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THE FLUTE AJCD FLUTE PLAYING.

[186] Sib,—I am pleased to find the old Ante has found a friend to speak in its favour. I have had twenty years' practice on the old instrument—one of Eudall's—and agreo with Mr. H. Chapman that the fault generally speaking is with the performer rather than with the flute. When playing, I have heard the remark, "Well, I cannot bring snch a tone as that. I do not know how it is, I cannot do it." Bnt I knew, and the secret lies in this, that a great mistake is made in endeavouring to blow as lond as possible This is not the way to bring Bweet sounds from your instrument : quite the contrary. I have no doubt all find a difficulty in learning, no matter what flute they possess; and if you do not sometimes make fingeringi, possibly you may find it awkward in some passages to play as you would wish; for instance, C sharp in alt. to C natural, and many other instances. The best scales I know are James's, published at sixpence each.

I have spent many a delightful hour with Nicholson's Beauties, the Fantusias of Tulou, Kuhlau, Berbiguier, l>resjiler, FUrstenau.Devicnne, Vern; but I think the most difficult of all is Drouet's music. Yet all those flautists performed upon the old flute, and found, I should suppose, no particular difficulty in playing the mnsic they wrote. No doubt the instrument is impc rf ect, and many of them very much so; bnt I can play with violins, violoncellos, and pianos without playingout of tune, and if one can do it there is no reason why another should not. I oan go from D below the line to upper B in alt. in a moment, and in some of Berbiguier's music it is a case of necessity to do so, and that perhaps for sixteen bars following each other. I think it a great mistake to have the lower C keys at all. By the bye could any of your readers give me the name of the author of a flute instruction book which has at the end of its preface, numbering 32 pages, full music size, the following quotation:—

Qui variare cupit rem prodigialiter unam,
Uolphinuin silvis appingit, fluctibus aprnin.

Hor., Dt Arte Paetica, 20.

It has chapters on sound, tone, fingering, tongueinj time, double-tongueing, staccato, Ac., shakes, &c.,objects of practice, musical expression, modulation, variations, and examples in each.

T. Cbidland.

[1B7] Sib,—As an amateur flautist, I have perused with mueh pleasure the letters upon this subject from eeveral of your correspondents,

I s'aould not have troubled you with this note, had not the letter in your hist issne from Mr. H. Chapman appeared to me to " hit the nail upon the head," and it goes a long way to settle the different opinions as to the merits of patent and ordinary instruments. For several years I used the old fashioned eight-keyed flute, and when by practice I had obtained sufficient knowledge of the instrument to blow it in tune, ■! yet found it imperfect iu the lowor notes—viz., from G to lower C ; the latter 1 could not at all depend upon producing. I then got hold of a " Siccama" and with the indifferent practice my profession allows me, I find the lower register most powerful and easily produced; the only difficulty I find is, that, being a self-taught player, there must be some systems of fingering upon the " Siccama " and the old ei^ht-keyed that I am ignorant of. Will Mr. Chapman kindly inform me if there is a scale for the " Siccama," uud if so, where I can procure it? A great advantage of the " Siccama " is, that it varies little or nothing iu playing. When using tho eight-keyed with a string baud I was frequently obliged to flatten it (by the tube), as it sharpened half a note, or more. My " Siccama," I find, alters nothing with an hour's steady playing, and I can with imperfect practice depend npon my flute being in tune. A friend of mine possesses a Carte Boehm, in silver, and although he can execute passages more brilliantly than I can, inasmuch as the fingering in the upper and lower octaves is the same (at least he says so), yet his tone is not equal to mine upon the "Siccama," and I believe, had I the time to practice he enjoys, my instrument is far superior to iiis. In conclusion, I can heartily endorse Mr. Chapman's opinion that, "practice makes perfect," and that if your flute-playing readers cannot, like myself, devote 8ufficient time to practice, there is no instrument like the " Siccama " in price and efficiency.

Flautist.

[188] Sib,—In reply to J. R. Rendle, I would say that I did not presume to direct professionals, but only to assist amatenrs who cannot give time to acquire perfect mastery of the flute. I could always make better music in the way I have described, being able to give more attention to the blowing, as the fingering required less. If any one tries the method, and finds he cannot blow in tune, he has only to give it up, and no harm done. The upper octaveg of the flute have the same distances between their notes as the lower, which is theoretically wrong; yet, in practice, the lower notes, with an increased pressure of wind, give their octuves with sufficient truth.

The players on keyed brass instruments have separate joints to alter the pitoh, tho intervals of their valves remaining as before. I do not see why flute players should not try for a similar accommodation. I believe the best way would be to have two flutes, one voiced in D and the other in D flat, by construction, rising either as the occasion required. I am sure the relief to all but extraordinary players would be great, and the expense of the pair need be but a fraction of what is charged for first-class instruments.

T. 8. O.

EXTEAOTS PEOM CORRESPONDENCE.

PRE-AD AMITE OK PRE-HISTORIC MAN.—J. Sargent says, "Your correspondent 'T. 8. Conisbee' is rather too hasty in pronouncing me a sceptic without knowing my reasons for making the remark I did upon this subject. I merely wished to see a few arguments for and against it, in order to see the view generally adopted by scientific men, which the letter of * H. P.', Hull, appears to show."

A CURIOUS SENTENCE.—"Mus" says:—Your" correspondent's letter on the above, that appeared July 23, was very strango. It is such a curious sentence, that when I went to school I don't recollect the word 'Arepo,' nor can I find it in the dictionary; and last, though not least, I never recollect seeing an imperative iu 'o' before. If 'Reg. Pilkington' can give me a proof that I'm wrong, of course I'll give in. True, it's somo time sinco I left school, but I think I remember enough to know he's wrong."

REPLIES TO QUERIES.

%* In their answers, Correspondents are respectfully requested to mention in each instance the title and number of the query ashed.

[2662.]—"WATER METERS—are all constructed on tho principle that "a given quantity of flowing water performs a given quantity of work." The water flows from the supply pipe, through a filter into a drum, which is caused to revolve by the passage of the water. This drum is fitted with a spindle, which sets in motion a train of wheels that register the amount in gallons on a dial plate. The meter of "Fidus Achates" is doubtless out of order, or possibly the water is supplied at different pressures, which would make a difference, but not to such an extent as he has experienced.—H.U.

[2672.]—DRAUGHT WANTED.—H. Gregorieff should make a flue to the chimney, he will get a good draught as wanted. If the boiler stands above the ground he must make the flue slope down at a gontle angle, and make the flue large enough, for it requires a large flue to make a good draught. I know several as far from the chimney as that one will require to be, with good results ; arch it over in the usual way.—Heatheb Jack.

[3812.]—CONDENSING ENGINE.—Condensing engines do not make a noise. The valves in the hot well and on the bucket make the noise. If they are fitted with India rubber valves there is very little noise and very pleasant working.—HeAtheb Jack.

[382a]—PRESERVING KIDBOOTS.—If" Old Scrub" will rub her kid boots with a little cream, and polish gently with the palm of tho hand till dry, it will keep the kid soft and good. Sour milk will spoil the kid.— Housewife.

[3842.]—STEEL WIRE.—" J. R. T." can obtain steel wire of any gauge he may require at most of the Londou tool shops. I would, however, suggest to him the groat superiority of the English gongs, which are made on a totally different principle, And of different wire to those used in American clocks. Doubtless it is to the American gongs that " The Harmonious Blacksmith" refers, when he reminds "J. R. Y." that "wire gongs have a very disagreeable tone." Those made in England which have come under my notice have nnything but "a disagreeable tone," the imitation of the church bells being excellent— Rooo.

[8912.]—REVOLVING FRAME FOR SHOP WINDOWS.—" Pitman" should get a spring barrel like those in eight-day clocks. With a few wheels and pinions properly arranged ho can make a frame that will revolve one way all day long.—H. U.

[3918.]—ENAMEL.—A dead white enamel is mado by calcining together two parts of tin and ono of lead. Of this combined oxide one part is molted with two parts of fine crystal and a very little manganese, all previously ground together. When the fusion is complete, the vitreous matter is poured into water, and the *' frit" is dried and melted anew. The pouring inte water and fusion are sometimes repeated four times, in order to secure a perfect combination. The crucible should be carefully screened from smoke and flame. The smallest portions of oxide of iron or copper will destroy tho value of this enamel.—H. U.

[3926.]—FORCING WATER.—It will require more power to force the same quantity of water at the same speed and to the same level through a pipe 180ft. long than through one of only 30ft. in longth, beoauso there is the friction of the water in the pipos to be overcome. This depends on tho velocity of tho water; and assuming, in the case in point, a velocity of 3ft. per second (a very usual one) the extra power required would be equal to raising the water 9in. higher. As the friction increases as the square of the velocity, a velocity of 6ft. per second would be equal to an extra head of 3ft., and so in any other ratio.—Q. Q. R.

[3949.] —REPUBLIC OF GUYANA.—This Republic was mentioned in the Times some weeks ago in an article about an ex-officer of the British navy settling there. It seems to be in the north of South America, I think near Venezuela.—Bernabdin.

[3961.]—BISULPHIDE OF CARBON PRISM.—Tho best cement for putting together glass prisms, to be filled with bisulphide of carbon, is a mixture of common glue and West India molasses. Make a tolerably liquid glue, and add about one-eighth the quantity of common molasses. Lay tho metal or glass form, ground to a suitable angle, with its face up; then place tho glass plate upon it, and apply the cement on the uudcr side with a brush, and allow it to flow by capillary attraction between tho glass and tho form; repeat this operation several timos if necessary. This is better than to wet the edge of the glass at the outset before attaching it to prism. The stopper to the prism can be cemented in the same way, and iu filling with tho bisulphide of carbon, always leave a small space for the expausion of the liquid. The prisms should be kept in a cooL dark place, and ought not to be agitated previous to using, as the light is in that case unequally retracted.—S. J. P.

[9975.] —VALUS OF COIN.—Aa Oriental one; not worth more than a shilling above the value of the metal. —Hjenby W. Hbmfbet, M.N.&.&c.

