« ZurückWeiter »
ANOTHER TESTIMONY. Sib,—I will thank yon to have tho goodness to reinsert my advertisement in your valuable Journal. The eitensive circulation of the English Mechanic I had Dever any reason to doobt, but since my advertisement appeared in the Sixpenny Sale Column therein, on the 17th June last, I have had the most positive proof of the truth of the allegation, orders having been sent to me from so many different parts of England and Ireland, as well as from Let Ikt it l* Manche, which clearly shows that your now well-conducted paper is much esteemed and very popular in the three Kingdoms, and other countries.
J. B. Cockbden, 4, Moss-street, Paisley, N.B.
H. H. Gii.lf.tt-—We do not know the address.
H. C. informs us that Dr. Bedford is not an M.D. or LL.D., but Ph. D. He does not give the information that "An Ambitious One" asked for—the exact sum such a degree costs.
D. G.—Mr. Perry does advertise.
A. Mc'M.—You deprive your suggestion and congratulation of value by refusing to send your name and address appended.
Hr. Mace.—We do not answer through the post.
A Working Man.—We cannot give an opinion on the qualities of P.'b sewing machine materials or those of any one else.
A Fellow Of The Royal Astronomical Society has written us a letter referring to our remarks on the Astronomical Register. As we have no desire to prolong the controversy as to the merits or demerits of that journal, an extract from " 1". R. A. S.'s " letter must suffice. He says, "I did inadvertently in my letter to you institute a comparison in certain points between the Mechanic and the Register, but the gist of my complaint was that I could never get any numbers of the latter until some days after they were due." We are sorry we have not kept " F. R. A. S.'s" letter, or we would cheerfully insert it now.
Chas. Hall (Leeds).—We know nothing of it. You had better apply speedily to the late proprietor.
R. C. Hobden.—Its insertion was countermanded, then ordered again, and then again countermanded, by your agents.
Saw Mill (Glasgow).—Thanks for your efforts and good wishes.
E. M. Tydehan.—No.
Inspector Cockburn.—We cannot entertain your offer. Others might wish to do the same, and what you offer out <if zeal for the lifeboat might be imitated for the purpose of fraud.
A. Frisby.—A similar problem ("The Goat and the Grassplot") has been recently asked and answered. Such queries are not very practical, and we therefore grudge space for their frequent insertion.
W. R. C.—Your proposition, though well [meant, is impracticable. We supply copies wholesale only to the trade, and it would cause confusion in the business relations between the wholesale and retail newsvendors. Besides, it would entail some expenditure on u», which we hardly feel called upon to incur.
A. Harrison.—We cannot undertake to be the medium of such communications.
Not A Saddler.—Reply something like a puff.
N. T. D.—Yes, the letter came to hand, but was rejected on account of its great length, like many other communications of late.
E. Btake.—Your long letter on cotton spinning is not inserted on account of its very great length; It would occupy a page of the English Mechanic.
Inventor.—We cannot afford Bpace for an illustrated notion, so that it might be criticised.
J. Stanley, of Coventry, writes that he is the designer of the velocipede .spring.
R. P. S.—Reply to problem would occupy too much space.
G. Mansfield.—A nice design enough, but a description of the arrangement in the pedestal of the aquarium would be more acceptable.
Q. A. R.—" Sutherland's Handbook of Painting and Decoration." Abel Heywood & Co., Manchester, or series of articles now appearing in the Building News.
R- O. F. 8.—Commit advertisement pages.
F. J. S.—The information you require would fill a number. We think Cassell, Peter, it Galpin, ^publish a small "Guide to the Civil Service."
Tometer.— Have mercy upon our printer, and be content with your abbreviated signature. Thanks for your congratulations.
John Fleet.—You »rt 'mistaken when you say that we "eulogised " the paint. We simply laid before our readers a plain statement of the merits claimed for it by those who make and sell it.
A. L. B.—You are an irregular or an inattentive reader, or vou would not ask for information on two subjects which are at present being treated on in our pages.
D. F. Ashton.—Your impressions are too bad to engrave. The coin appears to be a copper token of the reign of Queen Anne.
M. L-—The weekly number will go to Australia all right, but the monthly part must be paid for at book-post rate.
Geo. B. Howard.—Search at the Patent Office.
LrvERPDLiAN.—It might amuse, but could not interest our readers.
J. P. Richardson.—Messrs. Leroy'a address is Craystreet, near Philpott-street, Commercial-road, E.
Ma, Jeffrey* ought to have some other recommendation for his " studs and solitaires," to claim a notice in our columns, than his having " the distinguished honour of presenting them to the Prince of Wale*." We did hope that the Workmen's International Ex* hibition would be free from the enervating spirit of flunkeyiam.
G. Spheric—Try and not write nonsense.
John Tod, Jun.—See answers to correspondents last week.
J. P. J.—Condense what you have to say in one half the space, and the letter shall appear.
J. ft.—You will see that we have decided to devote a portion of our advertising space to Wanted advertisement:?, under the head Employment Column.
Shorthand.—John Organ, T. Cridland, and N.T. have written in defence of Pitman's system, but as they go over ground that was pretty well covered by preceding correspondents wo nm--t omit their letters. Mr. Edward Williams has Rent us an improved system, but as it involves elaborate woodcuts his letter is not inserted.
J. B. T., W.W., and Rev. W. H. express their satisfaction with the manner in which "unnoticed queries" have been answered.
Mus.—We should be glad to receive the drawing or photo.
T. Bush.—A drawing of the ventilating apparatus you refer to appeared in the Building New* of Nov. 27 and Dec. 18,18G8. It is the invention of W. Potts, Handsworth, Birmingham.
Enquirer. —We should think you would only be entitled to a month's notice, in the absence of any agreement or trade custom to the contrary.
R. Hodges.—There are no such works published.
X. X. X.—Charges are the same for the repetition of such advertisements.
Collimator.—Try F. J. Cox, Ludgate-hill.
