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-ELECTROS.—I am much obliged to for his nuawer to me rccovnmending

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ny of your renders informing me what the above с upper coin is.—W. B.

(.43*5.] — BRAZING OR SOLDERING.—Can any oí your reader» kindly inform me what is the best method of brazing brass work, and how applied, and what kind of solder should be used for light work ?—Edinburgh.

[4386.] —OPTICAL ARRANGEMENT.—I wish to mako or obtain some simple means oí throwing on а «creen an image of a small opaque object, such as (say) я watch, a large insect, or a mineralógica! specimen, so as to be visible (say) to fifty persons at once in a moderute-sized room. I aleo wish to show transparent objects. I аш aware that for an unknown number of guineas nn optician wonld supply me with a phantasmagoria lantern, oxyhydrogen apparatus, microscope, Ac, but I fancy some simpler and less expensive arrangement would answer my purpose, did 1 bnt know how to go about it. If anyone will kindly give mo practical advice or instructions I ehall bo grateful.—Ignorant Irishman.

(4387.1— SULPHATE OF COPPER BATTERY.— Will our kind friend " Sigma" inform ше how to construct а sulphate oí copper battery in wooden trough? I intend to have threo pairs of platos. What acid shall I require, &c. 'f An early reply will oblige.—W. G.

[4388.]—WEAK EYES.—I am afllicted with weakness in the eyes, which ш ikes the lids red and swollen, and causes an abnorm il secretion of matter, Ac, in the corners; if anyone could give me a recipe for a wash to effectually cure tho evil, I should be moHt thankful ?— Peregrine Pickle.

(4389.1—LATHE QUERY.—Can anyone favour me with instructions for chucking such articles as require я facing on both sides alike, and how to quickly produce a number of the said art icios both of exact size and ehape? The men of a draughtboard take as an example. Some objects I require grooved out like a pulley, also faced on both sides alike.—A Young AmaTeur.

14390.]—FIRE-CLAY BAKING.—I wish to know tho method employed in the pottery district of drying and baking Stuurbridge or tire-clay without cracking, tho time occupied in tho process, or nny other useful infurmitiun will be gladly received.—F. G

[4391.1—SCREW TAPS AND DIES.—I want to make some taps and dies for screwing gas barrels, and I have no master taps or dies, so I want to hardon different size nipples and sockets from Jin. up to Hin., sufficiently to í'Ut steel for taps and dice. I have tried leather shavings, salt, and urine packing, and then makiug red-hot, but It will nut harden sufficiently. If any brother reader could describe the modus operandi for hardening the iron to making the taps and dies he would greatly oblige.—W. Hkkd.

[4392.]—CALLIPERS.—Can any reader inform me bow to mike two pair of callipors, inside and outside unos ?—W. Heed.

[4493.] -STEAM-TIGHT JOINT.—I have a boiler, and it being very diffiVilt to make a steam-tight Joint for the manhole door, and having heard that litharge is a good thing to do it with, can anyone tell me tho price of enough fur the jub, and how to mix and uso it ?—W.

Kí KD.

14894.]—IRISH MOSS.—Can any reader give me any information concerning this substance, such as its healthful properties, how it acts upon the system, and at what price it is to bo procured iu large quantities, and obligo '/—hunter.

""Mwttx mixed with rotten etone for electros, but, g ¡having made about a dozen trials, I find it no "good, as the wax sticks to the metal in places. I have made several good casts from it in plaster of Paris, but do not know how to make them conduct, as blaoklead will not take. Is there not some solution of phosphorus, &c, in which I could dip them? Perhaps M Sigma" could holp me ?—Fader.

[4397.]—SCREW TOOLS FOR SCREW PLATES.— I should be glad ÍÍ " J. K. P." could tell me how to make (if possible) inside screw tools from a screw plate, the holes in which aro Jin., and in top.—Fabkh.

(439Ö.J— MELTING SPELTER FOR BRAZING.— Would any brother reader kindly inform me if there is any acid I could mix with spelter when brazing so as to render it more easy to melt? I find the brass tubes often molt before the solder. Or how is the spelter mado for brazing such tubes? I have no difficulty iu brazing copper,—Deeside.

] — INTERNALLY-GEARED LATHE. —To G. W. A." - In page 849 of the Enoijsh Mechanic "G. W. A." gives a drawing of an internall у-geared lathe; the gun-metal wheel (of which figure 2 is a front view) has on it five circles of holes, the other side having the internally cut teeth. I would ask "G. W. A.'* what are the nse of these holes? does he use it as a chuck-plate, or do they play an important part in the gearing of this lathe? I nave a tin. centre lathe, and I wish to introduce this style of goaring here. Can the internal wheel be cut with the ordinary wheel-cutting machine, or ehall I have to make a pattern and get it cast? I trust that " G. W. A." will supply tho information.— Deeside.

[4400.]—MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS, DIATOMS, Etc. —Wonld any of our microscopic friends, Mr. Anderson, or the author of thejottings now appearing in our Mechanic kindly answer the following? My holidays commence in a fow days, and I am desirous of going to the sea-side, but wish to steer my course to where I could find a good variety of marine objects for the microscopo, especially diatoms—if in tho neighbourhood of chalk hills where foraminifera can be found so much the better. I know there arc plenty of objects to be found anywhere on the sea-side, bat I specially want to procure diatoms, andif chalk cliffs are near so much the better.—Hunter.

[4401.] —CHEMICAL.—Will "Urban," or "Mr. G. E. Davis," kindly give me preciso instructions how to convert 2oz. or 3oz. of ferro-cyanide of potassium into the red ferric salt? I have tried, by means of a current of chlorine, but find myself embarrassed by the К Cl and a green substance in attempting to crystallise the ferric salt out.—Prussian Blue.

14402.]—TELESCOPE.—I have a portable telescope, the tubes or draws of which are worn so that they slide too easily, making it difficult to keep the proper focus. Will some one kindly tell me what to do with the instrument to make it work properly ?—G. F.

[4403.J—MECHANICS.—Con any of our subscribers assist me in this? I want, by pressing a certain weight down lin., to raise another 100 times as heavy, up 12in.— Alyssuk.

