicable t-> ceulr--''1 urying machines or hydro-extractors.

907 W. E. Newton, improvements in pampa or apparitui i ■ raising water and sand and mud. A communication

«»-?,,.J!"«; Tltb' *PP*r*tua i*» working and locking l^'switches and -lgnals.

lo.»4 J. lUaskitt. improvements in velocipedes. A command

11* P. Spence, improvements in the production* of thr P^'

w-u tc' 'Pmrt!UJtte ot »«>J». and Prussian blue

14,» u. PiTowne, improvemtnts in mochinerv for colitt;

oppb'c able to the rollmr ■'

iu- iiipi a

1491 ~

and shoe

i other roots.

W. B. Lake, improvements in machinery for sewing t>^;i

as, A communication.

X. A. du Carvalho, improvements in ahips and veaseU


Subscriptions to be forwarded t-. the Eiitor. at the OSes.«

Tavistock-street, Covsnt-gordeo, W.C.

Amount previously acknowledged ..

1. Halifax ..

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Snatch Block.. ., ""

.. tWi » 1


The BRITISH AND FOREIGN MECHANIC is now incorporated with this journal.

®\\\ (Knjltslt Iftycfemk



FRIDAY, JULY 29, 1870.



Ry Hermann Smith.



THE "Moabite Stone" has made us aware that the familiar household word " Bqneezc" has recently been raised to the dignity of technological usage. The "squeezes" of this valuable relic of antiquity have become famous. A pulpy plastic material pressed upon the face of the stone has given infac-simile what the sculptor had written to the order of one of those rulers of Moah who ages ago had, in royal fashion, made history.

Very pleasant it is in this fair summer time to watch the waving cornfield and drink the freshening air. The broad elm plank, unsound and weather-riven, spanning tho brook now dwindled to a rill, and the old iron-bound stile on which we rest awhile, mark even to us the passing away of more than one generation. An old stile—these country stiles, were they ever other than old?—and carved with quaint letters, records of the kingly idleness of village youths. Strange what a curious interest these initials excite; some seem to stare at us vacantly, as if they wanted to get away furtively out of sight; some are half obliterated, past recall, whilst others look as if they had a tale to tell if we could decipher it, and then there are those following each other so significantly in pairs that we can scarcely help questioning as we read theui and wondering whether E. M. ever won M.P., whether they were united and faithful, and what history they made in the world about them, for all human life makes some sort of history, recorded or unrecorded.

Lessons in stiles, sermons in stones; these deeply-cut initials, speaking to us from the old stile, are a mould which the air fills as surely as the molten metal tills the moulds forming tho solid type of which this page is composed. We wish to lead you to picture to yourself the air as possessing in some degree the characteristics of solidity, taking form and shape, capable of giving and of receiving impressions; we would have you think of sound as though you saw it, for thus only will you be able fully to apprehend the bearing your least influence will exercise upon the form and mode of the vibration determining the quality of the sounds issuing from our harmonium channels.

Lift your eyes again. The waving cornfield is taking "squeezes" of the air; now deeply furrowed with undulations, now shimmering in shallow ripples, chequered with currents that intermingle and cross each other, glinting in the brilliance of the sun's rays, or tinted with the shailows of the travelling clouds. The broad white path divides the standing corn, yet breaks not the long undulating roll; the wave passes onwards, but the ears of com are rooted to their places—like anchored boats they rock to and fro obedient to the pulseB of the wind. The great wave of air is shaping itself in the undulations and ripples that are made visible to us upon tho yielding Burface of the com. The comparison of corn ears and particles of air is almost as that of stars and dust, so wide is the difference of magnitudes. We are to understand the vibrations of air as movements of minutest particles agitated with the pulsations recognised by us as sounds, and undulating in the same manner as these ears of corn under the rasliing of the windwave. River or rivulet, the activity is the same; the stream wanders away whilst the ripples are constant, for they are localised.