[3982.]—WORKS ON SOAP MAKING.—I think that among the French manuals of the " Collection Roret" there is a " Manuel du Fabricant de Savon." Apply to a French bookseller.—Be an Abdi N.

[4002.]—MUSLIN.—I know of nothing to rostore the colour to muslin or cotton whenfadedjbut if "Beta" will boil the muslin dress with plenty of black soap and soda for an hour or two, and afterwards bleach in the open air, it will become pure white. I have done this often. —Housewife.

[4005.]—CLEANING INSLDE OF GUN BARRELS. —I should recommend the following process for cleaning the inside of gun barrels:—" Turn an ashen rod a few inchevi longer than the barrel, and so nearly of the size of the bore as to allow of the following process: Let one end of the rod bo cut lengthways, so as to make a slit of 6in. In length, into which slit enter as mueh of flue emery paper as will completely fill up the bore of the barrel, taking care, in folding the paper tightly round the wood, that tho emery surface is outward. Force it into the barrel by screwing it downwards from the top to the bottom, and repeat the process till tho barrel Is as clean and polished as when it left tho maker's hands. No sand or coarse stuff of any kind should be nsed." Extracted from " Blakey's Shooting," Routledge.—Muzzle Loadkb.

[4007.]—TO CURE HERRINGS FOR DOMESTIC USE.—Draw out tho gills and gut without splitting tho herring, lay in a tub and sprinkle with coarse salt, and leave them for twenty-four hours to bleed; then have a good barrel and put in a layer of herrings and a layer of coarse salt, alternately, till the barrel is firmly packed full; press down with a weight till tho salt is melted to brine, and cover them: remove weight, and cover to exclude air, and they will keep for a year.—Housewife.

[1009.]—HEATING BOILERS WITH GAS.—"Corn Factor" will find but little economy in heating boilers with gas: indeed, it stands to reason it must be far more costly. Nothing is more certain than that the perfect combustion of a given weight of fuel produces a constant amount of beat. Gas consists of only a portion of the combustible elements of tho coal from which it is distilled, and this portion costs at least as much as tho total weight of cool from which it is extracted. If, then, it is more economical than coal, it must bo because a greater proportion of the heat generated is utilized. There may be somo difference in favour of gas in thin particular, but nothing like such an advantage as will make good the difference in cost per heat-unit. Tho object of all boiler-furnace makers nowadays is to thoroughly utilize the fuel and obtain all the heat possible from it. As regards supplying boilers with hot water, thero can bo no question of its advantage; in fact, where economy is studied it is always done, or attempted to be done, as the numerous "feed-water heaters" illustrated in "our" Mechanic show. It is only from the fact that gas can be instantaneously kindled and extinguished, added to the fact that the majority of our cooking stoves waste half the heat that might be generated, that there is any economy in tho use of gas as opposed to coal. Gss is, of course, much cleaner and more convenient.—S. A.

[4011.] — PRICKING BARRELS OF BARREL ORGANS.—I believe that barrels of musical boxes, organs, Ac, are pricked off by fastening a sheet of paper round them with the dots printed on it to act as a template for drilling the holes.-^G. W. A.

[4014.]— MEDICAL ELECTRICITY.—To the first question it is disputed whether a secondary current is any use or not. Halse contends that the secondary current is no use. Dr. Althus uses both currents. Coils are so constructed that either the first or secondary current can be used at discretion. Dr. Althus also uses the continuous current without the coll, which requires a large number of cells, and which is different in its effect and superior in some diseases to a current got by means of a battery and coil. O'Bec may study tho whole subject if he is willing to purchase Dr. Althus' book, which is published bv Longmans, Green & Co., and costs 15s. To the second" question: Yes; but the coil he describes is not made that way. Wires are branched from various lengths of the wire, No. 0 giving a very short part of the coil, the second giving au additional part, No. 16 giving the whole length, which is tho highest power. Such a coil is troublesome to make, and were the first current to bo used as well as the second, two set of studs would be required ; one for the primary coil, and one for the second: and which would be a very complicated coil indeed. The best way is to get a coil made with two connections for the first current, and two for the second, and a brass tube to draw out for the regulation of tho powor of tho current.—M. D.

[4096.]—SODA WATER.—If any of your readers should try to make soda water, «&c, by the process given by "Joo" In the number for July 15th, they will most likely foil in the attempt, as a verv small quantity of carbonic acid is contained in unslafced lime. What "Joo" probably intended was "unbttrnt limestone^" which is a carbonate of lime, and would therefore bo capable of giving off a considerable quantity or carbonic acid gas. Chalk is tho material most commonly used for the purpose. There should be a washing vessel between the generator and that containing the water to be aeiated, and it is necessary that all the vessels should be capable of standing a very considerable pressure, otherwise the beverage produced will be of a very tamo character.—F. C. S.

[4118.]—ANNUITY QUESTION.—Will you allow me to state that the result of a vigorous computation comes out = 15-6834 years; 2nd, that the arithmetical principles stated by "R. M." (p. 404), lead to the correct vear; but inasmuch as the time is not proportional to ihe amount to be paid, the fraction of the 16th year is not truly found by his method; 3rd, that the principles stated In page 357 lead up to 63 years, which is too long a period. In corroboration of these statements I beg to refer to two similar questions in "Morrison's Mercantilo Arithmetic;" also, to one similar, but rather more complex in "Todhunter's Algebra."—M. L.

[4118.]—PROBLEM.—As "Gimel" did not correctly answer the problem, I BUbniit the following short method:—Put a = 1,05, b = 2000, e = 187. and T = time, then by log. arithmetic we have T = log.

c -Mog a = 15-68362 years, the time required.

c b a I

The preceding appears to me to ho a very natural soluXivn as the question is worded, but if it be considered aa to find in what time a given annuity (c) at a given (a) rate of interest will be equal in present

value to a given sum (6), the equation will be c x

a l

a T ~ 1 = o, as is well-known, which comes to the a - I

same as that above, and proves the truth of the preceding method.—F. L. H.

[4121]— DE-MAGNETIZING STEEL.—There is no liquid that I am aware of that will de-magnetize steel; the idea savours much of the days of the alchemists; but the balance and other steel parts of the watch mentioned can be de-magnetized, either by heating them (though that would most probably spoil them), or by reversing their magnetism just to such an extent as to neutralize it. It might bo rather a tedious operation, but could be done somewhat in the folUowing manner: —Suspend the balance wheel by a fine thread or hair, and notice which are the north and south points of the wheel. Then touch the wheel with a small horseshoe magnet, placing the similar poles together, i. e., the north to the north, and the south to tho south. With a little care I think the wheel may be successfully demagnetized.—Q. Q. R.

[4219.] —TIGHTENING PIANO PINS.—The plan "Man of Necessity" suggests—viz., that of driving wooden wedges between the wrest pins and the wood plank of his piano, for tho purpose of tightening the said pins in their respective holes, is an impossibility. Tho only remedy is to put in a larger set of pins which will well fill the holes. I only recommend this plan to him because he is evidently an amateur. My own mode of proceeding would be to rebore the plauk for pins from two to three sizes larger than the existing ones, for the purpose of thoroughly clearing the holea of canker and rust, which, if left, often creates what is technically known in the trade as "jumpers," i. e. the pins won't turn smoothly in their holes, but move with a succession of jumps, and then good bye to all comfort in tuning. If he prefers my first plan, let him take one of the present pins to Mr. Meek, music smith. Windmill-street, Tottenham Court-road, and order a set of pins to pattern, but one size larger. If he prefers the second and better plan, let him order them two or three sizes larger. But I must .warn him that this presupposes a nicety and steadiness of hand in reborlng, and the ability to shape and fit his boring-bit to his pins, which he knows best whether he possesses. The pins (extra in number for a grand), will cost him 3s. 6d. or 4s.; boring bit, to be had at Buck's, in Tottenham Court-road, 4|d. If, now, he gets into a mess, it will not be the fault of your correspondent,—W. T., Pianoforte Tuner and Repairer.

[4258.]—TODHUNTER.—Let mo thank the " Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society" and Mr. Proctor, Mr. Rendall, and also " Anon" and "Bernardin" for their responses. I know all about the decimals, and the two right angles, and Bo forth. I only quarrel with the word "invariably," and I am pertinacious enough to still think the word objectionable, becanse calculated to confuse beginners. Query—If a lesser luminary than "Todhunter " used it would it not be condemned? Is it not of a piece with the resemblance of the two niggers, "Cesar and Pompey are exactly alike, 'specially Pompey?" Such is the "invariably." It would, I think, nave been more correct if" Todhuuter " had stated that tho symbol * denotes the ratio, &c., and also it is (disadvantageous! y) employed to denote another aspect of the same. This is the reverse of "invariably." As well say that the pound sterling value is invariably represented by the golden sovereign, whereas it may bo by two half-sovereign*, four crowns, eight half-crowns, ten florins, twenty shillings, forty sixpences, 240 pence, &c. If I was a great man I would make "Todhunter " right by keeping ir for the ration, and using a different symbol for the circular measure, say the same inverted, *, or the Sanskrit p, which 1b q; anything would be better than using an " invariable" system for different purposes. Is it not best to admit that Todhunter is wrong, nnd that the usage of the scientific world wants mending, as much as our weights and measures; like as even Newton used to speak of " his mistake" in using •'Algebra" (see Preface to Pott's Euclid). By the way, can you spare me space to express that I bow most cheerfully to your stopping my tilt against the Algebra windmills? You are our captain, Mr. Editor, and we bow to your behests. In fact, it may tend to show how serviceable and convenient is the English Mechanic when I mention that the bare fact of Bo many persons more ready than able to immolate me as an algebra heretic quite answered my main object. Yes, our paper is an "institution" by which we cannot only teach and inquire, but also feel the pulse of our own aims and crotchets; nor will you, it seems, let any of us go too far. —Uimel.