[4404.] —BLAST GAS FURNACE.—Will Mr. T. Fletcher oblige by giving me further details of his blast gas furnace? What is the arrangement of the Griffith's gas burner, and how is the blast arranged? A sketch would oblige.—J. M.

[4405.]— SHELL GOLD.—Can any correspondent inform me how to prepare shell gold ?—J. M.

[4406.]—SUPPOSED ANCIENT PAINTING.—A painting has been in my family over a century, we have always considered it to be a Kneller, but have no proof of it. The subject is the Apotheosis of Queen Anne, represented as an engraving fastened to oak pannolling, the print torn, and tho lower corner standing forward in a scroll. Tho queen is the centre figure, surrounded by angels. A email er print is fastened to the panuelling, partly where it is opened by the scroll of the other, anl represents Britannia weeping; the size inside tho frame 37in. by .viin. I am unable to find any initial or other mark, but perhaps that arises from my ignorance of works of art. I shall be very thankful to any of your correspondents who will assist me in fixing the name of the artist.—H. H.

[44U7.J— MAMMOTH.— In what museums are existing skelctous of the mammoth, or elephua primigenius !Naturalist,

[4408.]—INDIAUUBBER.—Could somo of my brother readers favour me with the names of the principal Indiarubber treos ?—K. L. M.

[4400.] — SECURING IRON CRAMPS TO STONE.— Con any brother reader inform mo of anything as а substitute for lead in securing iron cramps to stone; something to Mow with beat as lead, and set hard?— J.W.

[4410.]—TURNING SPHERES.—Would some adept ot turning billiard halls give mo some information as to that difficult branch of tho art? I want to fit up a simple form of spherical rest for turning spheres about the size of billiard bulls. 1 should be much obliged for any information as to the description of chucks used for holding the ivory. How is ivory polished after being turned? —J. D. L.

[4Ш.]—ISOMETRICAL DRAWING,—ЛУШ Mr. С. J. H. Cotthessou, who asked for a method of drawing the ellipses that represents circles, kimlly lot me kn >w if hv ha* got Ms required information from the elaborate pupcrs written by our correspondent Mr. J. W. В od ford? But let me inform C. J. H. C. that Mr. J. W. 11. is describing perspective drawing, which is quite a differont thing altogether from isometricol drawing. In perspective drawing, we can represent a circle at any апЛе we Sleaso; drawing, circles are always rawu ota given angle. If Mr. С J. П. C. wishes for any information on the above method of representing circles, L shall ho moat happy to give him any information that is in my power on tho subject.—TnoaiA8 J. O'connor.


Is fatnro, if any qnery remain ппапятгогой for four woeks, we shall insert the number and subject of tho quory in this lidt, where it will remain for two weeks, if not previously replied to. Wo trust our roadors will look over tho lUt, and sond what information they can for the benent of their fellow-contributors.

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Value of Coin, 287.

Brittle India-rubber, 287.

Hound Zinc Wire, 287,

bricks and Pottory, 287.

Books, 287.

Works on Soap-making, 287.

Engine Indicating, 387.

Stuffed Birds, 287.

Yellow Dye, 287.

Electric Motor for Sewing Machine, 237.

Artificial Fountain, 287.

Organ Movement to llarmouiuui, 237.

Atmospheric Influence on Electric Clocks, 237.

Muslin Dress, 287.

Gun Barrels, 287.

Dressing Stone, 287.

Heating Boilers with Gas, 297.

Pricking Barrelsof Barrel Organs. To" Adept,"i>87

To " N. S. Heineken," 287.

Medical Electricity, 287.

Arts Examination, Royal Collego oí Surgeons, 287.

Army Commissions, 287.

Woulfte's BotUe, 287.

Tuning Bellows for Harmonium. To " Elevo," 287.

Organ Stops. To *' Harmonious BUuksmith " and

"Adept," 287.
Fixing Colours in Cotton Material, C10.
Botanical—Chemical, 310.
Maguot, 810.
Air Gun, 311.
Harmonium, 311.
Polishing Copper, 811.
Iron Moulding Boxes, 311.
Enlarging Cartes de Visito, 311.
Soldering, 811.
Vulcanizcr, 311.
Parsons' White Brass, 811.
The Lathe, 811.

Harmonium Query. To " Eleve," 311.
Refuse Limo, 311.
Natural Selection, 311.
Tho Shiptonian Vclocipodc, 311.


A SELF-FEEDING TURNING LATHE.—A «markable lathe for turning banister or wainscot raile. whip handled, chair round», or any article of a round shape on which undulations of an ornamental character aro required, is noticed by the Mechanics' Magasine. Tho blanks »f a squaro sectional form are put iu at one end of the apparatus, and they pass out at the other end in a finished state, taking as they go the shape of a pattern plate fixed to a slow revolving wheel at the Hide. Tho machine works very fast, tho cutters running at au amazing velocity to act upon the blanks. Tuero is no limit to the number of articles it can turn out. Anything of a plain, tapered, or of irregular shapo can be mado by it. All that is necessary ist to adjust a pattern of the work wanted, which guides the chisels; then put in the length of square tiinbor at one end, and it will speedily appear at tho othor smoothly Ünhhcd. The finished work is turned out about ten times faster than can be produced by hand. Tho invention has been brought to this country by Mr. G. Soucia, of Now Coventry-street, Leicester-square.

THE HEART'S LABOUR.—The total daily work of the hHinan heart is equal to 124,208 tons of 2,340 pounds each, lifted 1ft. Professor Haughtoi., of l>ublir, states that if the heart should expend its ontire force in lifting its own weight vertically, it could ruiso that weight r.i.7,1 4ft. in an hour.