W. B. Harvey.—No letter is unnoticed by us. Sometimes correspondents ask questions which have been but very recently answered, without troubling to refer to back numbers. We do not remember your former
E. Hatchin.—Recipes for making jams have recently appeared. Second query can only appear in "Sixpenny Sale Column."
S. Elliott.—Thanks for good wishes. Your resolve to "subscribe to no more prize-offering journals" is a wise one.
The Microscope.—" C. R. H.," Swindon, thanks "H. P., Hull" for his recent contributions, and trusts that such an interest may be evinced by our readers as may encourage him and others to devote attention to this hitherto rather neglected subject.
APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT DURING THE
9036. R. Sellar, Huntly, Improvements in the construction of doublo-furrow ploughs.
9087. W. E. Wimby, Edgbaston, improvements in rail* and chairs for railways.
3028. J. F. Parker and E. Sunderland, Birmingham, improvements in the manufacture and melting- of iron and steel.
2029. J. Hull and O. Hibbert, Partington, improvement* in machinery or apparatus for printing boulinikon, linoleum, kaniptulicon, Ac.
2030. J. E. Hughes, improvements in the formation of roodwavs, pavement*, mid inch like surfaces. A commnnicatiun.
3081. W. Owen, 47, Wind-street, Abeidare, improvementa in railway and other wheel*.
2032. H. M. Hainxay, 2, Russell Villas, Pope's Grove, Twickenham, improvement* in the treatment of sewage or other liquid* or solutionis
2083. C. H. Plowrlght and W. Plowright, Deeping St. Nicholas, an improved wind engine or apparatus for obtaining motive power.
3034. 8. Norton, Cheater, improvements in valve tapB.
3086. J. N. Paxmun and H. M. Davey, Colchester, engineers, for an invention of improvements in steam boilers.
20H3. J. Henderson, Hazlefleld House. Anchencairn, Improvement* in the manufacture of iron and steel, and in furnaces to be used in inch manufacture.
2037. J. Dyus and G. J. Parry, 28, New Charles-street. Clerkenwell, improvements in mocbani«m arranged in combination with the locks of boxes, dreeing and other cases.
3038. A. L. Taylor, Aylesbury, improvements in apparatus for warming, vaporising, and causing a free circulation ol tresh air in horticultural ntrncturoti and other buildings.
903V. J. A.Mason and J. Williams, Holbem, Improvements in sewing machines.
2040. W. M. Hoes, Melbourn'', Victoria, a new prcpulr-iou engine to be used for propelling bodies through the water and through the air.
SOU. H. Redfern, Nottingham, improvements in the manufacture of ball valve-..
9043. W. Hagget, West Camel, Somerset, improvements in ventilating house* und building*.
9048. J. E. MakiiiM King William-street, London, an Improved spring fastener for window*.
2044. W. Robinson, Old Bailey, improvements in the manufacture of iron. _ . ,
9046, T. M. Hopkins, of Worcester, improved means for drying substances impregnated with moisture.
9046. J. E, Dayck, Glasgow, improvements In treating mineral oils.
9047. J. H. Lloyd, M.D., Llangefni, Anglesey, improvements in utilizing and deodorizing sewage.
2048. C. Bartholomew, Doncaiter, improvement! in treating ■ewage.
9049. G. Phillip*. 74,Tufnell Park-road, hBpnmajs,. parin R charcoal for decoloiiBinf? ayiup*.
9050. A. V. Newton, «, Chanoery-lan*-. imprcveassi a o*for sewing machine*. A cominixnioation.
9061. W. E. Newton. Gfi, Chancers-lane. imyrcrreE&zii - tand other mirrom. A communication,
9062. B. J. B. Mills, 8fi. Southampton Buitdtei-i In ovens. A coinmunicatinn.
9069. St. T. Baker, King s-road, Chelsea. iffifraws»
pigeon traps from which pigeons are alioL
wheels for railway carriage* and utitcx vehicle*. A *mm
3066. F. J. Newton, 38, Wnllat^n street. Nr^tii^Si^ t Motley. Elm Avenue, New Bastard, improvementa ia «» apparatus. ..... .
2067. T. A, Warrington, 8. Duke-*tre*t, Adelpu, asp^ in ventilator*.
2068. W. Creswick. Rotherwnod, Rotbwbaxo. ic:pu;*szz apparatus for lnbiicating the ml«* of colliery " «m
9059. A. H. Wharton, Heckmondvrike, iinpTew=-=^< 3 , manufacture of carpet*.
3060. J. Petrie, Jnn., Rochdale, improvement* c a^=r waairing or scouring wool.
3001. W. E. Newton, 06, Chancery lane, improveMS .a A communication.
3W!2. J. Ma»ou. Erdiugton, Biraiinari-iav it* s. in Gravelly Hill, Birmingham, improvement* in the s*=u _ steel.
30(3). J. J- M. Sills, Nottingham, an improved cwrart» water closet.
9064. R. T. Shiells, Edinburgh, ImproTemfCi j Mtx vegetable matter.
2066. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln a Inn-ftelda, iy^pa the production of bulpburicand hydrochloric asuses? of pota*h and boda, and alto of cluorine. A Cpgbw
90'W. J. H. Johnmm, Improvement* In explo*B*?*~ fu**4. A communication.