[4262.]—OORNI8H ENGINES.—ERRATA.—I have to apologise for two blunders in my note on the above. In line 28, page 468, for D EK read D and H, and in line 42, for "the centre of piston cross-head" read E. I should have observed at this point that when the beam is placed at the half stroke, above or below the horizontal, the piston rod must be got quite upright, or plumb, before striking the arcs of circles for finding the fixed centre of radius rod.—J. K. P. ^ [4288.] —WARPED CABINET LID.—Let "J. B." damp his carpet about 9in. wide and tho length of the lid, and place the same with the hollow side on to the carpet or floor, as either would do, and let it remain eo (say) twelve bourB; It will bring the top quite straight if it is not bound at the end by clamp a or mouldings. —Cabinkt Maker. x ^ [4290.]—FOOD.—If "Tan Tau," p. 406, obtains " Hints to Dyspeptics," written by Dr. Grindrod, Malvern, I think he will find it answer his purpose. It is a small work, and may be had direct from the Dr., as above.J C S

[4304.]—NAPKIN RINGS.—The plan I have adopted as to marking napkin rings has been as follows:—I have first traced the letter with a pen or pencil upon the ivory or box rings, and when to my satisfaction, I have gone over it with a solution of three parts nitric acid and one part turpentine, and have never found it fail.—Z. Barnard.

[4805.] — SILVER COINS. — The first coin of "N.T. B.M." is a silver denarius of the Bom/in Emperor

Antoninus Pius; who reigned from A.d. 138 to A.d. lft 1. The other coin I am not able to identify from the engraving.—Henht W. Henfrey, M.N.S., &c.

[4806.]— SILVER COIN.—"Giles's " coin is cne of the earliest Roman silver. It is believed to have been coined by the Romans, in Campania, about the year 207 B.C. Obverse, a double head, like that of Janus. Reverse, Jupiter in a quadriga (four-horsed chariot), gallopplng to the right; holding a thunderbolt and a sceptre ; behind him, a small figure of Victory. It is a double denarius or small medallion. Value, about 15s.— Henry W. Hentrey, M.N.8., 4c

[4306.]— SILVER COIN.—A Roman lamily denarius; I think, Furia.—Bernardin.

[4307.]—HORIZONTAL o. VERTICAL ENGINES.— Horizontal engines are generally preferred to vertical, as they can be driven at a greater speed on account of being more securely fixed to their foundations. They are also niore compact, and more cheaply made than the vertical.—Cuthbert.

r4309.J—"BARTON'S SELF-ACTING FEED-WATER HEATER."—Tho float is a copper ball, diameter in accordance with size of cock required to supply the heater with water.—S. Crompton.

[4313.] — SILKWORMS' EGGS. — In answer to "C. H. B.," the eggs of the common silkworm do turn brown soon after they are laid, which colour they keep until they aro hatched in the spring. May I ask If there are any o'f yonr correspondents who have had any experience this year with the Japanese and North American species—Bombyx, Pcrnyi, Yama-Micii, and the Ailanthus worm? The failures last year were attributed to the heat. How must it be this year ?— George E. Davis.

[4313.]— SILKWORMS' EGGS.—They ought to turn of a dark colour a few days after being laid. If they do not they are certainly unfertile.—A. S. C.

[4318.]—SILKWORMS' EGGS when laid are of a bright yellow colour, but usually change in a few days to a blue or slate.—Harry G. Newton.

[4314.]—RULE WANTED.—Assuming tho weight to bo in cast iron the following will perhaps be intelligible. A cubic foot of cast iron = 4501b., therefore tho cubic

an

contents of the weight *« w = -1833 cubic feet. — 9in. and 14Jin. are equal respectively to '75ft. and 1*2083 ft. —

•75 x 1-2083 = -90622 - 111338- = -14715ft. = thickness

•90622 of required weight, which may be brought to inches thus— -14715 K 12 = 1-76580, Bo that the weight will be rather more than ljin. thick.—Harry G. Newton.

[4314.]—RULE WANTED.—Multiply the length, breadth, and thickness together, and when the dinien

26 sions arc in Inches, multiply the product by '26 or ^qo

for cast iron, by28 or _ for wrought iron, and by "8 or

100 3 Tjj for cast brass, which will give the weight In lbs.

conversely. Divide the given weight by the fraction for the metal as given above, which will give the number of cubic Inches required. Then multiply the known length bvthe breadth, and on dividing the number of cubic inches in the given weight by this last product, the thickness of the weight will be given In Inches.—Q. Q. R.

[4316.]—A DIFFICULT QUESTION.—As I read this question it seems to me that there are three rings, tubes, or hoops spoken of. The first tube has an extreme diameter of 12!n. Its " covering hoop " is to have a tension of 4 tons per square inch, and it ("this second hoop") is to have a diameter of IBln. This, again, is to be covered with a "third hoop "the diameter of which is to be found. The ambiguity seems to arise from the mixed use of the words " tube and hoops," when "tube " would have been the best word to use.—Q. Q. R.

[4820.]—BREAM FISHING.—There is no better method to entice bream to the hook than to bait the river over night with grains, throw about a bucketful in the part you intend to fish fa wide and deep part is tho best) and get up with the sun and begin operations]; bait with wasp grub or gentles, use a fine but strong line, keep as far from the river side as possible ; bream are very shy fish, therefore you must tish cautiously : they bite best when there is a light breeze ; if they will not take grubs or gentles try well scoured wornis; a running line will be required. Two or three rods and linos may be used at the same time.—A Young Tyke.

[4321.]—WATERPROOF.—A short time ago I had a waterproof coat which had been laying by some time, and was very hard, and a friend of mine (who had been In India) restored It to Its original state by dissolving a handful of best grey lime in half a pailful of water, and wtpping the coat at the parts that were hardened, doing so twice, at about three hours interval.—J. P. K.

[4322.] -SEWING MACHINES.—I had a sewing machine, and found it leave loops, loose ends, and catches, and a succession of loops on the hooker; but I found, after trying It different ways, that by altering the hooker so as to drop a little later, or the needle and feeding bar a little sooner, it would go all right.—J. G.

[4823.]—GLAS8 BURNING.—In answer to "Kemp," for instruction on furnaces, I should say if the old ono has done well get another like it; but I can give him the following, and he can judge of their respective merits. Build of brick, between 30ln. and 40m square, an aperture 6in. from bottom for fuel, then some bars are pluced across the furnace like a flooring, above which is another aperture to receive the trial pieces of glass. Over the flooring is placed an earthen pau, at the bottom of which is placed two or three layers of quicklime, with pieces of glass between them. The use of the lime Is to give a regular heat to the painted glass, the first stratum of which is placed upon the uppermost layer of lime, and all the pieces to be burnt at once are in liko manner disposed horizontally, with a layer of lime between them, and the last stratum of glass to be covered with the lime. The furnace is then covered with tiles and luted close, with the exception of four or five small apertures to serve as chimneys. Of course it will heat gently for the first two hours, and then raised gradually to the heat required for the fusion of colours. This point must bo ascertained by occasionally examining the trial pieces in the small apertures.—D. F. Ashton, 9i [4325.]— PLANTT5<J,-What doei "M, K." mean by

"slitting" and planting house plants ? Geraniusu, ri.*. Iarias, verbenas, and such-like plants axe " stnei' ± the year round in " houses " and frame*; but gtrasiin tin- autumn. The best time Cor striking tnthi* in the spring, when the young shoots ere about *a ^ and a half long, and before the wood bias becoae fc —Saul Ryvea.

[4325.]—HOUSE PLANTS.—Take cuttings »f & which I suppose are fuchsia*, calceolvi&c t geraniums, now and next month. Cat them otr and plant them the next. This is important, tht. wound may have time to dry. Strike the flrrt twsas glass; geraniums in the open border, in full safe potting them before the first frost. Morse, of DevGloucestershire, sends for two stamps a esultc^ cuttings every January. They are supplied m t.* condition, and with ordinary care a stock of pari ->■,-. may be raised at a small expense.—Axateuk,

[4328.] -MOUNTING MICROSCOPIC OBJICT: should recommend "C. R. H." Co obtain "Pir^a the Preparation and Mounting of MicroscopkOb^c" published by Hardwicke at 2s. 6d., by careful »tts» to which, together with the exercise of a little ic he will be able to mount any object he may ccsx cr» I should advise him on no account to comm*» such objects as whole crickets, bat to take p»a u sects, as legs, eyeB, heads, spiracles, gizzard*, ac u will be found much easier by a beginner, aoi rf; nish him with more interesting slides thaci*the insect entire—J. Sargent, Jan.

(4828.)— MOUNTING MICROSCOPIC OV** Petals of flowers are rarely capable of preset • their colour Is not sufficiently persistent. Ti of pelargonium petals may be stripped off, aglass slip ; and mounted in Balsam-potass ▼-* them. Thick objects require a cell, which aa; glass, wood, vulcanite, or of almost anything. ?st objects cells cut from thick card answer th? (=> admirably. A common gunwad punch serves t them out. I have of late used Pumphrey-'i rakt cells for all purposes ; they are cheap and e&>.\ Wings of insects rarely require any medium. WiarLeptdoptera should be mounted dry; "cpay***** ol*e tera, Neumptera, and Hymenoptera are also usualljC, "transparents."—H. P.

[4838.]— MOUNTING MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS.-!

fear Mr. Sutton's reply to Query 4328 savours a Utile nw* of theory than of practice. He appears to speak of lie process of Boaking in liquor potm&sm as simply to render the object transparent sind to $q/ien it Bo that it may be pressed fiat. In my Idea, the reef object of soaking in liquor potassie iBtodiSBolre awsy the whole of the fleshv parts, so that nothing but skin and mascJe remains, t should not advise " C. R. H.," or any other amateur, to attempt at first any object so large and complicated as a cricket. To Wyiu, let him take a flea; put it alive into a vessel containing liquor vota*ts* lit will sink to the bottom in a day or two) -, let it remain lot & weekl or ten days, when it should be taken out with« camel's hair pencil and put into a saucer oi clear col.1 water; have ready a stout glass slide 8in. x I'm., »:' another piece of same glass lin. square,; place tV insect {still in the water) on glass elide, and the lin. sqav on top; by pressure the whole inside will oome *ir It will then require very careful washing wuh n* hair pencil in at least two waters; JUtat it on \t>*» glass slide; cover with thin glass, and tic ft»tt cotton. Put it aside for a day or two to dry; ifce*» it tied as It is into a vessel containing «n* where it may remain for a week, or rather lim,*{ will be ready to mount. In mounting:, I Omi* paraffin lamp, over which I have contrived »t "hot plate." I first host the balsam by the fir*'-■■ quite fluid ; then place it handy on my hot $&l another part of which I have a smatl stock** slides. With a camel s hair pencil—which I ehnp^9 in my balsam—put a drop, according to size of oty*' Demounted, on to heated slide. With a needb » object off the slide where it wna tied to soak tz." and place it wet with turpentine into middle of irv balsam; then take up a clean glass; cover is 1c*" heat it over lamp, and place over object. Seeor?' whole by small brass dip, and place near fixe lor re* the day, after which lay aside in secure plaoe fori** when it may be cleaned and covered.—A. A. F.