"SEELY'S PIGS."—An object o! interest at tho Workmen's Exhibition is a display of iruii, obtained by a process invented by Sir Antonio Brady, from some of that dockyard refuse irreverently described an " Seely'n pigs," and which has been the subject of dieenssion both in Parliament and by tho Press. These pigs were of different qualities, but were all largely contaminated with phosphorus and sulphur, and were supposed tobo of little or no value. Tno presence of phosphorus renders iron brittle when it is hot, the presence of sulphur renders it brittle when it is old. The pigs containing both were worth in the market abont ¿'J 6s. per ton. By Sir Antonio's process the sulphur and the phosphorns can he extracted at a cost of about 36s. per ton, and tho residual iron is superb. It bear* any and every test. One of tho pieces exhibited had been beaten cold to the thinness of writing paper at une end, drawn to a point at the other, and then twisted by hand oight turns in an inch at a single heating. Mis-uve bars bad been beaten cold until the surfaces on each side of the bend came into perfect contact, and a plato 6tn. wide and ¿in. thick hud boon beaten till it-> edges were in contact, the flat surf а со remaining horizontal. In neither case wero thcro any traces of a flaw either at tho convexity of the curve, where the metal was stretched, or at the concavity, where it was compressed. Huios in a thick plate had been enlarged by driving cones into them, and, iu a word, the iron bad been knocked about in ever}' possible way. At a very low estimate it is worth £14 per ton, andas there is plenty of the raw material to bo had, the profit of the invention seems likely to be groat.—Natura.

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R. O. F. S.—We havo already given Mr. Perry's address, Saalemus, J. Powell, 8, Bouverie-strect, E.C. Other queries next week.

H. H Richardson.—Several descriptions of tourist's trips could not bo inserted for want of room.

W, H, B. and others say that they have paid in advanco for the British and Foreign Mechanic, and want to know how they can got their copies in future. As we did not get the money, it cannot reasonably bo oxpected that we can send the numbers. We are in no way responsible for the short-comings and blundering* which characterized the defunct journal. 1-rom beginning to end it was a pitiful enterprise, and U>e sooner it is forgotten the better.

G. ;firth thanks "Omicron" for working out the required formula.

LaVerick.—Scarcely suitable for our colnmns.

"■*•> Exhibitor " sends us along letter complaining that he has not a ticket of admission- to the Workmen's Industrial Exhibition, Islington. He should havo written to the Committee. We really cannot uffurd spaco for these outside questions.

E. M. T. Tvdehan sends us a long letter in reference to the Pritehnrd and Proctor controversy. After Mr. Proctor's letter iu our lust number but one, it is, we think, best to lot the mutter rest with the two disputauts.

Index.— Thanks for your able letter iu answer to "F.W. M.," but so many letters were received on the trade and commorco controversy that we were obliged to drop it.

S. Hewett.—We have followed your i" '"-actions.

J. M. Smith.—It is useless to be offi^. because your letter was not inserted. Wo rauuot insert all, and must therefore make u selection. Wo havo received sufficient correspondence recently on what we may term outside questions—such a a shorthand, emigration, trade and commerce, and tourist maps—to All the journal.

AjWotLD-BK Entomologist, who writos to the Brituh and Foreign Mechanic, should bnv the back nuinbors of the present volume of the English Mechanic.

J. Miller and W. 8. H.—Such a communication can only bo made as an advertisement.

Chas. H. Lycester.—We do not know. Advertiso in The Sixpenny Sale Column.

Specs.—Any rcspectublo optician will give you the information.

J. Harris.—Our correspondents can hardly ho expected to recommend manufacturers or tradesmen.

A Sufferer.—Consult a medical man at once. The symptoms you describe, nud probablv exaggerate, may be those of a tnmour, and auv ignorant meddling therewith would bo highly ilauKo'rous.

F. S. Boissier.—It should have bcou 1-lCiu. not 1-lGth of an inch.

Amanx Subscriber.—F.ach makerhashisownpartisans If wo " named the best •• we should possibly be mistaken, and should certainly give them all reason to complain.

W. B.—Wo give an engraving of No. 1 coin; No. 2 is a coin of Emanuel di Kohan. M.M. of the Knights of Malta—seo reply to SamL Smith a few weeks ago; No. Si» a Moorish coiu ; No. 4, legend on obverse too indistinct for illustration.

The Sixi-ennt Sale Column is the only placo in which can appear queries sent by Charles Wrigley.

Matrix.—A letter from " Robert" is waiting hero "for you.

T. Kino—Write to Messrs. Doulton Bros., Lambeth.

Old Salt.—The use of electricity as a motor for sewing macliines is not a new idea.

B. E. Zoddv.—Put your query in a separate distinct form.

E. Perry.—Stamp and letter were received, but too late. To last, no.

R. Davis.—" Inductorium" has been asked to send us his address for publication—sevoral have asked for it.

HKi, i-n. vmr.r.-, iiuii.iiiiii, i I'mi'inill-. IU«L UU cannot

get the English Mechanic regularly through his agent. We beg to inform thi-m and others who havo cause of complaint that it is not our fault. The E. M. is regularly supplied to the trade at the same time; the irregular delivery of the weekly numbers is attributable to ihe agents. The Rev. Dr. had better change his bookseller.

Wr. M.—Messrs. Leroy's address is 12, Gray-street, Philpot-street, Commercial-road, E.

Veloce.—We cannot recommend any particular rnaker.

John Chapman.—We don't answer through the pMt.

W. H. L.—Though we havo bought the copyright of the Britieh and Foreign Mechanic we havo not taken over its liabilities. Hud we done so it would havo been a bad job for us.

C H. W. Bigos says:—"The absorption of the British and Foreign Mechanic is no more than I expected. I hope the idea of your buying will not induce speculators to start another journal." As tho proprietor of the late /;. and F. M. was commercially ruined on account of his connection with the B, and F. M., it is not likely any one else will be in a hnrry to make another such an attempt.

The British And Foreign Prize Scheme.—To J. Gillard, Jas. Parker, S. Elliott, A. 8., B. E. Soddy, R. H. Nicholson and others. The prizes we believed were offered when the B. and F. M. was in a hopeless condition. In fact, we regarded the advertisement as a flag of distress. The proprietor having since become insolvent, and his affairs being now in liquidation it is not likely the prizes will ever be distributed. At all events we can only refer you to tho trustee appointed by the Bankruptcy Court, and to request you to be more cautious in future.



1W1. A. GUbey, Oxford-street, construction of glass orchards.

liVi. W. It. f.ake, S>>utliampt m-building*.London, improvements in machine* fur moulding brick*. A communication.

IrtM. W. Gorehani, Swanseombe, improvements In Portland cement.