9037. J. Hunter, Leith, improvenaenta in >ia ss substances.
9068. J. A*hwln and R. Carter, Bu—xninjrhazn. c*x^ menU in lockets.
2060. H. Howard, Preston, and T. Xaylox, Baca.* * Improved positive differential motion.
3070. T. Barrall, Stockton-on-Teci«, inaprovemejiU-« for marine engines.
2071. T. Higgs and J. Elliott, Hoi bom. improrsr. ■ regulaUr*.
9073. A. Turner, Leicester, improvementa in tbi- no of elastic fabrics.
3078, W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane, improved avapparatu* for tawing or dressing ^kina. A cnm2nnni<>^
2074. W. J. Johnson, Allendale, improvement* in ajfcondenslng metallic and other fuels, gaaes. and cmuke.
2076. R. Bailey, Barrow-in-Fnrnt«s, improvementii ?. lating and heating rooms and ether places.
2076. L. E. Mouline, Vale AnUche, France, an improved * of reeling silk.
3077. H. Dubs and S. G. GoodaU <^peatajce. 01asf:« provetnenla in combining or coupling locomotives.
».rra. E. Ojwleti, Hounslow, and P. Brash, Leith. iiunrcws- < in tho manufacture of candles.
2079. E. Dittrich, S. l^lemhtu-jh, and F ViiJ» and J. L-.i+ Manchevtcr. improvements in the manniactare o! the reeds » ploved in looms for weaving- _
2w0. F. J. Bayne*. fliiiloway-terrace, Hoijoway-road. » improved carving lurk.
2081. H. Doultott, High-ttreet, Lambeth, improvement* in su valves. t
20H2. G. Sparagnspant, ISUaop»sate-«tr«t Wilhont, improve means of dyeing or cok'Hring wticitn.
208:1. W. E. Newvtn, 6ri,Chanc«y h»xte, imptoTemant* In fcVPratus for the manufacture ol g«. K commtuiwalioTi.
3084. G. C. Philcox and T. Saint. 1«. Go«w«U street r» improvements in marine chror*omet«r* and ai\»s time kp*per»
aosa, W. L. Mitchell. Kirkcaldy, FUc. imvrovements hi L* for weaving.
908b. B. C. Scott, Saint John's Wood. Improvements ia Kengines. _^ , _
8087. J. B. E. Defontalne, No. «. Boalevart Se&*sv> - -' improvements in dredging machinem.
9068. W. L. Anderson, Clarendon House, CaterhAs sr ments in propeller*.
2(WJ». O. Walch, Paris, Boulevard de Straslwtci. S *' improved machinery for preying matches.
201*0. P. Schwartz. W, Boulevard Prince Ear* °; provements in means or apparatus for laf-iliiatis* '^*tion of the upper* of boots and shoe*. A comnusaaa,
2091. H. Atkinson, 8», Wharf-road, City-rat« — * Bwing. . _»
30a-J. J.E. Sherman, Maine, U.S., Improvcmeatia* i
tion of Iron find uteel. ^
20U8. J. Wilkinson. Leed*. improvements in the fa*** macliinery for cleaning and finishing carpet fabric*.
20W. T. P. Hayes, Orange, New Jersey, U.S., is$^-" washing machine*. A communication. .
20S5. H. Brooks, 81. Cumberland-market, Bea*ti > J ■* provements in the manufacture of Ktoppera roc bottfca
3»ifi. W. G. Gard. Breaston. Derby, an improved nhs^* serving meat, fish, poultry, &c.
216. It. S, Dnle and C. S.^horlemmer, imf.rovemeoti Se T*1 coin urine matter*.
220. <■'. E. Harding, and P. Wright, improvements P °" m;n- bines.
230. W. S. rnderhill, improvements in steam cngisn
337. C. Lungley, improvements in tho con-*tructii.a - *• vessel*.
240. W. F. Dearlove, improvements in apparatoa is or wincing Nu balance H.
264. W. Orr, improvements in ornamenting Scftfci' bonnets.
272. R. Dick, new or improved modes and mean* * and insulating the wires of electric telegraph*.
2v2. J. Fisher and H. Fisher, improvement* applies: p boiler and other furnaces.
996. U. Broadhurst, J. Swindells, and J. ELersbav' ments iu india-rubber manulactureo.
801. N. J. Holmes, improvements in the appliestr*' extinguiiihable signal lights for marine and other pcxp«a
340. G. Damont, improvements in appuratus for the v-' of argentiferous leads.
S83. A. Foley, and H. Foley, improvements in the pr^t--photographic pictures or designs on vencera and solid wW .
891. G. Eguillon, improvements in the mode ui rwdis*' friction of pivoU tiuning on o»cillatinR levers.
433. W. Wieldou and J. Beck, improvementa in cwek'
638. A. Barlow, improvemenU In Jacquard mechasia'
WL-aving and otner purposes,
i»77. C. Wilson and J. Peebles, Improvementa in ecj^j" slide valves.
1270. A. M. Clark, improvements in traction and locea* engine*. A communication.
lfil«. W. V. Puliiam, improved self-adjusting coupler* f*' netting and disconnect Lug railway carriage*.
347. A.D. Brown and W.Brown, improvement* in niacin fer cutting curved and irregular forms.
362. B. Oonci. an improved portable scaffolding-.
267. J. C. Haddan, improvements in apparatus for takict < registering votes.
276. T. Ix-e. W. Lee, and E. Lee, improvement* in mill till1
380. E. Biasier, streaking and cleaning hemp, clcania; tow, washing wool, and heckling, cleaidng, ur waabunjf' fibrous materials.
THE ESGLISU 3IECHJSIC LIFEBOAT FUND.
Subscriptions to be forwarded to the Editor, at the Offie*
Amount previously acknowledged ..
Saw Mill, Glasgow .
MIRROR OF SCIENCE AND ART.
FRIDAY, AUGUST 12, 1870.