[4329.]—THE MICROSCOPE.—In answer to1^*. the microscope I should propose for his purpose ** be a Student'B from one of the London roatu;• Swift, Collins, or Crouch—from either of thesa It * procure a good microscope for about the same *■

8aid to a shopkeeper for an inferior foreign artic* ae bye, I saw at the Workmen's Exhibition a' microscopes, by the first of these makers, the P* of which I would specially recommend "Sab** examine, as from the description given there of'' Student's I should think It the article to suit (prer-> all there stated to be correct). A few hints nut scout of place as to the best construction for such »* The stand should be firm and sufficiently heavy V^ vent vibration, and so well balanced that it Vu show indications of falling over when placed at «iThe bar or coarse adjustment should move steady, *i* out Bhake, and with the same amount of tension ali length. The stage to be of sufficient size to alios i> uso of a frog plate, zoophyte trough, ftc, with a Sbp** plate to move over this, allowing motion in all direct;^1 The aperture in the stage Bhonld be perfectly ced with the optical tube, Juh.i wit it o tube fitting for e\U m*&' stage apparatus ; for the fine adjustment choose ou< ti< is known as the lever arrangement, that is to aaj. Us cylinder into which the objective is screwed U r»i« and depressed by a lever and fine thread screw ; \\±* i the only reliable form, and the only one I know that >;i-i a central Uft. The points wherein to test such au J strument in its meeJtanieal parte will be for the bar < coarse motion. Apply the {in, objective and lUumic*! by the mirror, care being taken that the light it * oblique ; to insure this place the lamp in front and t the same plane as the mirror, and incline the mirror l an angle of 45°, the light will then be thrown through U object—a diatom is about the best—and with th* m milled head carefully focus, and note If, by raisins' depressing, the object vanishes In a direct line an*t a\ from tho edge of the field. The same test should I used for the fine adjustment; this should focus quick &i sharp without the object moving from the part of U field of view it occupied In the first instance, tfucfa n istrament with a 11a. and \ in. object glasses, a live box, ago plate, and thin glass covers will be all" Sabbas" ■quires for a commencement.—C. C. S.

f 4329.]—THE MICROSCOPE.—" Sabbas" baa asked is question o( another correspondent, and it is almost broach of courtesy for me to reply thereto. A few words Lay be excused perhaps. The universal microscope of mtth & Beck, the "Student" of Messrs. Wheeler, arker, Dancer, &c, Ac, ad lib., will be cheap and fairly ood. Field's Society of Arts is a fair instrument and ery cheap (£3 Ss.) But I think the cheapest, and for ,s price the best, is one made by Winspear, of Hull, in., 4in., and Jin.; good objectives and a useful stand or £5. An application through the Sixpenny Column vould find either of these gentlemen.—H. P.

[4S84.)— ECLIPSE OF THE MOON.—I hope, for the take of the querist, that abler pens than mine will also rivo an explanation of the interesting phenomenon to vhich be colls attention. The reason, I believe, that i e t»ee that part of the moon at all which is immersed in he shadow of the earth is that the sun's light is reracted or bent by the earth's atmosphere in such a ay that part of it falls on the moon, although the earth , betweou it and the sun. "Lunar" will see that this aht arises from an entirely different cause from that sen Ob the shaded portion of a nearly new moon, which . -imply due to reflection from the earth's surface. The *<1 colour is caused by the aun's raysTpassing obliquely ixough the various strata of the earth's atmosphere in 10 same way that we have red tints at sunset and sun,se. The earth, ou the 12th, must have represented a lugular appearance from the moon. It would have ppeared as a black globe (of course entirely hiding the an) surrounded by a luminous red ring.—Algol.

[43350— IRISH MOSS.—It 1b used for jellies, feeding attle, sizing yarn or paper pulp; in Bavaria for claiifyig beer.—Bebnabdin.

{4336.]—TONGA BEAN WOOD—or better, Tonquin ■o:in wood, does not come from the same tree which Todaces the Tonquin bean, as its common name might ead anyone to suppose; but from a straggling sea-side hrub of Tasmania. Its odour is similar to that of the Tonquin bean, hence the name. The botanical name ia ilyxia buxifolia. Dogbane order, or Apocyneie. Samples rere exhibited in 1863, in the Tasmania court. At the ast Paris exhibition Cochin China presented samples of •ark of Alyxui odorata, quoted by Mr.Eug. Rimmefinhis 4 Book of Perfumes." Among the novel odorous prolucts it may be the same plant.—Behnardin.

[4343.]—READINGS FROM THE GLOBES.—" Keith

in the Use of the Globes" is a most excellent authority >n the subject. The last edition, as given in Messrs. Longnan's catalogue, corrected to January, 1870, is enlarged nd improved by Professor Taylor, Le Mesurier, B.A., and facob Middle ton, price 6s 6d. The variation of the commas is about 20: to the west. In the year 1865, wishing

0 know the exact variation of the compass, I addressed

1 note to the Astronomer Royal, and he very politely inswercd it. If "St. E." would do the same, giving ila locality, he would no doubt be similarly treated. Mr. Proctor and F.R.A.S. have also given the variation in these columns.—T. S. H.

[4342.] —VARIATION OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. —During 1868-9 the westerly declination of the magnetic v-i'dli1 was observed at nine stations in the northern -onnties of Scotland—Nairn, Elgin, Banff, and Aberteen. The difference found was three-quarters of a legree, and the mean of all = 34i>4. In the south of England it is 19--5. From these data " St. E." may find, >y interpolation, the declination at any intermediate tation.—M. L.

[4344.]—WEIGHTS OF CHEMICAL SOLUTIONS.— really cannot undertake to work ont calculations except rben they relate to matters with which I am myself Icaling. Like our friend "F.R.A.S." I have a very strong bhorence for " doing sums." It is easy to extract from homicnl books, such as Storer's "Dictionary of Solu•ilities," tables showing the amount of each salt present n solution at varying temperature, and, in some caBcs, Liso formula for calculating the quantity at any density >r temperature; but these even would not give such inorraation as is asked, because they relate to pure substances, while soda ash is a commercial body of irregular composition. Thus, 50° Twaddel is sp.g. 1*250. A solution of caustic soda at ordinary temperature of this density would contain some 16 per cent., of carbonate of soda about 26per cent.; but a solution of soda ash of :fcis strength would give very different products, according to its own composition. "Alkali " would do well to experiment on the subject, for information so gained is ur more valuable and enduring than cut and dried stateaents.—Sigma.

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[4347-]—TUNING BY EQUAL TEMPERAMENT.— [ have heard of French, Latin, and German "without a oaster," but I never heard of tuning ditto. Who can ocplnin such a thing concisely and explicitly? And who, unong your readers, except "A Would-be Tuner," would arade through it, even if you, Mr. Editor, would grant ihe requisite space. Let a "Would-be Tuner" pick up nny old square at a broker's, or auction room, and take lessons in tuning of some competent tuner for a twelvemonth. Both Instruments and tuners swarm in London; so he can have no difficulty in that respect. Let him

Eractise five or six hours a day; then let him article imself as an improver for two or three years, at a nominal salary; or, failing the latter, at no salary at all: when if his ears have no constitutional defect, he will be able to go out into the world and take his chance of a crust with the rest of us. I know no other mode of obtaining his wish, unless he has the advantage which [ possessed in my youth of having the run of a large factory with over 100 pianos in it in various stages oV progress, among which I could tune, under my father's superintendence. "Would-be Tuner" knows best the acilitles he possesses in this respect. I have supposed le has literally none, and have, therefore, given him the >est advice in my power under such circumstances.— V. T., Pianoforte Tuner and Repairer,

[484a]-PROBLEM.—Draw he parallelogram A B C D, laving the angle ABC = 150°, ,nd the aides A8,B C, equal, ach representing in magnitude .nd direction a force of 1001b. Then the diagonal B D= the rout: ant of these two forces.

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.*. for same reason as above, CD = $CD = £AB=30 and C E2 = 603 - 802 = 8600 - 900 = 2500 (Euc. BR., 1.47),

C E - V 2500 = 50.

B E = 160 - 80 = ISO

(Euc. 1. 47) B Ca = B E2 + C E» =

= 1303 + go* = 8900 + 2500 = 16900.

B 0 = »/ 16900 = 140 (nearly).

P.S,—If I mistake not the above questions are proposed by a private student preparing for the London Matriculation Examination, and are taken from Newth's 1st Book. Pray allow me to inform "Amicus " that he cannot hope to pass the above-mentioned examination by working from this book. Better get Newth's larger work, or better still, WarmelTs " Mechanics' Hydrostatics, <fcc," published by Groombridge. "Todhunter" is excellent, but requires a knowledge of trigonometry.— C.H. W. B.

[434a]—PROBLEM.—From Euc, I., 32, constructing

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as in fig. 1, angle B A D = 60. I conclude that " if in a right-angled triangle one angle = 80°, the opposite side = half the hypothenuse," hence (problem A) resultant of two forces of 100, meeting at an angle of 150- {v. fig. 2), I have A E = 50, B E = ^1002 - 502 = 866, E C = 100 BE, A C* = A E« + E C2, hence A C = 61*76. Analagous solution for the second problem (r. fig. 8}.—BxbNabdih.