1WM. J. Butcher, Southport. Improvements in fountain pen*.

Iv6&. G. ¥. Giiilln, If. Ureal George, street, Westminster, improvements in the permanent way of railway* and tramways.

liWrt. 11. J, Scott, Uritiuii, new apparatus for preventing priming in a team boiler*.

1907. B. Hunt, 1, Serlo-atreet, Lincoln » inn, improvements in the process o( and Hpparatna for car buret ting gases or atmospheric air. A contniiimvatlon.

lUGci. J, W. MOarter, Foyle-street, Londonderry, improvement* in condensers fur atcam engines.

196V. N. C. Matinum, Liverpool, drying malt, grain, and other Bub stance*, and in the apparatus therefor. A communication.

ll*7ii. U. Lung, Liverpool, a continuous self-wedging fencing.

1971. J. Frearson, Birmingham, improvement* in screw* and screw-drivers., and in machinery for the manufacture of screws.

1U72. S. Putney, Gray's Inn-road, an improved apparatus to be worn by railway traveller* for lestening tho effect a of vibration on the epiuo or nervous »> nlein.

W7.1. J. A. Coffey, 9. Lincoln"* Inn-fields, improvements In tho process and apparatus employed for drying and roasting coffee, chicory, malt, and other sunstancea.

ll>74. D. A. Fyfe, Manchester, improvements in the treatment and preparation of materials to be employed in the manufacture of paper.

1V76. C. Moselcy, Manchester, Improvement!, in the manufacture and construction of In lia-rubber cushion* for billiard table*.

1V>76. W. Cowley. Liverpool, improvement* in tho apparatu* for pumping and forcing air and oilier fluids.

11*77. W. J. Sehlesinger, Union-court, Old Broad-street, improvements in machinery or apparatus for washing plates, dishes, crockery and glass ware. A communication. .

l!'7*. W. H. Hor,tIeld, 86, Rockingham streot, Newington Causeway, a new description of itnlfe steel for Instantly imparting an uniform keen edge on knives.

1979. W. Newell, Philadelphia, U.S..improvement* in cleaning and polishing coffee and in apparatus emploved therein.

l'.wu. H. Kesterton, i», Stratford-road, Birmingham, improve ments in the manufacture of iron tubes, and in machinery tin ployed therein.

bwi. J. II. Johnson, 47. Lincoln's Inn-fields, Improvements in carpet*, and in in*, lunerv or apparatus fur manufacturing the aame. A communication.

1W2. W. A. Wbitty and H. Chattoria. «W, Strand, improvements in the means or apo imtus for indicating or recording anl rcgintcring the times ..f arrival or leaving of workmen and other*.

1988. W. Spence, H, yuality-eourt, Chancery-lane, improvementi in steam generators. A communication.

1C84. J. Kedford, Radcliffd, improvements in looms for weaving.

11*85. J. Abercrombie, Kirkliston, N. B., an improved lubricator.

1W6. J. W. Ayrea. Rani*-j.ilfll Improving latches, locks, bolts, tautening* in general.

11H7. G. SconcU. New Coventry-ptrcet, Leicester-square, improvements in machinery or apparatus for reducing wood, metal, or other hard raateri il t • tised paitenia. A communication.

ISMS. W. E. New toil, 66, Chancery-lane, improvements in connflng register*.

1980. J. Humphry*, Hull, improvement* in steam engines.
WHO. W. R. Ijike, an improved machine for m.inufacturing

spools. A commuiiic'ition.

1901. W. Biuwu, S:. .Mory-strect, Portsmouth, Improvements in the construction of screw prnpellers.

19US. C. J. Curtis and A. Fiddes, Bristol, an improved fireproof composition for --fcs.

l!>*i. H. M. Nichols, 14*!, Great Portland-street, improvements in printing m i- liinei.

l:>94. H. Wiho i. St v,-kt-n-on-Tees, improved mechanical arrangement* f.»i co .linv' ;inl ho itimj lhiuids.

1M5. A. Weiiner. II .i-c -l.e-Ler, improvements in fire bar a and gmti*. A c jinni'ini"*. i ci.

ln.tfi. T. Hullidav. ll-i i IingMn, N.B., improvemrn's in ext-^'tin>! water or other haul is irom cljthex or other fabric* or nurua.

ll*t»7, J. II, Johinon, iiiiiirovetuent* in packings and in bearing surfaces. A comtmini ■ tti m.

ltfyf*. C. M. Barker, 1-j, h>nnington-park-road, Improvemc?nta in aicim generators.

^"S T.E- Gw,«*« u- WelUugton-street. Strand, an improved method of incorporating metal and ceraeut in the construction of tanks, boxes, vases, or pots for horticultural and other Durnosed A coiiiimmicati >n. F *

aoJO. H. W. HHinmonL improvements in machinery for moulding clay and other plastic materials into drain pipe* and other articles. A commum-:ition.

_ *»1. G. Ash worth and fi. A*hw>rth, Manchester, im-.r .n-ements in cards employed iu the carding of cotton and >'ther fibrom materials.

!2>0-j. R, Scholefield, Leeds, improvementa in brick-makina machinery.

2.XW. T. R. Fox, Wtiverlree, Liverpool, improvements in li -ging steam and snihie; -'in. .

*»4. J. Ru^ell. F.reat Vale Iron Works, Ciivlei-f>.rJ isipr.ivr ments in or a4di:ion* to furnaces used in the luiimi.u'.aii, of iron and steel.

*fW. A. Maw, n.nthall, Silop, improvements In appir,.!ii, t' be omployed in th? prepuntion of pulverized clay n-.-i in C • nianufHcture of tilej*. bdt'is, pottery, and other article--, of <-*rt en ware or chini.

nourt. H. Muir and J. Caldwell, Glasgow, improvements in ->•*. cliu>e can-tan*.

■-.V7. M. Jolinson, Chumrell, lmprovem^-nti in ploajh-.

-w,. .». waaeneioi. Dublin, and D. M'Dowell. w»ie-' prove meut* in rail* for railways and tramway*!, *tn 1 tjTes for railway* and tramways.

'jooo. H. Raines Normanton, Improvements in r«?p«i': or damaged rail* of permanent way.