THE WAR. A LMOST every man in Europe feels more or _¿\_ 1C8B interested in the vast and unnecessary war which is devastating the fairest portions of Europe. Wu wül not, in these columns discuss the flimsy pretext for the war. We regard it as a crime against humanity. There is no doubt that one of the parties in the strife has been •' ewift to shed blood." No one can forecast the results of the war; we do not, in fact, remember a single historic war that has answered the purposes of its originators. There is, however, one side of the question which wears a hopeful aspect, and which we may record with satisfaction in a scientific journal. Cowper said, " War is a game that, were their subjects wise kings would not play at;" and, far the firet time in the history of Europe, we see symptoms of an awakening of the people to a true conception of the measureless evils of war. The Paris correspondent of the Morning Pott says :—" The children of industry begin to question why they should be slaughtered and ruined to satisfy the pride and ambition of sovereigns and statemen. The international trade-unions, the improved education of the working classes, the better knowledge which the people now havo of each other—originating in the facilities of railway communication and the interchange of opinion which arises from international journalism—are causes which affoct the state of public opinion amongst the working classes of all Europe, calculated some day, if not in 1870, to produce political events of the most comprehensive character."
Let us add to this an extract from the Workman's Peace Committee in London, of which Mr. Edmond Beales is chairman, and Mr. W. R. Cremer the secretary :—•' Peace is to us as the breath of life. War, that great curse and scourge of mankind, is especially our deadliest foe, for wo are over its most numerous victims, whether as regards the interruption of employment from national distress, or our enrolment in military service. Here, then, comes the question wc would urgently press on your immediate and serious consideration. Why should wu continue to suicidally furnish the means of our own destruction? Without us, war must cease; for without us standing armies could not exist. It is out of our class that they are formed. Moreover, without our labour the turreted war-ship and the rifled cannon, the needle-gun, the Chassepot, the mitrailleuse, and every other murderous instrument that the perverse ingenuity of man has invented for the annihilation of his race, could neither be fabricated nor made available for their sanguinary purposes. Surely it is time, then, for us to show our power, to prove ourselves a self-preserving power, and also a power for the happiness and blessing of all our fellow-men. We have no wish, whatever may be our individual sympathies, to side with either party in this lamentable war. The working men of Germany, the working men of France, are eqnally our brethren. It matters not to us, and we verily believe it matters as little to them, who is the prince or person solected by the Spaniards—if they cannot do without a king—to nominally rule over them. What concerns us—what we see and feel is in the enormity that,¡upon any such a pretext, or for any real or imagined affront, which the arbitration of a few honest and impartial men would honourably adjust in an hour, hundreds of thousands of human beings should be arrayed against each other in mortal combat, about to steep the fields of France and Germany in their life-blood, and myriads of happy homes be plunged into measureless mieery and woe. The prospect is one that only fiends could contemplate without horror!"
Perhaps we could not select a more emphatic condemnation of the present war than the one uttered by M. Ollivier, May 16, 1868, in the French Chamber:—"War (he said) many регионе think necessary, and that there is a question of honour to be settled between France and Germany. This ie said, written, propagated—but,
according to me, war would be a disaster. I do not speak in the name of fraternity, in the name of those sentiments which have nothing to do with politics—I speak in the name of interests. Experience has confirmed the saying of Montesquieu, 'Men of war have been the ruin of Europe.' War has never done anything, never settled anything. In vain you will be victorious, in vain repulse Germany and conquer the Rhine; after victory you will be able to disarm less easily than before the war. Yoa will bo obliged to augment your armies, and the public uneasiness will not cease. War is therefore, according to me, a solution impracticable, wicked—an empiricism. The true solution is peace, peace with disarmament, peace with liberty; that liberty withont which peace is neither glorious nor sure." These words were uttered about two years since, and strange to say M. Ollivier is one of the prime agents of the war.
Mr. Gladstone, at the Mansion House, did not speak in exaggerated language when he said i— "In the name of wounded humanity, in the name of grieving civilization, in the name of onr religion, afflicted with what it witnesses, I do record that nothing more deplorable, nothing more dismal has marked, perhaps, the history of mankind, and certainly the history of mankind in our time, than this, splendid indeed it may be, bnt awful spectacle, in which nations of the highest civilization, with institutions the most perfectly developed, with celebrity established in every department of hietory, with the first positions of the civilized world to which it is possible for any nation to attain, are pushing on their troops by hundreds of thousands, and almost by millions, for deadly conflict, for causes which is it very difficult to appreciate."
The words spoken by Mr. Disraeli in the House of Commons, a few hours after the first sad news reached this country, may form a fitting conclusion to this protest against a wicked and gigantic war:—" I hear, sir, superficial remarks made about military surprises, the capture of capitals, and the brilliancy and celerity with which results which are not expected or contemplated may be brought about at this moment. Sir, these are events of a bygone age. In the last century such melodramatic catastrophes were frequent and effective ; we live in on age animated by a very different spirit. I think a great country like France and a great country like Piussia cannot be ultimately affected by such results; and the sovereign who trusts to them will find at the moment of action that he has to encounter, wherever he may be placed, a greater and more powerful force than any military array—and that is the outraged opinion of an enlightened world."
ELECTRICITY—ITS THEORY, SOURCES,
By J. T. Spraoüe.»
(Continued from page 388.)
Ш Peroxide Op Manganese Battery.— • Various peroxides have been employed to surround the negative plate and furnish the oxygen. Peroxide of iron has been frequently suggested mainly on account of its cheapness and commonness — common rust, hematite ores powdered, red ochre, all may be used, and will answer ; but a little consideration of the following remarks will show that no sort of advantage is to be gained by the use of iron oxide instead of the peroxide of manganese, because it has all the objections of the latter with no kind of superiority; and, under the circumstances, cheapness is so very small a matter as to be quite out of consideration. Peroxide of lead, however, possesses real advantages in that its electro-motive force is very high, and consequently a battery in which this is used gives the greatest "intensity" of any known form. Its expense, however, is considerable, and so is its trouble, and I will not take up space by further reference to it.