[4853.]—ROAD MEASURING.—In answer to "J.T. S." relative to the above, I can inform him that the machine usually used by the Metropolitan Police for such purposes (as in case of disputes with cabmen, &c.) is a single wheel mounted in a light frame, with a handle to push and guide it with, and a connecting rod in gear, with a few wheels which ure under a dial marked with the miles, furlongs, and 10 yards; two hands or pointers show the distance traversed by the wheel. I believe the pedometer is only used by amateur walkers, and requires to be regulated according to the step of the wearer, and even then is not entirely to be depended upon for any degree of accuracy.—Tome Tee.

[4355.]— ART DEGREES AND MATRICULATION EXAMINATIONS.—Having had much to do with regard to the Matriculation Examination, London, I feel competent to answer "Beriro." The subjects required are, algebra (I. quadratics), arithmetic, geometry (Euclid i.v.), mechanics, optics, hydrostatics, chemistry (non-metallic elements, &c>, Latin, French, Greek, English, also history of Greece, England, Roman Empire, &c, but by application to Dr. Carpenter, 13, Savillt-row, " Beriro" would get a syllabus, with requisite information. The fee is £2, times of examination, January and June. I know of no degree that can be obtained in England without matriculating. A German M.A., Ph. D., &c. &c, may be obtained any day, by anybody, by payment of from £10 to £20. Valuable hints on matriculation will be found in the "Assistant Masters' Journal" No. II., Allinan, 463, Oxford-street, price 6d.— H. W. B.

[4358.]—COPAL VARNISH.—" A Youth" might add a quarter of a pint of japanners' gold size ; if stiff, a little turps ; but at the same time cannot understand good varnish not drying under 60 hours. Think he must have got some linseed oil in, if so it never will be good.—One In The Tbads.

[4358.]—COPAL VARNISH.—Your varnish is none the worse for drying so slowly, but much more liable to stand well. If you wish it to dry quicker put in a little liquid dryers (terebine), this will hasten its drying, and not destroy the gloss.—H. C. C.

[4359.1—AMBER BEADS.—I do not know of any way to polish amber beads; but to distinguish real from false ones, take a piece of silk, and after warming it, rub the bead with it for a short time, and then place a few small pieces of paper or feathers on the table, and bring the excited bead near them; if it be real amber, and the process quickly performed, the feathers or paper will be attracted. It is best to hold the bead with a piece of glass tubing or sealing wax.—F. Walker. >

[4359.]—AMBER BEADS.—"L.'s" heads are most likely only imitation ones, for the great majority of beads sold for clouded amber arc but a mixture of gums, which are soft and also easily amalgamated with fatty matters and become dull and dirty on the surface as well as scratched. The false amber is easily shown. Scrapo a small portion of the suspected material to powder, and if it dissolves in turpentine, whether hot or cold.it is not amber. Real amber has a smooth clean feel, and does not scratch readily. Putty powder will restore the polish to real amber.—Q. Yobke. ,

^r4B6L] — METHYLATED SPIRIT.—This is made from spirits of wine spoiled by a portion of naphtha, which, of course, prevents it from being u-ei for tinctures.— H. C. C.

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[4301.]— METHYLATED 8PIRIT.—Methylated spirit is made by mixing onepart of turpentine with nine parts of alcohol (plain spirit distilled from any grain). The only reason of mixing the turpentine with the spirit is to prevent its being drunk as a beverage, whereby the revenue would be affected. It is allowed to be used in preparing tinctures, and for any purpose connected with medicine, art, or scienoe.—T. L. H.

[4863.]—LIMEWASH ON MASONRY.—The lime being an alkali, any acid should dissolve it. The cheapest and strongest acid for the purpose is the brown oil of vitriol of commerce, spec. grav. 1-714, price three-farthings per pound. Probably lib. of the acid to a pall of water would do the work required, the wash to be applied with a brush. —J. L. H.

[4369.]—EMIGRATION.—The Government have Ipub-' lished a small pamphlet on Emigration to Australia, price 2d. It contains a mass of valuable information. Let " Jobber " get it. Any bookseller can obtain it for him, or Messrs. Longmans & Co., Paternoster-row, will send it direct.—F. R. G. S.

[4370.]—PROBLEM.—I suppose "Sunbeam" wants the two parts of the pole and the base to form a triangle. If so, the pole must be cut 45'5ft. from bottom to touch the required point in the base.—W. Felton. [4370.] —PROBLEM.—545ft.—Bkacom Lough.

[4370.]—" PROBLEM." —If I understand "Sun Beam's " question aright, the following U the solution he requires:—Let a b represent the pole 100ft. long, and C a point 30ft. distant from a; o is the point at which the pole is to be cut; let x be the length of the part cue off. Then by "Euclid, Book 1, proposition 47," we have x* = a c& + a <ybut ac"* = 80ft., a nd a o = 100—z. Thus we have— a* = 308 + (100—*)3 rrf = 900 + 10000—800 x + a* ^00 r = 10900

* = 64*5ft. T. W. P.

[4375. [—RED BRONZING.—This is done by the same process as green bronzing, but using red lacquer.— H. C. C.

[4376.]—COD LIVER OIL.—"A Mechanic" should try milk, and drink a good quantity of it in the day. If he finds that it makes his headache, as probably it will, commence with a wineglassfull or even less, until his system becomes used to it and increase the quantity daily.—W. H. 0.

[4876.]— COD LIVER OIL.—Let me assure "A Mechanic" that there can be no better substitute than Devonshire cream. A Kentish friend of mine, a tradesman, a fine tall (unmarried) man, of the name Braund, told me that he seemed quite to be sinking in consumption—weak, hectic, spitting blood, &o. Ho was ordered to take cod liver oil, but his system nauseated it utterly. He then was recommended to try Devonshire cream, and it thoroughly re-established him. At the time he stated this to me he was not stout, but fairly fleshy, vigorous, and full of work. I advise "A Mechanic'* to eat it out of a "slop basin," with a dessert spoon. The price of the cream now in Devonshire is Is. 6d. a pound; in London, more; almost all good dairymen keep it or can get it. I think I remember a place for it on the west side of Berners-street, Oxford-street, London. In the country, in a general way, it is the same price as fresh butter. It is the best lubricator for the wheels of existence.—Gimel.

[4376.]—COD LIVER OLL.—The only substitute for cod. liver oil that I have ever hoard of is cream, either scalded or raw. This is vastly more palatable than ood liver oil, but not in any way Bo efficacious.—Q. York E [4376.]—CODLIVER OIL.—The following is a good substitute, and very palatable:—A. bottle of port wine, 2oz. of isinglass, and 2oz. of sugar candy. Put these ingredients into a jug, and let them remain 12 hours, then set the jug in a saucepan of boiling water for an hour. When the isinglass is dissolved all is ready. It may be taken warm or cold.—J. L. II.

[4377.1—TEMPERING BRACE-BITS.—Let "A Mechanic " get his brace-bits a little hotter than a blood heat in a slow fire, and plunge them in a pail of cold water; take them out and rub with a Turkey stone slip on one part of the bit just to brighten, and then hold the shank of the bit over or on a very hot piece of iron. When he sees the bits let down to a deep gold, an eighth of an inch from the cutting part, plunge in cold water again.—W. Reed.

[4377.] —TEMPERING BRACE-BITS.—"Mechanics" brace-bits may be re-hardened by heating them to a Mood red and plunging into water, and drawing the temper to a deep straw colour. I see so many questions relative to tempering steel that a short article from a correspondent able to do it properly would, I am sure, be acceptable. There are very often two or three queries in a number relative to this simple procoaa in practical mechanics.—G. W. A.

[4378.]—HOW LL.D.'s ARE MADE.—I doubt rather an "Ambitious One's" query being bona fide. If it is, I can but say that he must exert himself aud gain a position worthy of the honour if he wishes to become a D.C.L., which is purely an honorary degree conferred on distinguished persons. To become an LL.D., he must go through the usual academical course and examinations.—Q. Yobke.

4379.) — BORING CYLINDERS FOR MODEL JGINE.—I should have thought that if " Sabbas" had been able to bore his cylinder to his satisfaction he would certainly have been able to form the stoam passages in it. I drill a hole in the face of the flango and meet it by one from the valve face ; sometimes I drill two holes side by aide, and drill a series of holes in the valve face converging upon the two passages beneath (qj course for an oblong port), and chip oat the metal between the holes to form the port. He says he has no tools and knows nothing of the work, I should give it to a workman to do under the circumstances.— O. W. A.

[4388.]—WEAK EYES.—A very efficacious way of strengthening weak eyes la to dally pour into t! cui

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while open, a tumbler of cold water. For Bares about the eyes, one of the best remedies is the sulphate of zinc ointment sold in the chemist's shops.—J. L. H.

[4889.] — LATUE.—"Young Amateur" should hny some elementary work on turning, say "The Lathe and its Uses," then ho would not find himself so lost. To make a quantity of backgammon men or such like work, let him first turn a cylinder of the proper diameter, then with a parting tool cut into the required numberof pieces, which should be wide enough, or rather, thick enough, to allow for finish. To chuck these, use a spring boxwood chuck with binding ring of a suitable size, which he must learn how to make, as boing an essontial addition to his stock of chucks, first turning tho discs on one face then on tho other. Or, a plain boxwood chuck some 5in. or 6in. long, with the cut of a coarse saw through it longitudinally, carried as near to the end when it is screwed on the lathe as may be safe without splitting it in half, onding this cut with a round hole made with a bit. Make an opening on the face of this chuck slightly too small for tho discs to be turned, open the jaws with a wrench, and snap tho work in. The spring of the wood is quite sufficient to hold anything of the diameter of backgammon men.—(J. Sobxe / [48910—SCREW TAPS, Etc.—Biohromate of potash will case-harden iron screws of small diameter; sufficiently so that they will cut a steel die (carefully softened) if they are used with a light hand. Shape the screws first like a tap, and when very red hot. applyplenty of the potash, and plunge into cold water. If they \ get too brittle, they must bo tempered.—Q. Yorke.

[4S9S.]— STEAM-TIGHT JOINT.—If W. Reed would mix a little red and white load together, get some hemp, twist it loosely together in the shape of cord, or the size ho wants, work the lead well into it, lay it on the manhole door joint, then screw it in its place, he will find it steam-tight.—J. G.