Every organ pipe, tube, or channel giving voice

".,Th* copyright of this treatise is reserved by the author.

to music is reproducing within itself the same kind of activity, the same evolution of waves and ripples, as is here under the free heaven empictured for our Btudy. Let us select as a representative channel one that gives a tone corresponding to the 16ft. C C C, and is 4jin. long, Jin. wide, and ljin. deep; a stream of wind passes through it—it is not the stream that is musical, but the ripples in it that are making the music. If, now, we imagine the sides of the interior of this channel to present surfaces of some fine plastic matter which shall be relatively as sensitive to the vibrations of the air particles as the ears of corn to the undulations of the windwaves, and if we could look with eyes of light into this dark aerographic camera, we should see it on all sides taking squeezes of the air, thrilled through with music as the heart with life, as the brain with thought; wo should see the wave of the fundamental tone, the light shimmering harmonics, and the sympathetic vibration of the main reservoir of the instrument surging in, and clouding it, as it were, with the ever-changing shadows of its resonance.

The fineness of the musical pulsations of air is very difficult to conceive of; it is by similitudes that we best realize it to the mind. Shakspeare likens the invisible presence of music to the wind laden with odour :—

Like the sweet south
That breathes upou a bank of violets,
Stealing and giving odour.

And another of England's worthies in a converse aspect likens odour to music—

The breath of flowers is farre sweeter in the aire (where it comes and goes like tho warbling of inusick) than in the hand.

The sensitive substantiality which we demand in imagination has been in some measure achieved in the remarkably beautiful device, the phonautograph of M. Leon Scott, which we hope before long to introduce to the readers of these papers with suitable illustrations. Our present brief reference only admits of saying that this little apparatus visibly deciphers the pulsations of the enclosed air when agitated by musical sounds, and with a stylex indelibly registers its waves, both great and small.

The channel gives a tone which is the nnited product of two agents; the reed defines a tone of certain pitch, the channel moulds that tone and impresses it with the forces of its own nature. The character and influence of the channel we have to investigate; tho disposition of the reed belongs to a distant branch of enquiry. Let us carry our microscopic research a step further and see what is going on in the recesses of our soundboard. We are familiar with the term 16ft. organ pipe, or C C C pipe; the definite length named expresses a theoretical approximation to the inundunu relation of air in respect of the velocity of sound as attained by an enclosed column of air vibrating in its least const mined condition, a condition nevertheless dependent on human rearing and fostering for that approximateness. The word " mundane" is introduced in order to draw your thoughts a little way out of the beaten track, and by it we mean that relatedness which exists in the constitution of things—the free nature in contradistinction to that relatedness which springs from human design, which is favoured by the forecasts of intellect and is thus an artistic relatedness. Therefore it is not only the 16ft. pipe that gives a C C C note. Art brought about the coincident relation of length of pipe and pitch of note, and can produce the same result with infiuito variety of lengths and proportions. In the fluepipes of an organ air is setting air in vibration, an elastic force conspiring with an elastic medium, agent and recipient are of the same substance—air of air, fluid of fluid; the power to influence each the other is reciprocal; nature is least trammelled in this original state, yet none the less is the product due to the union of two distinct activities—on* we may call the generating, the other the resonating. The soft sweet pure tone of the flute organpipe is produced with the nearest approach to the freedom of nature ; it is so mellow and clear because the sound the mouthpiece can give with greatest ease is likewise the normal tone of the pipe itself.

The column of air contained in tho pipe when it is excited to vibration, spontaneously divides into vibrating proportional parts, divides into nodes and segments, at the half of the length, at the third, at the fourth, at the eighth, and so on, and so absolute is the division that we can measure the distances with accuracy, and if at such points we sever the pipe and hold the one half above the

other, leaving a little interval between, the undulations will still pass to and fro as little interfered with as the cornfield's rolling billows by the path that makes its emerald sea seem riven with whiteness as with a beam of light.

From the great to the small. The channel of the harmonium in comparison with the organ pipe is as the little meadow brook to tho broad river; yet both are subject to the same laws. As we learn theoretically that the tone wave in the organ pipe subdivides itself into aliquot parts, and have the means of practically demonstrating that it does so as clearly as that a vibrating string divides into nodes and segments, so also we know that the channel behaves in like manner. The pulse generated by the reed's activity travels from end to end, and is thrown back in rhythmic recoil, meeting the next transmitted pulse at tho half distance. The exactness accordant with the theory is not practically arrived at, because there are certain disturbing elements to be taken into calculation as affecting the results; yet for illustration we assume the theoretical distances as sufficiently accurate; therefore, in our representative channel the wave should divide or strike its nodal distance at the half—2jjin.—just as in the 16ft. organ pipe it would at Wft. Tho similarity of action in thcBe small channels rests on the principle called " multiple resonance "— that is to Bay, that smaller pipes or channels, if of any length, of which the larger pipe is a multiple, will equally respond in resonance to the note of the same pitch; thus, to a reed giving the note the same in pitch as that given by a 16ft. fluepipe, we should find a pipe of 2ft. length would yield a perfect consonance, so also 1ft. and liin., 4, 3, 2, lj, and many other proportions more or less agreeing.