2010. R. Dudgeon, New York, U.S., improramentA engines. r

2011. W. Husband, riavle. improvements in pneumati>-" and hammers, al*o applicable to machinert- for eLriwaja^r F*ting, splitting, or dressing stone, uml for bJrintf r«^<sJc».

S012. N. S, Amies, Manchester, improvements* ia fcA* machines.

SOia. J. SpilJer, SalWimbeLodge. Salcomho Itepis, impre**1 on and apphcaiion of certain machinery to (Jus pr*>c^!s* -^ 'z~ factaring flour from wheat.

*JJ4. A. Jack*on, Loraanstrcef. Sonthwark improieJ Ei" of supplying boilers with water. SOU. P. A. Blondel, 2a. Boulevard de Stintthonrfr Jbi;

lamp for burning mineral oil* and essences. J

aHfi. 8. TudJenham, Lower Marsh, Lamhoth, Improvfe^

the manufacture of twisted metal work.
2i)17. G. Hartley, Aldermanbnry, improvement* in afc

of boots.
4018. H. 0. Avery, Hackney, an improvement in
aoitf. A. Jack, Maybole. Ayrshire, a new or"

tural implement rulapted for digging potatoes.
2030. H. HamsUn, Carlskrona. improvements in ships' *=,
3021. S. O. X. Terry, Biirnham, Bucks, improvements Is «*.

ratua for preparing fining* for fining beer and other Lkr f.


2022. W. R.>berts, Inverness, and W. Stroudly, BriTLs-provementfi in weighing machine*. ""■ ~

2023. J. Walker, Wolverhampton, improvements in m*..^-^. for making railway and other dpike* or bolt*.

2024. W. 8. Bentley and W, lsliatn, mechanic, Boston La-t'^ Bhire.impruTements in apparatus f or economising an.d partfr - .

2">25. C, Samuel. Lndgate-hUl, improvements in nrticl*^LT* cable for advertising purpose*.


IW. A. B. Rockc. improvement* in knobs and spindl** f«-z lock* and similar lastening*.

141'. H. W. Hammond, a miw lever for changinc slt^n. rotary motion into continuous rotary motion, and vie- u- J-' communication. varsA. i

1M. W. F. Padwick, an Improvement in ordinary fir* »«*.

157. E. T. Hughes, improved apparatu. for dimtnUhT^., effects of the oscillation of vessels and for prevewUuy ** '~^ ue*«. A communication. R a^l«*

11W. B.Clarkson, and S.Charlton, Manchester, tnaomv-*—, In *cale beamj

!«,. E. T. Hushes, improvements in looms for w^sviTM i communication. «"*aa> I

lfiO. C. Gordon, Improvements in the c-on*trurttem of h««> loading firearm*. «^?~

164. J. A. D. Cox, an improved vehicle or composiu,TM tfct mixed with white lead and other pik'rucnCs. 'wuon fch;

170. D. Servanle, Improvementi in priniine maehin<»ri'

171. J. -1- Richardson, uupMvetneal* in ravhine for pointing or grinding hacile gill, card, or other uied in machinery for preparing fibrous ■ubftaucex,

1*1. W. 8im;m*ftndA.B/vwD. impn-rr-ment* in 'oUnt «r ■«„,

ratu* used for dredging parpoic. '* *" "PP*

1«4. W. E. Godgf, the «Mistructi'.n of picker* fhr nn Imnn,^*

drawing, and tinning wire.

li»o. J. Macqueen, Impnivemtnt* in self-acting mulea

li»7. R- Fielden. jan..an4T.Fifclden. improvement.* in ln.>m«

224. W. Hunter, improvcaifcnu in loonui tor weaving teitil© fabrici.

2S2. F. J. Bamhy, ImprovemenU in door cramp*.

2HU M. Anketell, undo. F. Arui6VfcU,impr.jvtuicnlfl, In the Moduction of manure and fuel from sewage.

.'):*>. J. Knowles. improvement* in ih* m'>do nl working i*\iacting mules for spinning and doubling.

681. 1). Cameron, improvements in metallic pen*.

772. R. Tonge, improvement* in loom* for weaving.

lfi.%5. G. Steven* and J. Heady, an elecuo-magnetic motor tv sewing and other machine*.

1661. S. H. Stephen*, machines for grinding, concentrating, ^si refining tin and other ores, in order to extract the m«uii \j, , pure state.

ltf*. F. R'itig, improvement* in the constrnction of watj-in-t

186. J. Roichel. improvement* on button* and clasps *«■ fijt*a and other garment*.

lfty. F. C. Southwell, Improvement in chaff cnttera.

1W. J. Diw*on and T. C. Fawcett, improvementa ia rtisisg gigs used in the process of raiaing the nap of wooll«i *icth ** other fabrics.

303. W.T. Waite, improvements in the preparation at asaaf charcoal for u*e in treating saccharine solution*.

20t. W. T. Waite. improvements in filtering saccharin* ..!_ tionK and othor liuuids.

205. W. Gar ton, preparation of fermentable saccharine etcm

20U. A. S. CunpbeU, an improved appliance for faeiUiAiia,- lit working of bicycles and tricycle*.

210. J. W. Eyres and J. Longhottom, Improvement* is estmenting woven and foltod fabrics.

211. W. Warren, improvement* In ships' anchors.

212. J. Holdnworth. improvements in apparatut and m*HML»oJ meanf for excavating, tilling in. transpoitin^, and diAcjbcrssgrain, seeds, and other material*.

262. R. H. Durie, improvements in br.iking or retarding ra! w-iy train!.

217. H. J. We*t, improvements in refrigerating.

28A. A. Werkmeister, an improved liquid meter.

80l*. F. R. W. Hedges, iiuprovement* in mortUins machine*

SIR. J. Davenport, a new or improved riddlo, spsclallv ads* for cleansing and assorting potatoes.

824. J. Thomas, improvement* in breach-l^adini; fire~an».

82-*. A. Le Brun-Vtrloy, improvem-nti in treating lron»»

830. T.J. Smith, improvement* in the minaiactare ^** and other seats. A communication.

361. S. W. Thomas, improvements In bicycles.

876. C. Bardy, improvements in preparing and asao? colouring matters.

427. J. Flear, an improved machine or apparatu* IrrOstcx horsed or other aninml*.

4-%5. T. Whitehead and H. W. Whitehead, imp apparatus for preparing and spinning flax, tow, and

£&). A. H. Ciirk, improvements in machinery for Buck shoe nails. A communication.