[489S.]—STEAM-TIGHT JOINTS TO MANHOLE IN BOILER.—If W. Reed would get apiece of Jin.lead pipe, or ^in., according to size of boiler, then solder the two ends together, then flatten out the pipe and make it fit round the lid of boiler afterwards place some good red and white lead on both sides of level collar, then bolt it down and screw up tight, which will prevent any further escape of steam.—J. W. H.

[4S98.]—MELTING SPELTER FOR BRAZING.— Borax is commonly used as a flux in brazing, though even with this " Deesido" may find a difficulty in brazing brass to wrought iron. The brass pipes have to be specially made for the purpose I believe.—Q. Q. R.

[4897.]— SCREW TOOLS FOR SCREW PLATES.— If "Faber" wants to make a set of small taps for his screw plate, let him forgo Borne 6in. square saw files, or let him get some cast-steel about a 82nd part of an inch fuller than the holes in his plate, Boften them (by making them red-hot and burying in dry ashes), and then Bcrew thorn about U in. in length with his plate. After screwing, file them tapering square j of an inch, just leaving the notches of the thread on the angles, and harden and temper the same, as in answer to " Mechanic" (4377), only let them down to a very pale straw colour.—W. Reed.

[4399.] — INTERNALLY-GEARED LATHE. — Tho circles of holes on the outside of the Internal wheel are intended for a dividing plate for wheel cutting or ornamental turning, exactly tho same as any ordinary single-geared lathe would havo, and aro used in conjunction with the spring index. Upon examination, the internal wheel of my lathe appears to have had the teeth cast in it (moat probably from a metal pattern), and the bottoms of them have been cleaned out with a flat-bottomed drill to form the circular bottoms of the teeth (they are represented square in the drawing by mistake, and as tho wheels stand I have 14 teeth instead of 12 as explained), and tho points have been "topped "by the turning tool. "Deesido" will see that it is impossible to cut this wheel with a revolving cutter, because there is no "thoroughfare;" therefore, I would suggest a plan by which I think he will be able to do it. Let him make a turned pattern to the dimensions of the drawing (or reduced proportionally), the recess in it to be equal to the diametrical distance from point to opposite point of the wheel (allowing for turning out) which will be 6 7-lflth in. Let him turn up the casting, and by means of the dividing plate drill a hole

By pressing tho short arm down through a vertical distance of Hn., the end of the long arm will move through a height of 12in. We have now to find tho pressure which, applied to the end of tho short arm, will raise tho weight of 1001b. at the end of the other. Let x = this pressure to make equilibrium. By tho principle of the lever we have

lxl+ixl = 100 x 12

1 + x = 1,200

x = 1,1991b.

If this pressure be applied through a vertical space of

lin., the weight of 1001b. will bo raised 12in.—T. W. P.

[4407.}—MAMMOTH.—" Naturalist" will find, I think, a nearly perfect skeleton of the Eltpluu primigeniut in the British Museum— F. Walkeb.

[4410.]—TURNING SPHERES.—"J. D.L." had better try to turn his billiard balls by hand; first with practice and a template. They can be done so easily enough; anyway, they muBt be chncked in boxwood, aHd when they aro nearly finished, in a chuck to fit tho exact hemisphere; in" which chuck lot there bo a good rnbbing of chalk to mako them hold. Presupposing that the ivory is free from scratches, polish with whiting and water of the consistency of croaui, used with a soft rag; dry, and then use dry whiting; and for tho last, to complete the gloss, rub with a faint touch of clean oil on a fresh rag. —Q. Yobee.

QUEUES.

series of sixty holes on the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 6 il-liitli in., just a shade larger than tho pitch line 6flin.; these holes form the bottoms of the teeth and the metal between the edge of the hole, and the circumference of the recess is then to be chipped away neatly and so forms the tooth. He can "Blot-drill" the teeth if he likes, and then only tho corners will have to be rounded with the chisel. The size of the drill is 3-16th of aa inch. I think the above is a practical way of going about this job, and is the method I should pursue if I had it in hand. If any other correspondent can suggest a better I am sure ** Deeaide " will be obliged to him.—G. W. A.

[4400.]— MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS, DIATOMS, Etc. —Diatoms Mre everywhere Perhaps Weymouth would answer "Hunter's" purpose as well as most places. Seaton, in Devonshire is also a good microscopic ground. There are chalk cliffs, plenty of seaweeds, corralines, sponges, and sometimes a cuttle. Exeter is close at hand, with Budlelgh (where thero are plenty of diatoms), and the Exe mead at Woodbury. Dorchester Is hard by Weymouth, and its chalk affords an abundance of very fine Foramlnifera. At Portland, "Hunter" can secure fossil wood; and in the marshes, away towards Poole, plenty of microscopic mosses and lower algie. Where does " Hunter " live? Whore would he like to go ?—H. P.

[4403J —MECHANICS.—I am really in as great a fog as "Alyssum" upon this question. It may be possible, but I havo been always taught the contrary. No $implt machine will perform tho necessary work.—C. H. W. B. [4408.]— MECHANICS.—" Alyssum's" question might have been put a little more definitely, although, perhaps, his real error lies in his fear of encroaching on your valuable space. However, for the sake of illustrating tho mechanical principle he seems to havo in view, we may suppose the small weight to act on tho short arm of a lover, and the larger weight on the long arm. The ratio of these arms would have to be as 1 to 12. Suppose the short arm to bo 1ft., then tho long arm would be 12ft. Lot a weight of lib. act at the ond of the short arm, and a weight of 1001b. at the end of the long arm.

[4412.]—WRITING INK.—Could some reader kindly inform me what may bo done to prevent writing ink from turning bad this hot weather—if there Is anything that may be put In it 7—J. G. M.

[4413.]—FEED-WATER HEATER.—Seeing a description of feed-water heater by " One Eye," in your journal of July 22nd, I beg to remind him of the great liability to back pressure in heaters of this construction. In good faith, and with every desire for mutual information, I would kindly ask " One Eyo" has ho ever taken diagrams in order to ascertain the amount of back-pressure since using the heater? IS he has not, I would strongly advise him to do so, as I am afraid what he is gaining in ono direction he may lose in another. I am also thankful to " Ono Eye" for his testimony in confirmation of the practicability of raising feed-water (by exhaust steam) to 212°. At the same time I cannot help doubting the economical efficiency of his contrivance, until supplied with a diagram taken when the feed-water is being admitted into tho heater. Would "Ono Eyo" kindly scud me one ?—S. Cbomptok.

[4414.]—HEIGHT OF OBJECT.—How can wo ascertain the height of an object, say twenty yards on the opposite side of the river, the width of which river wo do not know? Tho simplest way, without having recourse to instruments or algebraic formulro would oblige.—Enquirer.

[4415.]—CURIOUS PROBLEM.—In tho Enolish Mechanic for July 22nd, p. 415, Prof. Balfour Stewart asks what becomes of the energy of the cannon ball after it has struck tho target? He says it is stopped by percussion. Bat what would be the result If an u irresistible ■ force came into contact with an "immovable" body?—Saul Rvmea.

[4416.]—PHOTOGRAPHICAL. — Could any of the readers of the English Mechanic tell me, through the medium of this paper, the cause of silver prints becoming such a foxy red? I find such a difficulty in exciting the paper. If I float, say a dozen sheets, tho silver bath becomes discoloured; In printing the prints become a foxy red; and in toning they get brown instead of black. I havo likewise in my working negative bath had such a quantity of brown negatives) and nothiug I can do to it makes the negatives black. If any one of our readers can help me, they will be conferring a favour on many more, who have no doubt experienced similar difficulties.—John.

[4417.]— SAFETY VALVE FOR KITCHEN BOILERS. —I Baw noticed Bomewhere, some time ago, A safety valve for kitchen boilers. Can any of your readers kindly tell me tho maker, and whether this safety-valve answers tho purpose of making the boiler absolutely safe? Mine is a oast iron one. Is there any possibility of expansion pipes becoming closed, except by frost?—Osmond Dobbee.

[4418.]—SILVER COIN.—Perhaps some of the readers of the Enoltsh Mechanic will kindly inform

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It is

me what tiie coin is, a sketch of which I enclose,
of silver, and rather thick.—A Young Beginner.

[4419.]—WATER GLASS.—Will any of your chemical subscribers bo kind enough to give a form for making water glass ?—Johnson.

[4420.]—VACUUM IN CONDENSING ENGINE.—I have a 80-horae condensing engine, and by the indicator I have only 101b. vacuum. On Saturday we took out the air-pump piston, aud found the springs to be a metal ring that goes iuside the brass one; aud the only way to extend the brass ring is to hammer tho metal ring larger, and I think it would soon go hack to its original size. So wo took out tho springs and put laggs in their places, hut were pressed for time, and the joiner had only deal wood by him, aud that not very dry. The laggs are 3j|in. long, 1\ in. thick, and the piston is 18in. diameter, and it was a good fit. But to our surprise wo have only 91b. vacuum—Ub.less than the old piston— when working a [hi. less than the cylinder. Can any brother reader tell me the cause? The air pump is in the centre of the condenser, and the injection pipe is at right angles to the eduction pipe, aud nearly meets.— J. B.

[4421.]-MAKING FLANNEL ADHERE TO BRASS. —Any correspondent who will kindly inform me how to make flannel adhere to brass will oblige.— A Subscriber.

[4422.] _ REVERSING ENOINES.—Can i pir v. engines (steam) be reversed by two cxcenirtCT* if answer through your columns will oblige an c-U s& scriber.—Feel Dub Wesson.

[4423.]—TO "MU3.M—Would "mub" giv* a? & following information:—My prints, when nn/jhed, k* a brown leathery appearance instead of that y\black which we have with professional print*. I Jabez Hughes' instructions, and all goes well! above result. P.S.—What good account can old \ of silver baths be turned to ?—J. B.

[4424.]—COFFEY'S APPARATUS FOR LATION.—Could any reader give me any infc about Mr. John A. Coffey's patent apparatus fan latiou? There is mention made of it in the Zm June 11th, 1870, page 844, which represent* it paraffin oil which cau be heated to UO0 Fab little or no expansion and no evaporation. Hi* i% i been used for raising steam In a boiler, and if *», what success? Any information would be ol | service to me, as I cannot find any one who Ju»*n thing about it.—J. T. T.