In point of fact the peroxide of manganese is the only one of these substances practically useful. Its employment was first suggested by De la Rive, many years ago, but the difficulties which soon present themselves to those who use it hare prevented it coming into common use; on the other hand, it has many good qualities, which have led recently to its quiet appropriation by several trading makers, and it has actually been patented ander the name of the "Leclonchè"
cell. For cases requiring a large current—as in plating—or for magnets or coils, it is absolutely useless; for a small occasional current, on the other hand, as for ringing bells, household signals, ■ve, it. is one of the most useful forms; though the statement made by sellers that the cell is calculated to work for "three years" is, of course, pure nonsense. Like every other form it can yield a current equivalent only to the quantity of material used in it, which will be exhausted in a greater or less time according to the work done; and this depends upon two things—the quantity of the excitant and the quantity of the manganese.
148. The peroxide of manganese, otherwise binoxiile, is, on the atomic notation, MnOa = 87; two of these atoms enter into the reaction producing Ma, 0:, sesquioxide of manganese, and О one atom of oxygen ; and hence, as this oxygen is 16, while the equivalent or our electric unit is 8, it follows that the atom of peroxide is ulso the unit, as 87 of it by weight yiolds this 8 of oxygen; but this is the pure substance, while the commercial manganese contains often a large per centage of impurity. In addition to this, as no solution occurs, the action takes place only on the surface of the particles into which the material is divided, and hence a considerable portion may escape action; it is therefore impossible to fix upon any quantity as the electric unit ; it may range from 100 to 200 grains or mure. The peroxide is a good conductor; the resulting sesquioxide is not a conductor, and the same is the case with the corresponding lead oxides—hence the action tends to diminish ; and a main object must be to spread the material in as thin a film as possible over a large area of conducting surface. This is most readily accomplished by crushing carbon into various sizes, from a pea down, sifting out the larger and packing them tightly in a porous jar, in layers, so that the particles arc in firm contact among themselves, and with a plate or bar of carbon, which forms the main plate or conductor; the very fine particles should also be sifted out and ground to an inpalpable powder, with twp or three times their bulk of the manganese, then mixed with the intermediate pieces and sifted into the spaces left between the larger pieces till a tolerably compact mass is formed. When the liquid souks into this and the action is set up, a very large area is thus exposed, which compensates for the inherent slowness of the action itself, and reduces the internal resistance.
A very small surface of zinc is sufficient, and it generally is one or two small cast rods or rolled strips suspended in the outer vessel.
149.—The Excitant.—Either common salt or sal ammoniac are usually employed, though others will answer. It may at first sight seem difficult to say why sal ammoniac at 6d. per lb. should be used if common salt at 31b. per penny will answer; but as a couple of ounces of the chloride of ammonium will charge a cell, such as the ordinary Leclanché, and do the amount of work for which alone it is properly fitted for several months, the question of economy dwindles to a very small matter against the higher electromotive force the ammonium chloride gives over that furnished by the sodium chloride. Tho reason for this higher electro-motive force is, that Boda, displaces ammonia from its salts, and, of course, in doing so loses force; therefore, when both are de composed the sodium salt has less to yield. In the one case, caustic soda is generated within the porous cell; in the other, ammonia is set free and given off.
As these salts ore so largely used in electrical operations, it may be useful to give complete information as to their solutions. Ammonium chloride, N H< CI. = 53-5, or, allowing for impurities, the unit is 55 grains, being 127 units per lb., and at 6d., the cost per unit is -0472 of a penny. Its solnbility varies according to temperature. My own experiments, which agree with figures given by various authors, made 1,000 fluid grains of a solution saturated at 62° Fahr, weigh 1,076 grains, and contain 288 grains chloride, or 5-24 units. Sodium chloride, Na CI. = 58-5, or, commercially, its unit is 59, giving 119 to the lb., and its cost per unit -0028 of a penny. Unlike most salte, its solubility varies very little with temperature; at 62° its specific gravity is 1-208,. the contents of 1,000 fluid grains, 322 grains, or 5-46 units. Its solution is, therefore, somewhat stronger than that of the ammonium salt, and still more so in cold weather.
As tho action produces zinc chloride, and Ulis has a tendency to form double salts with alkaline chlorides, a deposit of crystals of these is soon found to form on the porous cell, and still more freely on the zinc surface, obstructing tho action
It is, therefore, desirable occasionally to remove these by soaking in pare water.
150. Experimenting with a Leclauelu; cell, which I purchased as abont the best type of this form, it gave at first 43°, falling to 30J in ten minutes, and 23° in one hour. Connecting again after several days rest it gave 30°, falling to "20° in ten minutes; and. after several weeks doing no work but these tests, it gives '20°. Its charge was about 6,000 grains of solution of ammonium chloride, being about 3Joz. of the salt, or '25 units, of which probably only about ten would be effective, the rest being wasted by forming the doubl« salt; and certainly all the work the cell lias done would not exceed '2 units; on the other hand, two of these cells would have the same electro-motive force as three Daniels'.
151. Sülpüate Of Lead Battery.—In this we leave the principle of supplying oxygen at the negative plate, but we have au insoluble matter there. It has several forms. Originally the porous cell was filled up with the sulphate surrounding a metallic plate or rod; a patented modification consists of a stout copper wire, to which are fixed several saucers, also of copper, tinned, for holding the metallic salt and preventing its solidifying in the porons cell, so that it may readily l>e replaced. This is, no doubt, a great improvement, though it is very doubtful whether the sulphate of lead battery is worth improving, notwithstanding that many simply practical people highly approve of it. Its defects will easily be seen ou a little consideration. The electro-motive force is low ; the cell is usually worked with common salt for the solution, and in this snlphate of lead is to some considerable extent Boluble, hence lead finds its way to the zinc plate and sets up local action. Then the action is expensive; sulphate of lead Pl> S Oj has an atomic weight of 303, half of which is the equivalent, but as the commercial article is usually very impure, the unit cannot be taken at less than 159, which is about equivalent to the work I have found it to do. This gives 44 units to the pound, and a cost per unit of •1364 of a penny, and hence the cost of working this cell is—
1 unit of zinc at 7d. per lb. .. -0330
1 „ sulphate of lead -13C4
2 „ salt, as before -0056
and if we only add 5 per cent, by local action, which is below the truth, we have the cost per unit -1838 of a penny, but as in actual working a large portion of the sulphate of lead would probably be left undecomposed, this wculd be greatly exceeded, making the cell one of the most costly to work.