Or, to put the statement in more exact reference to number of vibrations instead of length of pipe —a multiple being a number which exactly contains another several times—a column of air will not only enter into vibration when it is capable of producing the same sound—namely, that which is the unison of the sound of the vibrating body or agent, but also when the number of the vibrations which it is capable of making is any simple multiple of that which the original agent produces; therefore, the shorter the tube or channel, the less its power of resonance to reinforce the original tone, for the multiple is too compound to give much aid, whilst the more simple the multiple, the greater is the energy of the resonance. The simplest multiple of vibrations, 32 in number, is, of course, 64, namely, the relation of the vibrations of the 8ft. pipe to those of the 16ft., or twice contained; the vibrations of a channel of 6in. amount to 1,024, a multiplewhich contains the original number 32 times. Theory says that the resonance is only the tone naturally belonging to the channel superadded to the note of the reed, and actually nothing more than a high harmonic to the reed's note. Theory again says the simplest multiple gives the most energetic resonance, but practice gives very different results* and affirms many limitations unheeded by philosophers in their study. Bye and bye, we shall reach the point for further explanations on this subject; what is now said should be sufficient for the present understanding of what is meant by " multiple resonance."

To secure the working of this principle it is necessary that the exciting agent should rule the air, the generator be more powerful than the resonator,—thus metal against air dominates the pitch. If our 16ft. tone reed is mated to a channel that is in true sympathy with itself, the resultant tone will be clear, pure, and smooth in quality, but if the channel is not of the correct proportion it will have a tendency to divide the wave not into parts of which a 16ft. is the multiple, but into some other spaces; the wave in recoil would either fall short of the half distance or go beyond it and get broken or collided, and the smaller fragmentary waves so originated would aid and abet the predominance of the subsidiary tones or natural harmonics which the reed is alwayB ready to set up when unrestrained by the sympathy that should develope only its better nature.

It is quite on accident of art that we obtain the C C C note from an organ pipe that is 16ft. in length. Very unorthodox is the doctrine we here teach and offer for your acceptance, but perhaps you will not mind if you find that the facts supporting the heresy give a clearer insight into musical realities. We arrive at accurate proportions of channels equally by accident. Finding a combined reed and channel to give an agreeable flute-like tone we take it as a standard whence wa deduce the relative degrees of length of all other channels intended to occupy the same rank or make up one register. The spaces we have to deal with are too minute for measuring off by aliquot parts, and the multifarious influences associated with the action of the channel preclude any reliance on rule and compass by arbitrary calculation. All our channels are marked off to BcaleB, which are the practical result of observation and long-tried experience. Having succeeded in pairing the reed and channel in faithful consonance, the amateur will naturally come to the conclusion that there is nothing more to be desired and we ought to be happy ever after. Yet such is the perversity of our inclinations, perfection does not altogether content us—we want variety, we notice peculiarities a little incorrect, and take a liking to them ; thus, bassoon, oboe, and clarion toue display markod dissonances, yet they please and are a grateful change to the ear. Scales of imperfect correspondence are therefore worked out and secured in permanence. The same method is adopted for these as for the consonant. A good specimen is noticed and taken for a standard for the series. It is easy to drive a number of horses abreast in the curve if skill has been acquired to apply the check on the reins in due proportion all along the line. The condition of all such channels is one of coercion, the reed has an overbearing influence more or less and the channel obeys its master, shaping the form of its waves on the easiest course the circumstances admit of.

It should not be supposed from this statement that any haphazard conjunction of reeds and channels will work equally well, for without choice and selection we should find, in a large majority of instances, there would be incompatibilities of disposition so prominent, conditions so strained, that neither partner would support the other, the channel would be dull, taciturn, unsympathetic, and the reed either coarse and harsh, or sinking to the opposite extreme— sluggish in speech and uncertain in intonation.