[4425.]—MALLEABLE CAST IRON.—Thank*, sociato of the Royal School of Mines" for th? isJt tion given through your valuable journal l. §t Will ho, or any other kind friend, answer the (>£« questions:—Where can I get Dr. Percy's work, V*F And If I can get tho specifications of patents t&laM under the above head without applying peraon*I>'flV if Cumberland hematite pig iron, or any otbratf first refined in a small cupola with charcoaJLaW into small pigs, and afterwards melted in .aft or pot furnace, makes good malleable coastings' *4 this bo cheaper than using fluoric saeid? aoilV spar or limestone would do as a flux in the as** coal cupolas ?—A YouNti Caster.

[4426.] — STEAMING BONES PREVIOUS GRINDING.—Where can a good apparatus be bs» and what price, second-hand? Is there a betterpr^t than nteaming them? What books are pabliihei * the composition of artificial manures ?—Farms*. [4427.]—CASE-HARDENING.—Will one of practical correspondents inform me how to cate-biria the inside sliding cylinder of a poppet head wttsea scaling? I have turned It bright and smooth and afraid of spoiling it at the last moment—W. H. B.

[4428.)—COIL.—Could any reader tell me the pfope proportions of primary and secondary wire suitable i" a 5lb. coil, and the proper gauge?—T. Butler.

[4429.]—TINNING AND BRAZING.—Can any oat inform me if there is a work published on " Tinning and Brazing," as I wish for some iniormaiion respecting the tinning of copper goods?—A Subscriber.

[4430.]—PUTTING THE SHOT.—Will my brother reader kindly inform me what size the patterns must be> in wood for 181b. nnd 20lb. shot? A plain answer will suit.—Round Shot.

[4481.]— MENDING EBONITE BATH.-I have on obonite bath luiu. by 12in., and having had the misfortune to place my foot through one tide, would be glad if any of your readers will tell me how to repair tit same. I nave the broken parts.—J. B. Clabkaos.

[4432.] — "I80METRICAL."—"Isometros" coawa his best thanks to '* J. K. P.," and is sorry he Que* understood his query. What he wanted was the pro*tion the major aud minor axes of ellipse bear teat other, and to the diameter of the circle to fee** sented. N.B.—I do not wish tho lines of oris>^ ing to be reduced to "isometrical proporti* a* the isometric representation of original i**(r Isometros.

[4433.]—MARKING COTTON CLOTH-4** correspondent inform me as to what is the i»a>» nature of the aaid or other substance iu use fcihtf and bleaching works for marking the di.-tinpE3*. number or mark on the (cotton) cloth before pivt**> to bleach it; the mark being put on so as to trcJBE the party to whom tho cloth belongs? The sabfl* used will resist the effect of boiling iu time, then »fl ing in spirits of salts, then boiling iu soda a*k a" steeping in a solution of bleaching powder, then fusing in spirits of salt again, and sundry washing* Uiksphot and cold water, and will yet retain its profit** resisting any dyeing process to which it may afterttf be subjected, leaving the numbor showing out puis) ■ white ground.—B. D. F.

[4484.]—TAPS AND D IES.—Can any reader nf* If lean make left-handed taps and dies outoftsur tips and dies for right-handed work? If so, pica** seribe the mo&ui operandi.—W. Reed.

[4435.]— CHANGING RED CORAL TO PINK-* any ono tell me if I can weaken the colour of ret** M as to make it pink? If so, how ?—W. Rebd.

[4436.]— BEE KEEPING.—Have any improves* been made in Woodbury's frame hivo sinoe Um i described in Payne's Bee Keeping ?—J. R. W.

[4437.]—FLUORIC ACID.—Can any reader inform* whether fluoric acid is chemically made in Amnf.: and if so what is about the price of it; and if not wheda* fluor soar cau be got there, or rather is it found —I. K. H.

[4488.] — COTTON SPINNING. — An "Inquire would feel obliged if your cotton spinning friends »■ ■■ give their opinions as to the following question*:—la * single engine, -Hi n. on the wire, cylinder being 45in. diameter, and running 140 revolutions per minute, what speed ought a 24iu. donor to run, also a 6ui. car ding ndta when the engine is carding 4001b. of middling America! per week? Also, what speed onght a 9io. uaker-i g taker-in to run in the same engine ?—Inquirer,

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441.]—WATER BAROMETER.—I would foci ob1 to "Cornubia" if be would favour me, and I am « umuy more, with ft fullor description of his wator •meter. I have been experimenting with that i of instrument for the past eight or nine years, and Id be glad to give a description of mine, in which eury it* used, if you thought proper. Meantime, I Id like to know what provision he makes for correctL lie influence of temperature on his barometric tube. Uout this it cannot be known to what extent the rise nil is due to that or density. I would also wish that oard was shown on a larger scale, as it is too cond in its divisions, and so to explain all its parts and lions that one might venture to make a similar one '.' irsics.

4442.]—CROQUET.—Will some reader give mo the -ticuUre for making a set of croquet. I wish to know ■ length and thiokness of the mallet head, the length a thickness of the mallet handle (the thickness at sh end of the handle), the number of hoops required, d the size of the opening in them, what sort of wood DnJd the different articles be made of, the simplest ii for turning a wooden ball perfectly round, the size ! colour of the balls, and in what order are the colours nted on the starting posts? I also wish to know what

clip* are ?—Woodhan.

4443.J—MOTIVE POWER FOR VELOCIPEDE.—I -eheon expecting to see some account in your paper of inJi 11 high-pressure engine applied to a velocipede. o boiler could be heated with asbestos (instead of il) and oil lamps. It would not take above 1-horsever to move a fourwhoelor, with india rubber tires, to -ry two passengers. Weight of carriage to be Scwt. |<*aa. Will any of your correspondents kindly suggest o of copper boiler, cylinders, Bize of tank, probable tt and whether practicable without danger? All bicycle il' vclocipode riding is attended with great labour, Licb. tells seriously on hilly roads. If some small comet contrivance can he used as a motive power, and »e from danger, there would be a ready bale, which void amply repay the ingenuity of the fortunate iniritor. Awaiting information on tho above subject.— txos. Stanhope.

£4444.]—JELLY-FISH IN STONE.—The slabs used r paving London Bridge are spotted with greenisb<llow marks, of varying shapes and sizes. A friend lis me theso spots are the petrified bodies of jelly-like Hii imprisoned duriug the formation of the rook from liich these slabs were cut. Is this really so? I wish _>me of our correspondents would tell me something bout them.—Medusa.

[4445.]—ASPHALTE FOR GARDEN PATHS.—Can ly ono tell me if I can uso asphalte for garden paths; U*U would it cost; and how do you lay it down?—

A.BBAB.

f 4446.1 —MOUNTING MICROSCOPE OBJECTS, xc.—What is the best method of mounting tho < ttifcrue, or Wheelboarers? Has any one tried the xi all rubber rings as cells for mounting in liquid 1' Low do they answer?—H. U.

£4447.] — BOGIE ENGINES.—Some of these have been n. use on the North London line. Are they any dvantage; and do they save anything ?—Sleep'ek.

[4448.]—TRUE MERIDIAN.—Will some of my fellowBuders explain the best way to find the "True [fridian," and also let me know how much difference

there between thepresent magnetic meridian and that i 1860?—Youmg Sobvbyob.

[4449.]— RE8TORING FRESHNESS TO FILTERED 'ATE R.—I have a most excellent animal oharcoal filter, liich gives a good supply of perfectly pure and transarent water, but it drinks "fiat," something like water liich has been boiled. I Khali feel greatly obliged to ay of your scientific correspondents if they will inirm me of the best means of restoring freshness to the liter, by passing it through a strata ol some other tutorial after it has been filtered.—F. P. S.

[4450.]—TO " SIGMA."—Will " Sigma" please give ic a little information respecting the Smeo and ■icbromate batteries? I have noticed that in the former tie re are two large zinc plates, with a platinised silver late between, for the negative ; while in the Bichromate litre are two large curl ion plates, with a small zinc ctween—the two batteries appearing to me to be uitc reversed. Now what I wish to know is—Firstly— Lro the condition-) altered because the plates are reersed, and do tb ■ two batteries resemble each other in or king? Secondly—Which is the most powerful, and uiiutainsitsjKmor the longest, and how long? Thirdly— fhich is the most economical in working? Fourthly— re there any advantages in either over the other ? and istly, ought the zinc to be amalgamated with meroury >r tbe Bichromate ?—M. R.C.S.—Anew Subscriber.

[4451.]—MOULDS OF COINS.—Can any corresponent inform me with what substance I can make small imilds or impressions of coins, Ho as to pluto them with jpper with a battery?—F. Walker,

14152.] — LIGHTNING CONDUCTOR.—I shall be KUch obliged if one of your kind contributors will jvrour me with particulars of a lightning conductor; rhat kind of material is most suitable for the purpose; ind tho best way to fix it, ic—Iron.

14458.]— FLATTED OIL BACKGROUND FOR PHOrOGRAPHERS USE.—Will any of your readers in'orm me huw to prepare a background in flatted oil for photographic purposes, to roll upon a stick? I have ono >n ft stretcher, 7ft. by 6ft., which I prepared in the folowing manner:-1st, by tacking the canvas to the tretcher; 2nd, giving it a coating of common size; and rd. painting it with two coats of ordinary slate colour »int. But the difficulty I experience is this—in the amp weather the canvas slackens, and in the dry weaher it tightens, which I think is quito the reverse with be canvas without tho paint.—Typo-photo. [4454.1-BLACK JAPAN COACH-WORK.—Perhaps >nie of our readers can inform me how to make black limn for coach-work? If they can I shall be grateful. ■J. Williams.

[4455.1—MANUFACTURE OF HARD SOAP.—Would Hue brother reader instruct me, through the columns of our Mechanic, tho simplest form of plant to adopt in If miuinfactnre of about half u ton of hard soap per «ek. Anything connected with the manufacture of iustic soda department of it not necessary to explain,

a* I am thoroughly conversant with that myself.—Old Dip.