The cell has the merit of very fair constancy, and yields a large current for some time, so that for some purposes it would be very useful. One of the patent cells gave me at first, on short circuit 48°, rising in an hour to 52', at which it remained for four hours ; for some days after I used it in electroplating, after which it gave 37e. and as it was worked fell to 20'. The porons cell becomes clogged with a brown deposit due to the bud, but which is removed by nitric acid, and the sulphate in the saucers swells considerably, so that they should not be filled too full.
152.—The chemical reaction which occurs in the sulphate of lead battery is very complicated, audentirely different froinwhatmightbeexpeeted. It would naturally be supposed to be similar to that of the Daniel; that the sulphuric radical of the salt would be transferred to the zinc and metallic lead deposited. The action is altogether different; the chloride of sodium is polarized and broken up, the chlorine uniting with the zinc, and the sodium set free at the negative plate. Where there is in actual contact with this plate a particle of lead sulphate, this is decomposed, and the expected action takes place, lead being set free and snlphate of soda formed ; but a large part of the negative plate is not in this iutimate molecular contact with the lead salt, and the nascent soiinrn appears to be actually set free so fur as to decompose the water, and at the same time some of the neighbouring lead salt for hydrogen gat is set free to a small extent, which causes the swelling of the sulphate, which is partly reduced to sulphide instead of metal, and a considerable quantity of sulphide of sodium is also produced. The relative proportions of these actions depend apparently on the rate of the action, aud I think that the slower this is the more is the salt reduced to pure metal.
It may be observed that if this battery were largely used the residuary product might be re
formed into the sulphate by acting on it with a
153.—The Sixfhate 'of Mebcuby Cell.—
There are two sulphates of mercury. The proper one is what used to bo called the bisulphate, now the mercuric sulphate Hg SOj, with the atomic weight 296. It is obtained by heating in au evaporating dish two parts by weight of mercury with five to six of the strongest sulphuric acid until ouly a dry white powder is left. This is the required salt, which hot water turns into the yellow "turpith mineral," and which does not actually dissolve unchanged, but forms an acid salt with the water. The equivalent is half the atomic weight, or allowing for impurities 150 or 45-66 units per pound, which at 3s. 4d. per pound is '8750 of a penny per unit. The cost of working is thus very high, but it is reduced partially by the mercury recovered, and for the special purposes for which aloue the cell is useful; this is of little consequence, being compensated by the steadiness and convenience of the cell.
154.—There are various other forms of battery—many useless—some, such as Grove's gas battery, highly interesting from a theoretical point of view; others, like the chloride of silver form, very powerful, but not of general use; though this latter, where the material could be obtained for about the value of the silver it contains (as might be at some of the refineries) would be really a valuable and economical cell. But I have now dealt with all the forms I can remember of any general interest and practical value, and therefore conclude this part of the subject, but with the intention of soon describing a new form which I am experimenting upon. In the next paper the subject of measurement and galvanometers will be dealt with.
as a celestial object, whose figure and position we wish to determine, the zodiacal light seems at first sight precisely such an object as we might hope to deal with most satisfactorily. It is undoubtedly within manageable limits oí distance. It is often very clearly visible. We can view it from varying stations, at different seasons, and so on. Yet, despite all these advantageous circumstances, the zodiacal light ha* undoubtedly proved a crux to astronomers. l!„ peculiarities have been such as to lead to the promulgation of quite discordant theories; nor can it be said that any theory hitherto put forward (so far as I know) accounts for all the peculiarities of this phenomena.
I hope, however, to be able to show that the results we have beeu considering lead to a complete solution of all the geometrical difficulties I if we may so speak), presented by the zodiacal light. I proceed to consider what thoso difficulties are; iu other words, to give an account of the principal phenomena presented by the zodiacal light. Let it be carefully remembered that a theory to be admissible must give an account of all the phenomena; or, at lcaet, not be denuitely opposed by a single phenomenon. On this account our very difficulties may be of service to us, by enabling us to reject theories which otherwise it would perplex us to choose among.
Speaking generally, the zodiacal light may be described as a faint tongue of light, visible above the horizon after sunset and before sunrise, and extending an if from the concealed mu along the neighbourhood of the ecliptic. The figure shows
COMETS AND METEORS.
Bv Bichard A. Proctor, B.A., F.B.A.S.
Author oí "Other Worlds than Oars," Ac, Ac.
(Continued from page 435.)
F we are led by the consideration of meteors and comets to a satisfactory interpretation of the zodiacal light, we may be well satisfied with the results of our researches, for there is scarcely a single problem in the whole range of astronomy which presents so many difficulties as this one.
Let me draw a distinction here between two very different classes of problems presented to the astronomer. To determine the physical characteristics of a certain order of celestial objects may be a problem which overtaxes man's highest powers, whether of observation or of reasoniug; but nearly all questions connected with the position or motions of celestial objects seem only to require the fulfilment of cerbaiu conditions in order that we muy resolve them quite satisfactorily. Those conditions are maiuly a certain relative proximity of the object iu question, and certain motions, either on its part or on our own, by which we may be enabled to see it in different directions aud so estimate its position.
Now the zodiacal light, if wo regarded its physical constitution, might prove too difficult a problem for us to solve. But regarded siraply
roughly what is the usual aspect of the light, H H' being the horizon, E E' the eclipse, S the hidden sun, and Z the vertex of the zodiacal light. Bnt as the position of the ecliptic is continually changing on our skies, the positiou of the zodiacal light changes with it. It is most favourably seen, of course, when the ecliptic— shortly after sunset or shortly before sunrise—is inclined at the greatest possible angle to the horizon. The former case happens in February aud March, the latter in October und November. Hence the zodiacal light can be seen most favourably in the evening hours of spring aud iu the morning hours of autumn.