605. A. M. Clark, improvementi in railwav carriap eieaii. k communication.

ft>3. V. Walt ,n, improvements in the conatrnction elfe&Xss-*.

0 M. W. il. B lilcy. improvement* in b>iler fitting*.

I'M. F. Fi-dd iuid G. Si.?m*-,en, the application of a atw «ar?nil to th*' pr>luction of illuminating oils and solid hyArecarv^ suitable for the manufacture of r-iindle*.

970. I. Suramer*hVM and J. G. Sanderson, an improve^ pri*» ing mi< hincfor tho use of tailors and uth?r*.

1^74. J. A. Gardner, imnrovements in apparatus lor between paisetu'er^. guards, and driven of trains.

151S. J. W. Horafall. improvements in ventilating mine*.


Subscriptions to be forwarded to the Editor, at the Oflw c
iavistock-strett, Covent-gardeu, W.C *

Amount previously acknowledced .
J. H.. K.pton .. ..

Per r.nlito —


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Rev. H. 11. Metk

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being generally the works of dishonest copyists, worth less respect than their frames, which are the work of honest workmen.


By Hebmann Smith. THIRD DIVISION.—CHAPTER V. (continued.)


Tho difficulty of understanding vibratory action consists in this, that tho movement of the paru of air, in which sound consists, travels along, hut that the parts of air themselves do not travel, but are anchored like standing corn.—Dr. Wrewell.

THE scales or dimensions of tho channels of each register will be but one part of the calcuation; the style or shape to be adopted is another; and these styles or shapes are inter changeabld with the several scales; hence it will readily be understood that out of the combinations many varieties of character may bo obtained, even if no other influences are taken into consideration.

There are five orders of channels. 1. The channel baring the reed-veneer and the palletveneer parallel to each other. 2. Having them convergent. 3. Divergent. 4. Curved reed veneer expanded toward pallet aperture. 5. Curved reed-veneer, with depth under reed aper ture and contracted under pallet aperture.


Each shape of channel having a different power over the reed, and on tho composition of the waves surging to and fro in the interior, we should endeavour to estimate in our minds what would be the physical effects of whatever variations we arbitrarily determine. The visible aspect of nature will be our best guide; of the weight and impact of air we are fully conscious, and between air and water a very close analogy of movement existe. You who have wandered by the wondrous ocean, who have watched the advancing undulations, have heard them breaking on long lengths of sandy shore, rolling up steep pebbly beaches, or dashing with wild recoil on cliffs precipitous; or, in nature's calmer mood, seen the bright waves careering in graceful forms, prancing among boulders, and curvetting as if for their ow» delight in quiet eoombes; yon will

♦ The copyright о! this treatlso is reserved by the author.

have noted and remembered the ever-varied form and the ever-varied music. Wind and wave are tho same, but every locality has its special features of elevation, depression, and environment, which shape the course of wind and wave, compel them to ásenme distinctive character, force, and form, and determine the quality of the sounds they give ufe to; each woodland and each shore is musical with harmonies which arc its own and none others.

If we should place the same reed on each of these differently-shaped channels, and in imagination view the interiors, we should unquestionably find that in the "squeezes" not one would mould tho same record as another, each would give a different history of the forms impressed by the tonal forces active within its bounds.

Professor Tyndall in his last lecture on electricity showed how hard it was to cut through the magneto-electric current, how the pure space seemed to be occupied by a solid viscous substance resisting passage through it; tho impalpable put on solidity and demonstrated an existence which was invisible. Although air is shapeless and intangible, yet whenever the particles of air are excited to vibration there is a residential force within capable of taking form and of impressing whatever opposes the free involution of its waves. It seems to possess more substance. Opposition changes the contour of the aerial undulations, and if your active interposition is sufficiently near the source of sound it will in some degree transform the quality of the sound; and even as you may change the colour of a beam of light by refracting or reflecting media interposed in its path, so the quality of musical tones already denned may be changed by the media through which the sounds are transmitted before they affect the ear. Some modern lamps have large opal glass shades which, like bells, produce musical tones. A series of these milk-white gongs, chosen according to the pitch of the notes they give, would ring a fine elfin peal, for they throw off tones of lovely quality; if you strike one of these and whilst it is sounding place your hand within tho bell, waring your hand to and fro you will sensibly alter the tone then resounding, both in pitch and quality, and will feel as it were the tingling shock of modulated form and rebounded undulations ; your fingers are as breakers amid the mimic ocean, raising the foam of the white sea-horses, breaking the waves into new forms crested with harmonics. In association with this experiment we remember that Professor Airy considera that the hissing scream sometimee heard when the long Atlantic wave rolls up to the shore is due to the harmonies arising from the breaking of the wave into surf. Ole Bull possesses a famous old violin, one that hae a history and is worth more than its weight in gold, and it is said to have been for so many generations in the companionship of gifted artists that its interior has become marked—

Ilibbed as the brown sea sand,

by the incessant surging of its musical waves. The human larynx is formed of a number of cartilaginous rings connected by membranous bands. In reference to our eubject it may be worth the thought whether these be not aids to the nodal division of the vibrating column of air; the purpose usually recognized in these elastic intersecting bands is for the elongation of the pipe. Wo seem to perceive another value in them, our experience in harmoniums favouring the hint. Frequently we find that the trae vibration of certain reeds is blurred, the intonation imperfect, and by no manipulation of the reed or channel can we overcome the defect ; yet if we insert a flexible band of leather at the side or bottom of the register chamber, the correct articulation is gained in a moment—a simple remedy for a serious fault and discovered by accident. How are we to understand the cause and cure? When the body of air under the reeds confined by the rigid walls of the chamber is set in strong vibration by one of the bass reeds, there appears to be so great a contention of opposing motions at one particnlar place that the free disposition of the waves into their natural division is prevented,—the crowd and tho returning crowd meet in a walled-in passage, and neither will give way; under some reed or other they come to a deadlock, and the reed is unable to force its way out of channel or get room to strike. By allowing somo degree of expansion at this tight place we ease the crowd, help the waves over their difficulty, and let them pass again freely. The speech of all the series of reods is benefited by it, and it is noticeable also that one opening ont to the leather band is not satisfactory, whether it is large or