[4456.]— PLUMBAGO BOTTLE BATTERY.—I will thank your able and (scientific correspondent" Sigma" to have the goodness to inform me where the plumbago bottles for battery purposos can begot, aud the probable cost of each, or with tho zinc and binding screws complete.—E Lec Tro-maonkt.

[4457.]—STEAM BOILER.—I have a steam boiler about 20-horao power. I require two distinct classes of steam off it—viz., ono class at 501b. per inch, the ether at 201b. per inch. Would some brother reader kindly say how I may obtain it? Is there such a thing as a reducing valve to be had which would have this effect? —old Dip.

[4458.]—LIQUID HARNESS BLACKIXG. — Would some of your Kind readers give mo a good receipt for making the above ?—R. S., Hands worth.

[4459.]—WHITE FURNITURE CREAM. — Recipe wanted for making the above.—R. S., Handsworth.

[4460.]—SLIDE VALVE, Etc.—TO MR. BASKERVILLE.—On reading Mr. B.'s letter in a back number on the lead of the slide valve, I met with several difficulties. In the first place I wanted an accurate description of the slide valve itself. Secondly, I was at a loss because I had nover hoard tho words*" lead," *' lap," and "travel," accurately defined. Questions like the following occurred to my mind. Where is the " travel" measured from? Is it the "throw" of the execntric? What is the distance between the port holes? What is the "lap "? ** Where is tho lead measured from?" All these, and numerous others still remain unanswered to my mind, though I have spout some tim a in studying the subject; and as I am unablo to procure a good work on the steam engine, I appeal to Mr. Baskerville to put me right. At the same time I would thank him to give mo a sketch of a pair of exoentrics and link motion slide valve and cylinder (88-16th in. diameter, and Win. stroke), for a 2-horso power road steamer. What 1 want most arc the eccentrics, link motion, and slide valve; about the cylinder I am not particular.—Thos. Watsobt.

[4461.]—SCREW CUTTING.—Will "J. K. P." please reply to the following questions:—I have a 44in centre lathe, which I am fitting for screw cutting. Wnat r:*n>» of wheels would you say are tho beat tor it; 14 or 12 pitch; and how many threads to the inch for the leading screw ?—H.williams.

[4462.]—STRANGE PHENOMENON.—Observing in

the English Mechanic an article headed the "Leaf as a Worker," I write an account of a strange phenomonou that has come under my own observation. About two years ago, while taking a walk after dark, I happened to be standing near to a thorn hedge, when 1 observed, in looking amongst the leaves, a flickering light. Struck with this appearance, I closely observed it night after night. I saw the same appearance on ovcry green plant— I found tho same ou u very stone wall; indeed,everything that I looked upon disclosed tho same flickering waves of light. 1 conjectured what it might be; sometimes I thought it might be light absorbed by the plants through the day, and leaving them at night. 1 also attributed it to electricity, also to a delusion in my own eyes. I tried to show it to some of my acquaintance.?, some of them could see it and others could not. Sineo then I have observed it regularly, but cannot come to any definite opinion regarding what it is. I hope some of the readers of the English Mechanic will give it a fair trial and give their opinions. I sec it best by looking steadily at the leaves from a distance of Sin. or Oiu. upwards, and at present after ten o'clock at night.—Glowworm*

USEFUL AND SCIENTIFIC NOTES.

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4029 Fixing Colours in Cotton Material, 310.

4036 Botanical—Chemical, 310.

4042 Magnet, 310.

4044 Air Gun, 311.

4046 Harmonium, 311.

4049 Polishing Copper, 811.

4050 Iron Moulding Boxes, 311.
4052 Enlarging Cartes de Vi-site, 311.

4059 Soldering, 311.

4060 Vulcauizur, 311.

4069 Parsons' White Brass, 811.

4070 The Lathe, 311.

4072 Harmonium Query. To " Elcvc," 311.

4074 Refuse Lime, 311.

4076 Natural Selection, 811.

4081 Tho Shiptonian Velocipede, 311.

4092 The English Concertina, 335.

4093 Range of Projectiles, 335. 4099 Observatory, 335.

4102 Galvanism, 335.

4103 Clog Iron Machine, 335. 4107 Knifeboard, 335.

4112 Gas Meters, 335.

4119 Anastatic Printing —Porous Colls, 335.

4121 To Bottle Fruits, 83G.

4124 Folding Stool, 335.

4125 Screw Cutting, 835.

NEW USE FOR YEAST.—In some localities largo quantities of beer yeast are run off into sewers and wanted. It contains from 7 to 11 per cent, of nitrogen. M. Beruler mixes about 100 kilogrammes of tho yeast with about 30 kilogrammes of quicklime and 10 of gypsum, and thus obtains a manure which may he used instead of guano. *^»

ECONOMICAL PAINT.—Skim mUk, two quarts; fresh < slacked Ime, 8oz.; linseed oil, 6oz.; white Burgundy pitch, 2oz.; Spanish white, 31b. The lime to be slacked in water, exposed to the air, mixed in one-fourth of the milk; the oil in'which the pitch is previously dissolved, to be added a little at a time; then the rest of the milk, | and afterwards the Spanish white. This quantity 1b sufficient for27 square yards, two coats. v 1

RENEWING RIBBONS.—Old ribbons will look quite renewed if washed in cool suds made of fine soap, and ironed when damp. Cover the ribbon with a clean cloth and pass tho iron over that. If you wish to stiffen the ribbon, dip it, while drying, into gum arabic water. White silk gloves wash well, aud should be dried on tho hands. f

TO MAKE OLD KID GLOVES NEW.—Make a thick mucilage by boiling a handful of flax seed; add a little dissolved soap; then when the mixture cools, with a piece of white flannel wipe tho gloves, previously fitted to the hand. Use only enough of the cleaner to take off the dirt, without wetting through the glove.

DYEING HORN BLACK.—According to C. Burnltz, of Stuttgart, horn may bo dyed black by a cold process In the following way :—The horn id first to be soaked in a solution of caustic potash or soda until the surface is a little dissolved, and feels greasy. Then the article is to be washed and treated with aniline black, after which it is to be slowly dried and again washed. By exercising a little care, we read that combs with fluo teeth may be dyed in this way. The articles look of a dark brown eolour by transmitted light, but seen by roflocted light they are deep black.

THE WEALTH OF ENGLAND.—Mr. Gladstone _'_ *"d at a meeting at the Mansion House on Tuesday, .July lain, v' "* *he annual increase in the wealth of the country amounts to £100,000,000 a year, of which £JO,OttO,000 are made in the city of Loudon, Lord Stanley, the present E.irl or Derby, some few years since, calculated the increase of our national wealth at the rate of £ 1)0,000,000 per annum.

TRACTION.—The resistance to draught on dirt or gravel roads is about 1481b. to the ton. On a well-oonstractud macadamized road it is not far from 661b. to tho ton. On a good pavement, say granite or Belgian, it is about 331b. to the ton, while on an iron rail track it is olb. to the ton. Theso facts show that a horse will draw about three times a^ much on a macadamized road as on a common road, four aud one-half times as much on a pavoment, and eighteen times as much on an iron rail. This conclusion, of course, implies that tho horse has the same secure foothold in each given

TEST FOR LOGWOOD IN WINE.—LftpoyTere has discovered that that the hematite contained in logwood yields a sky-blue colour with salts of copper. Thus, if strips of good filtering paper, Swedish being preferred, are placed in an aqueous solution of neutral acetate of copper, and then dried, they can bo usod for tosting wine. When a Btrip has been dipped into the wine and removed again, tho adhering drop must bo made to run backwards and forwards over the paper, which is then quickly, but carefully dried. If the wine bo free from logwood, tho colour exhibited after tho strip is dried will be grey, or rose-red greyish, but if logwood is present the tinge will be distinctly sky-blue.

ANTIFLAMINE.—A material has recontly beon introduced at Paris under the name of " Antifiamine," for the purpose of extinguishing fire in the case of accident; it consists of aluminous and maguesiau silicates reduced to fine powder and dried at 212D Fahr., 700 parts by weight; chlorido of magnesium in crystals, 200 parts; sulphate of soda, 50 parts; chloride of lime, 50 parts; and tartaric acid, 1 part = 1,001. The article is supplied in a pulverulent form, and is perfectly soluble in water. It is proposed to mix it with the water in tho flre-eugines, tho effect of which, it is claimod, is to lower the temperature and to surround the burning material with ga>es which will not support combustion.

NEW NAVAL LIGHT—A French papor says thnt it is intended to supply several vessels of the fleet with an apparatus intended to light up the line of the horizon iu dull weather, or any point of the sea-coast at which it may bo expedient to disembark at night. This apparatus, placed in the fore part of tho ship, i3 com

ftosed of an electric light and a powerful reflector. The ight is produced by the combustion of two cones of coal, in communication with a magneto-electric machine. This is itself put in motion by a small steam-ongino connected with the ship's engines. The reflector, on Fresnel's system, is analogous to that employed in lighthouses. This apparatus possesses such great illuminating power that, when directed upon a point of any coast, it is clearly visible at a distance of about two miles, without its being possible for the enemy on the coast to distinguish tho ship bearing the light. The ironclad frigate Heroine carries one of these lights, which has been useful in gloomy weather to tho transatlantic packets. The Russian Government has ordered several of them from the French inventor, and proposes placing them in the port of Cronstadt. Speaking or this system, the Austrian Admiral Tegethoff, the victor of Lissa, used to say that if he had had the assistance of Buch lights he should have annihilated the Italian squadron while anchored in the roads of Ancona. It is, iu fact, known that one night, very shortly beforo tho battle of Lissa, tho Austrian fleet approached within reach of the cannon of the port of Ancona. Admiral Tegethoff thought he could distinguish through the darkness a thick smoke, bhowing that the Italian ves.-els were getting up their steam, and were about to weigh anchor. Such a reflector as that recently invented would have permitted him to see that he was mistaken, and thnt the tires of the hostile squadron were not lighted. The fate of those motionless vessels would have been decided.

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