In places near the equator the zodiacal light cau be seen all the year round, both in the evening aud in the morning hours, because there the ecliptic is always much more nearly vertical than with us; and besides, the twilights are shorter.
Wherever the zodiacal light can be seen at all— or within latitudes some 65 degrees north anil south of the equator—it affects in this way the neighbourhood¿f the ecliptic ; it sets us regularly as a celestial object in the evening and rises as regularly as a celestial object iu the. morning; so that we might be disposed to conclude at once that it is no more terrestrial phenomenon, were it not for certain peculiarities presented at times by this object. Indeed, as will be seen presently, the evidence is far too strong for any serions question as to the cósmica] character of the light; but there is yet good reason for feeling doubtful where and what it actually is.
In the first place the exteut of the light arises from time to time. Sometimes its vortex lies but 70° or so from the pluce of the sun, at other« it actually exceeds 90° or even 100° from him.. When it is remembered that no object travelling within the earth's orbit, as Mercury and Veuus do, could ever appear so far from the sun as 90s, the significance of such an extension of the zodia cal light will be seen at once.
Then, again, the brightness of the zodiacal light is not constant. At times, for example, it. is very difficult in oui- latitudes to see the light at all, even on clear evenings or mornings and at tinproper seasons ; at other times no one can possibly mil to recognise the light when once its position has been pointed out ; while occasionally the light has been so brilliant that it bus been mistaken for the tail of a vast comet. This happened in March, 1843, during the visit of the great comet of that year, when many persons took the zodia cal light for that amazing object. It is doubtless to a temporary increase of brightness of this sort that the pheuomeuou described by Nicephoras, in the following terms, must be ascribed :—" Thoro
hitherto perplexing phenomena will be simultaneously interpreted.
Here, for the present, I take leave of the subject; but at some future time I hope to return to it. I have so far looked at only one aspect of this maay-sided subject ; there are others as well worth studying, and associated no less intimately with the economy of the solar system.
THE WORLD: ITS FORMATION AND
By Arthur Undkbuill.
^Continued from page 436).
ABOVE the metamorphic or primary series lie the secondary formations, and in the lowest system of this group first occur those important aids to geology—fossils, or animal and vegetable remains.
This.class is divided into seven systems, viz. (taking them in order of superposition and commencing with tho lowest), (1) the Cambrian; (2) the Silurian; (3) the Devonian, or old red sandstone; (4) the Carboniferous; (5) the Permian, or lower new red sandstone; (6) the Triassic, or upper new red sandstone; (7) the Oolitic, or Jurassic; and (8) the Chalk, or Cretaceous systems.
The first five of these groups are termed the Paleozoic systems (paíteos, ancient; zoos, life) because they contain the remains of life in forms totally different to any existing at the present period.
Since it will be necessary in this and the future portions of my treatise to use certain technical terms in relation to the fossil remains of present and bygone races of beings who have peopled the earth, I think that at this stage a little digression for the purpose of explanation would be advantageous, and I therefore entreat my readers to •carefully commit to memory the following list of the different genera of animals :—
VERTEBRATA (having a backbone) are divided into four orders—viz.: 1. Mammifebs (or such as suckle their young), examples, man, dog horse, &C. ; 2. Bibds ; 3. Reptiles; 4. Fishes.
ANNULAT A (ornamented with a ring) an split up into six orders—viz., 1. Insects—examples, bee, flies, &c.—2. Mvbiapods (thousand footed); examples-—centipede, millepede, &c. 3. Arachnids (spiders); examples—spider, scorpion, vermin, &c. 4. Crustacea (shell coated); examples—crab, lobster, ifce. 5. Cibbhipeds (hair f >oted) ; examples—the auatissa—certain beings which cling to the bottoms of ships. 6. AnneLiDKS (little-ringed); example—the common earthworm.
MOLLUSCA (flabby or jelly-like) are divided into five orders—viz., 1. Cephalopods (headfooted); examples—nautilus, cuttlefish, &c. 2. ♦tastebopods (belly-footed); example — blacksnail. 3. Bracbiopods (arm-footed). 4. ConChífera (shell-bearing). 5. Acephala (headless); example—oyster.
RABIATA are divided into three orders—viz., 1. Bryo/.oa (sea-weed life). 2. Echinodermata (spiny-skinned) ; example—star-fish, &c. 3. PolïParia; example—coral zoophyte.
PROTOZOA (first life) are of a threefold order—viz., 1. Foraminifera (having an aperture) so termed because the air-shell is divided into partitions, each of which is united with the succeeding one by a small aperture. 2. AmorPHOZOA (mis-shapen life) ; example—sponge, Sec. 3. Infusoria (existing in infusion) infinitely minute animalcules, 40,000 of which would but fill a cubic inch.
Having now described the classification of the animal world, I will again resume the description of the secondary formation. Pursuing my former method I shall commence with the Cambrian system, which lies immediately above the clay slate. It is principally composed of slates, schists, and limestones, and is met with mostly in Wales and the northern counties of England. At the period of the formation of this system it is evident from the fossil remains that the temperature was far greater than that which prevails on any portion of the globe at the present time. Too torrid for terrestrial vegetation or animal organization, life was confined to the cooler habitation of the sea; it, however, swarmed with lowly organisms and plants whose remains we now find deep buried in their stony vaults.