In our next chapter we shall present a tabulated view of a series of five sets of scales of proven value.

(To be continued.)

By Richard A. Proctor, B.A., F.R.A.S.

Author of "Other Worlds than Ours," &C., &C.
(Continued from page 363).

I CONSIDER it a very fortunate circumstance that precisely when the question has been put to me whence I gather my conviction that countless millions of meteor-systems exist within the solar family, I should have been on the point of laying my evidence in the matter before the tens of thousands who read the Enqlish Mechanic Before proceeding to unfold the absolutely convincing evidence which recent discoveries have in my opinion supplied in this matter, let me promise that at each step (as I promised when I began these papers), I will indicate whether the argument I am about to use is certain or simply founded on a greater or less degree of probability.

We have seen that two of the meteoric systems encountered by the earth have been proved to travel on orbits of great eccentricity, their mostdistant parts lying many times farther from the sun than the earth is. Now no other meteoric systems have yet been dealt with in the same way. But the evidence derived from these two is quite sufficient to force upon us the conviction that meteoric systems are in no way dependent upon the earth, as we might have imagined if the November and August meteors had been found to travel in a nearly circular orbit at about the earth's distance from the sun; and we feel strengthened in this assurance when we learn that probable evidence has been derived from the recurrence of certain meteoric displays in December and April, in favour of the view that two other systems have orbits about as eccentric as the path of the November meteors.. Further, good reasons have been given for believing that other meteoric systems besides the November and August systems, are associated, as those systems are, with comets travelling in paths of greater or less eccentricity.

It cannot but be accepted as certain, then, that the earth has had no part in bringing these meteor-systems into their present positions; for her influence on the meteors when traversing the

• Professor Kirkwood has shown this.

more distant parts of their paths may be regarded as absolutely nil.

It is then a merely fortuitous circumstance that the meteoric systems traversed by the earth cross her orbit as they do. A meteor system having its path assigned to it as it were at random (so far as the earth is concerned), by the attractions of the giant outer planets, might happen to cross the earth's path,—precisely as a musket bullet fired at random might happen to strike a distant telegraph wire. But precisely as the chance against this latter event occurring would be indefinitely small, so would be that against the former also. Now if a great number of meteorsystems had paths assigned to them in this way, there would be nothing very wonderful in the fact that one amongst them had a path given to it which intersected the earth's orbit, precisely as there would be nothing wonderful in a telegraph-wire being struck by one among a flight of bullets.

Now it is a legitimate application of the laws of probability to accept a less wonderful interpretation of an observed fact in preference to an interpretation which is more wonderful. Suppose, for instance, that we know nothing of a certain coin except that it has been tossed ten or twelve times running and each time "head " has turned up, we should reason justly that in all probability both sides of the coin were alike, because, if not, the observed result is be very surprising. Or, again, if a teetotum has ten sides marked with numbers not known to us, and we observe after spinning it, say a hundred times, that a particular number has appeared ninety times or so, while only one other number has appeared, we should be justified in concluding that certainly that first number was marked on more than one face of the teetotum, and that probably it was marked on nine faces out of the ten. For it would be an altogether amazing accident if the same face appeared ninety times or so in a hundred trials, while there would be nothing surprising in the fact that a certain number appeared so often if that number were marked on several faces of the teetotum.* In all such cases, speaking generally, that state of things which renders the observed result least surprising is the most probable.

The existence of a few meteor-systems only would make the earth's encountering one meteorsystem such a very surprising coincidence that we are justified in concluding that for each meteorsystem the earth encounters there are many circuiting around the sun. The argument would be strong if the earth encountered but one system; it would be immensely strengthened if she encountered two; but it becomes overwhelmingly strong under the actual circumstance that she encounters more than half a hundred. We are in fact, free in the actual case to simply multiply the number of systems actually encountered by the number which should exist to make the chances even that the earth would encounter one. What this last number may be it would be somewhat difficult to determine; but no one who considers the multitude of positions in which an orbit of great extent and electricity might be placed without coming near the earth's orbit can doubt that it is very large indeed. Thus, then, merely from the fact that the earth encounters such and such a number of meteor-systems, we have been led to the conclusion that the actual number of such systems must be enormous.