small; two apertures are requisite for obtaining the full advantage, a fact which suggests that tho bifurcation of the windpipe into the two bronchial tubes may play a not unimportant part in the acoustical relations of the vocal organs; and so, / further, we incline to believe that these intersecting bands, elastic themselves, and allowing a yielding movement in the rings may tend to fix the places at which the nodal divisions shall strike, indifferent to theoretical precision but securing a perfect sympathy between the pitch of each note in the varied scale of the voice, and the vibrations of the windpipe, which, however supple, never changes to any corresponding extent; indeed, for all theoretical calculation, it mar bt said to remain practically at one length. When we consider the human organ of voice and music in the light of our experience with free reede, and in the constant study of the peculiarities they manifest, the whole conformation of the larynx. and, indeed, every detail of the structure of the vocal organs, seem to acquire new meaning and design, and we perceive more and more its wondrous beauty and perfection as a vocal instrument. All the allusions we have made are intended to render you conscious that in the invisible world of sound which we seek to explore. form is potent.

(To be continued.)


Br Sable.

(Continued from page 411.)

The Nicholson Era.

FEW there are who have not scraped an acquaintance with the flute, usually in younger and happier days, when the heart was fresh, trusting, buoyant with hope ; when life's snn shone cheerily, casting no shadow on the path, and the wide world seemed one vast pleasure-ground. Butas Old Time aroused us from youthful dreams, pressing upon ns the stern realities and cares of sober manhood, and as the broad surging stream of life swept us onward, its ever varying currents have separated us widely from the friends and pursuits of earlier years : not that we forget them, although with some of us the sun is now behind, and a long evening shadow is thrown before ns as we jom-ney on; yet bygones are still dear to us, and we warm towards everything that recalls them, as we welcome the simple wild flowers because they remind ns of joyous childhood's days, the green fields in which we rambled "fancy free," and the spreading trees under which we sat while weaving our floral treasures into bright garlands. In the bustle of after-life all such things have drifted far into the past, but it is good to be reminded of them now and then, for it keeps the heart young. Such a remembrancer is the flute to many. As we look at our old friends snugly reposing in the faded velvet of their old-fashioned cases, or lying on the side-tables of our sitting-rooms, early associations crowd into our minds—once again we live in the past and forget for a brief period the corroding anxieties of the present.

The flute has ever been a favourite, and the reason is obvious; no other instrument, with the exception of the violin, so nearly resembles the human voice in quality or can render a national melody with such sweetness and pathos. To play the flute sufficiently well to please requires nothing more than a moderate ear and a little application: and yet the flute was born amidst ignorance and reared in barbarism. The Hon. and Rev. T. C. Skeffington thus describes its aboriginal state, "it had six finger-holes, one mouthpiece, and an unconquerable objection to being played in tune." As it grew to maturity it gave painful evidence of a sadly neglected education; it was rude, rough, and retained most of its disagreeable propensities. The old German flute is too well known to need much description. It is a portentous affair, with a pursed up embouchure, small finger holes so wide apart that the bare sight of them is enough to provoke the cramp in all one's knuckles. It boasts of a D sharp key, which is all the more imposing from its loneliness. Its voice is rich and mellow, with the slight drawbacks of a feeble and awfully flat third octave, elicited with much difficulty and uncertainty; a wretched hack-fingered С natural, improved, by the substitution of an awkward crots-fmger'mg; the absence of any means of producing a passable F natural; and lastly, an unequal and imperfect diatonic soale. There were no " sliding heads " in those days ; perhaps some heels were all tho steadier in oonsuquence.


In the time of the great masters the Ante was simply an orchestral appendage: they availed themselves of its beauties and eschewed its defects. Even as late as 1823 Kuhlau was almost unknown, and the productions of other writers were insufficient to give the instrument any classical status. As I write, the notes of just such a flute Bteal plaintively through the still evening air; I know the flautist, and can guess his whereabouts : he is playing •• Charming Nelly Gray," not without taste, and is seated on a felled tree on the green near the village forge. His rude melody has charmed into a tern porary lull the noisy mirth of his companions, who, like himself, are out for the lounge before retiring to rest after the day's labour. Such was the flute that attracted the attention of the illustrions Charlee Nicholson; he perceived that locked up in this melodious piece of imperfection lay the powers and capabilities of a valuable solo and concert instrument: to draw forth and develop them was his study and his eventual success. Perchance these lines may be read by some who can remember the enchanting and novel effects he produced upon his improved eight-keyed flute—effects even now unrivalled and perhaps unattainable. He made his debut in London about 1820, with that form of flute usually called "the concert-flute," to distinguish it from tho old German flute. It was bored on a new and better principle, and its holes were much enlarged, and graduated with greater exactness, though still on an unequal scale. With this flute, so greatly improved in tone and tune, and extended in compass, Charles Nicholson presented himself before the public, now after years ago. It is true he only introduced a very old friend, but so changed in voice and appearance, and handled with such con- I summate skill, that it was 8 practically new, and this | was one cause of his immense popularity. The flute was Nicholson's adopted child, and he taught it to use its fine voice. He charmed and delighted his audiences with his instrument — exquisite playing astonishing them with its brilliant and dashing effects and marvellous power of execution ; the flute, in fact, became the rage in society, and his well-earned reputation was only to be equalled by the extent of his teaching. His flute had a place in every well-bred family— much the same as that occupied by the modem pianof orte—and the pleasure of no drawing-room party was complete without its sweet vocality. As the flute was discovered to be capable of new and increased effects, music came into existence to embody them; thus it grew to be the charm, the never-failing source of enjoyment in the domestic circle, and the ornament of the concert-room. I give a drawing of a very beautiful "Nicholson," by Messrs. Rudall & Rose; it is not a recent one, as it bears the old address (Piazza, Covent Garden), but for tune, tone, and finish, it is not to be surpassed by any flute of its kind. The sketch has been made with careful reference to proportion, as I shall have to revert to its structure hereafter, "Then if this

flute was all you affirm it to be," growls some sage, " why not let well alone?" What a mercy if we could but do that ! He is surely the best of all artists who knows when and where to leave his work alone. In the matter of the eight-keyed flute all was not right, hence arose the revolution of Boehm.