The strata of this group are of considerable thickness, occasionally attaining that of 80,000ft., and it must therefore have taken a lone period for its deposition. The system is of extensive prevalence in Bohemia, Sweden, Russia, Canada, and New York State, and it therefore follows that such localities were subaqueous or submerged at the time of its formation. The fossils of this system are of a very low nature, such as seaweeds ; specimens of Radiât a called Oldhamia radians, a species of Brachiopod termed Linaula (Fig. 1), and Trilobites, which last deserve a somewhat longer description. Trilobites, then, were a species of the genus Crustacea. From Fig. 2 you will observe that their form is that of an oval divided into three divisions; they are supposed to have lived in the lowest depths of the ocean, and there to have existed on the molluscs 2
which were not provided with a shelly armour. But the most remarkable portion of these beings is their eye, which, although minute in itself, would, even if composed like that of ordinary animals, be a wonderful piece of microscopic handiwork, is rendered infinitely more wonderful by the fact that it is made of over 400 separate eyes, so placed as to allow of vision in every direction at the same time. Such an organism proves that it was not by a series of experiments, beginning at the least complex, that the Creator formed the organic world; for
there is infinitely more complexity and delicacy of design in a Trilobite's eye than in the gigantic limb of an elephant or a mastodon.
The scenery of the Cambrian system is very bold and bleak, its slaty strata being split into rugged peaks, whose precipitous sides render any attempt to gain their summits perfectly futile. The Pass of Llanberis exemplifies this wild aspect most effectively, and fills the spectator with feelings of awe and admiration. The Cambrian system is rich in metals, supplying quantities of silver, iron, tin, and copper ores, the getting of which affords employment to hundreds of miners. In the next chapter I shall enter upon the consideration of the Silurian system.
(To be continued.)
MICROSCOPICAL JOTTINGS IN TOWN
THE foot of the fly will well repay our careful study; for the foot proper, as distinguished from the leg, is furnished with B most elaborate arrangement for enabling the creature to ascend vertical and polished surfaces, or even to walk with its body downwards in apparent opposition to the force of gravity. The arrangement by which this is brought about consists of a pair of expansions with which each foot is furnished: around the edges of these expansions, called pulvilli, are ranged rows of minute discs (only visible by the aid of a high power), which seem to act as " suckers." The foot must be mounted in balsam. The rules laid down for the proboscis will apply.
The common spider is an interesting object to the microscopist. There is the foot, with its serrated claws; the spinnerete situate at the posterior extremity of the body, aud usually six in number; the wonderful organs of vision—eight commonly, or six—either grouped together or ranged on the head, differing from the eye of the fly in being single; and last, but not least
the mouth, with its jaw and poison gland, may all be mounted in balsam.
Lepidoptera. —Wings mounted as opaque. Amongst common English species the Pohjrmnut us и lex i s and the peacock are, perhaps, the most suitable. They should be laid nicely on it slide with a shallow cell around them, which may be of card or thick paper, and covered with a thin glass square or circle. Scales from the wings are also very interesting as transparents for moderately high power. From the P. alexia, kindly given me by a friend who caught it near Howden, I have secured some very line battle dore scales that display their beaded markings beautifully under a fin. or Jin. Feet.—Some of these are very beautiful. Antenna, and Eyes.— The former are often very good, and may be mounted in balsam, and also as dry opaque*. Their respiratory system is simple and worth study. Honey Bees and Wasps.—The hinder leg and foot of the bee is most interesting. ТЫ stings of both bee and wasp are easily mounted, and are worthy careful observation. The wing nicely mounted dry is good. Caterpillars are interesting for their feet, their breathing pores or spiracles, and their respiratory tube or trachea. The creature may be dissected in water by aid of a small pair of scissors, and the organs, after being carefully washed, may be mounted in Html or in balsam. Amongst Vertebrata we .hate large field, and we cannot now do more than glance at a few of the more prominent objects, prick our fingers and we get blood—always ü interesting object. From the cow we may get milk and see its oil globules. From the epiderct of any vertebrated animal we have hair to momin balsam for polariscope or ordinary light. Hail', perhaps, requires more than a passing note. Take human hair; mount it in balsam after a good cleansing and a soaking in turpén tine, and then subject it to a thorough examination with iin. or ¡Sin. Its structure is briefly this :— Externally there are the imbricated flattened cells that form the cortical layers, next to this there is a peculiar fibrous substance forming the principal portion of the shift, diffused through which is the colouring matter, where that is present: and lastly, we have, in the centre of the hair, the medullary sub stance or pith. So that our readers will see that the hair-dresser's notion of the hair — that it is a quill—is wide of the truth, and that a truer similitude would be that of a twig or rush.
From a joint of meat we may obtain muscular fibre of great interest under a high power—sat. at least, a good Jin.—adipose or fatty tissue, bou, for sectiouizing, yellow and white connective tissue, &c.
From fishes we can get scales. A piece of eelskin in balsam affords a magnificent polariscope object; and a fragment of sole-skin affords an equally splendid opaque object for loto power, Scales may be mounted dry for ordinary iilnrui. nation, and in balsam for polariscope. Among*'. the most beautiful for the latter are sole, eel, fin d plaice.
Our readers will have noticed that I have ignored the existence of the vegetable kingdom. hitherto, although it has been in that kingdom that my work has hitherto been done. It is now too late to touch upon the matter further than to point out a few directions in which instruction and amusement may be found, and trust to tiin chances of life to afford me future occasion fut-, touching upon them in detail.
Pollen.—Easily obtained, and to be mountej dry in a cell just deep enough—that ot tli« compuertas of mallows and passion flowers an beautiful. The anthers may be mounted witi the pollen in situ for low power opaque. Stem. —Sections mounted dry, and in fluid, or balsam, for ordinary light or polariscope. Leaves ^sn tions of), also hairs and scales—all very interrÄ ing and easy of collection and mounting. Fire —Fronds in fructification as dry opaque" I bin a series of several dozens, and have not yet ne-aj/ exhausted the store. Many of mine though aï exotic.
I hav» now brought this rambling aud inr^ herent series to a close, and pending the appear anee of my papers on the microscope—if Í»1 should favour their publication—I will wish til editor and the readers of the Mechanic fares. j
H. P., Hull.