But we have reason for believing that there exists an actual coudensation of meteoric systems in the neighbourhood of the sun, and if this condensation can be established we shall have yet further to increase our estimate of the total number of meteors which exist at every instant of time in the sun's neighbourhood.

I cannot prove the existence of this condensation directly; but I can show it to be highly probable, by attending to what has been shown about the connection between meteoric systems and comets. What the nature of that connection may in reality be I do not pretend to know. Whether every meteoric system is associated with a comet and every comet with a meteoric system I do not pretend to assert. What has been actually shown is simply this, that the only two meteoric systems whose orbits have been determined have been found to travel on the same paths as two comets. No one can deny that, Bo far as the evidence at

* Here I tim socking to exhibit in a popular form u law of probability which is in reality admitted. The reader is to understand the above reasoning aa not meant to ettaHith but to illustrate the law. The science of probabilities enables as to calculate the chance that the teetotum has that particular number which has appeared so often, on any given number of faces.

present goes, probabilities are in favour of the view that the tracks of most comets are followed by multitudes of minute bodies such as form our meteoric systems. There seems no reason to suppose the two comets above dealt with to be ex ceptioual. Nay, further, it has been shown in the case of other comets which pass near the earth's orbit, that when the earth comes past a point of nearest approach meteoric displays ordinarily take place. Without at all insisting, then, that comets must necessarily have meteoric attendants travelling on their track, I yet dwell on the fact that probabilities are in favour of this being the case with at least a large proportion of the comets which belong to the solar system.

Now these comets show a marked tendency la aggregation in the sun's neighbourhood. The following table, one of Mr. Dunkin's very valuable additions to Lardner's " Handbook of Astronomy," affords most instructive evidence in thisrespect. The first column indicates the limits of distance from the Ban estimated in millions of miles, within which the cometic perihelia are counted. The second indicates the relative cubical content of space included within those limits. Of course the cubical content of spheres whose diameters in crease as the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4,5, &C, varies as the numbers 1, 8, 64, 125, Sic., and so the innermost sphere and the successive shells have volumes relatively as 1 (8-1), (27-8), (64-27), (125 — 64), &c. The third column indicates the number out of every 100 discovered comets whose point of nearest approach to the sun lies within the limits of distance referred to in the first column. And, finally, we obtain the density with which such points of nearest approach art spread through these spaces by dividing the number of points in each space by the number expressing the extent of that space.

Mr. Dunkin's table runs tins:—


Nothing can be more convincing than the last column of this table. It indicates not merely u increase of density in the Sun's neighbourhood, but a very rapid increase.

But applying this to the case of meteoric systems—assuming, that is to say, that what has thus been proved to be true respecting comets is true also of meteoric systems—there renuins yei something more to be said. I can show that, apart from this form of increase of density inwards, there must be an increase resulting tram the mere ellipticity of the meteoric orbits.

Suppose the meteors of a system to travel w> after another along the same track precisely '1 put this merely for convenience), and not at if* disttnicea all round the orbit, but (still for co venience) in such a way that they pass the perihelion of their track (the point nearest it sun) at equal intervals of time, such inter* being very minute. Then they will pass ** aphelion of their track (the point farthest ft* the sun) at these same equal and minute tof" vals of time. But they travel faster in perish' than in aphelion, and so traverse greater #*** in these equal intervals of time. 0*"*^' therefore, they are farther apart when nans'10 the sun. It might seem, accordingly, tt»t' have proved precisely the reverse of what 1V0mised in the preceding paragraph, and that the peculiarities of motion in elliptic orbits woutt cause meteors to be more sparsely distributed near the sun than at a distance from him. gal yet, paradoxical as it sounds, thongh meteortf systems open out their ranks as they appii»l!l the sun, mid close up their ranks as they trawl from him, the members of a set of elupuo meteoric systems will always be more crowded in the sun's neighbourhood than at a distance from him. The reason simply is, that the perihelia of the systems are crowded in a smaller space than the aphelia; and one can easily show that this i-1 more effective to increase crowding in the sun's neighbourhood than the other relation is to diminish such crowding.

Suppose, for instance, we take 1,000,00° meteoric systems in every possible position, but all alike in shape, and ten times further from the sun in aphelion than in perihelion. Thon the incni

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