And now to those who feel the need of, and will kindly accept them, the promised hints are offered. Early morning is the best time for study; the head is then clear, and the body refreshed: before breakfast, if possible — flute practice is not pleasant or profitable after meals. One hour at least should be devoted to it at a time. Standing is the best attitude; the music being placed high enough to be seen well without bending the neck or ttoopmg the shoulders. The flute speak» at the embouchure; and if it be borne in mind that the functions of the chest and windpipe are the same in singing and flute- playing the importance of attitudes in connection with tone, tune, and expression, will be selfevident, to say nothing of the charm of an easy graceful carriage. The flute should be held at nearly a right angle with the body, in such the manner that the thumb and fingers of the left hand and the fingers of the right maybencr/eciij/ free. An unsightly contrivance, called a "crutch," is provided to help those who will not help themselves. It may be accomplished as follows :— Place the flute just above the knuckle-joint of the first finger of the left hand, about lin. from the first or B hole, and press the instrument gently against the under lip with that part of the left hand and the thumb of the right hand, which latter must be placed against the side of the flute, about an inch from the F natural key. On no account ought the thumb to be placed under the flute. Inattention to this most important point has, as Kockstro remarks, been the bane of many who might otherwise have become creditable executants. The upper lip should be projected a little over the under lip, which latter should about half cover the embouchure ; but this differs in flutes, as tho "stop," long or short, does in various violins: a little experience will soon determine the exact orifice to be left uncovered. The breath should next be gently forced downwards in a smooth and even stream. All hard blowing must be carefully shunned, as any excess of wind above that which actually produces the voice of the flute occasions that insufferable hissing noise which has disfigured sometimes the performances of line players. Rockstro says "in the production of a good em bouchnre the form of the aperture between the lips should resemble a barley-corn in size and shape," and he recommends those who would cultivate a full rich tone to practise before I looking-glass—and the advice is excellent. All undue pressure upon the holes or keys must be avoided; it gives rise to stiff crampy fingers; imparts an unsightly appearance to the hand, and ie quite ruinous to execution. It should be the constant endeavour of the student to cultivate an easy unconstrained action of the fingers.

The next article will embrace the period of the great flute reformation.

His acquaintance with very high pressure steam is further shown by his experiments with cannon, which he closed up with a certain quantity of water inside, and then burst by the action of fire. Following the Marquis of Worcester and Captain Savery, we find Newcomen and Cawley, of Dartmouth, labouring at the production of the arrangement commonly known as Newcomen's engine. This was emphatically a low pressure engine; in fact, rather an atmospheric than a steam engine. The steam used in such an engine did not exceed 161b. above a vacuum, the temperature being 216° Fahi.

The power was, therefore, really obtained from the atmospheric pressure, and the vacuum pro duced by condensing the steam. Although the credit of the construction of this kind of engine belongs to Newcomen chiefly, and in some degree to Cawley, yet the honour of the great discovery of producing power by the condensation of steam undoubtedly belongs to Savery. In fact, his claim to this great invention was acknowledged by both Newcomen and Cawley. Smeaton and Brindley were also among the pioneers of low pressure. At length the illustrious Watt did all that could be done in this direction, and attention began to be turned to the advantages of high pressure steam; though not till low pressure had been carried to such preposterous lengths, that boilers made partly of wood and lead were used; nay, even boilers built of masonry were proposed if not actually made. Many profound mathematicians investigated the theory of heat and expansions: and, as the advantages of using steam at high pres sures became more and more manifest, many able practical men took the matter in hand. Amongst these may be mentioned Woolf, Trevithick, and Perkins, in England, and Oliver Evans in America.

At the outset, the advocates of high pressure had many disadvantages to contend against in the prejudices and ignorance of the time, and still more in the danger arising from the use of so untrustworthy a material as cast iron in the construction of their boilers. Many of these boilers burst; and, from their extreme brittleness, they very much resembled "infernal machines," scattering death and destruction all round. Very many boilers were made of copper, but finally copper boilers were mostly displaced by wrought iron ones: though even now, we believe, many copper, and even some cast-iron boilers, are at work. The first wrought iron boilers which were made were the Waggon boilers with plain sides and arched top, Fig. 6. These boilers were neither suited to generate steam economically nor to withstand much pressure. The next step was to curve tho sides inwards (see Fig. 7), thus improving the economy of the boiler to some extent. Wo find this form of boiler speedily further improved by rounding tho ends (seo Fig. 8), and finally the bottom (see Fig. 9). So many accidents occurred with these boilers that it was evident further safety must be sought.

As the Waggon boilers required many stays to keep them from "going ont of shape," some boilers were made completely spherical. These spherical boilers gave the full tensile strength of the metal, except inasmuch as they were out of a true sphere by reason of the lap-joints. They were, however, deficient in heating surface, and very subject to burning through at the bottom by the collection of mud and ftr.nrf. Improvement was therefore sought by making the bottom considerably flatter than the spherical form.

The desire for heating surface caused the alteration into the well-known Haystack or Balloon boiler (see Figs. 10 and 11). Very great numbers of these boilers were used, particularly in Staffordshire and the distriot, many being as much as 20ft. in diameter. From their inherent weakness and great size they were terrible "magazines of death." Such great numbers having been used, explosions amongst this class have been very numerous. Owing to this cause, and also to their containing so large a volume of steam and water, a greater amount of destruction of life and property is chargeable to them than to any other form of boiler. A very considerable advance was made by the construction of the cylindrical boiler (seo Fig. 12). These were first made with straight seams and flat ends, but wero soon improved by making the scams of rivets break joint, and by the addition of hemispherical ends, as in Fig. 13.

These boilers, however, are very objectionable. They suffer a great strain through the unequal expansion of the top and bottom. They have been made even as long as 100ft. At such an extreme length this inequality of expansion would

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