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well indeed without any shade of colour appearing. The planet Jupiter, would, 1 think, appear nearly the same size aa In the 4in. Gregorian, but then the defining power and brfghtnessof Gregoriansas compared with refractors Is stated by Dawes as 8: 5, that is the proportion of aperture, both telescopes being alike In brightness. As a light test, I am able with 75 to pick up the 7 mag. companion to Antares ; Warner with the finest instruments could only do so with 2}In. distant 3i*. I am also able to see two of Saturn's moons, and the ring very tine. When Venus was an evening star, I could observe her with the 150 power without the slightest traceof colour, and to those who know the difficult object she is in the telescope, that is a testimonial of the performance of tbe glass. The Messrs. Solomon supply the 3ln. gtsss separate by itself, price £2 lis., and any power eyepiece 14s. For the Information of all your readers, 1 hare found by trial during the last few weeks, that the sun had so many spots on bis disc that green and red glass combined made the best shade, much better thin either above. To those who have not not the" Nautical Almanace," to see tbe sidereal time time at noon, 1 may tell them that they can get it by applying the equation of time to tbo Sun'*.,IS. A., the reverse of that directed in the almanac pages.
[2216.]-DIRTY CEILING.—All common plaster is pervious to air, which, in passing through it, is, as it were, filtered from the dust which floats in it. Where most air passes most dust is left, and Bo those portions of a ceiling where the passage of air is not Impeded by joists, ic, collect most dust and are most discoloured. —J. B.
[2237.]—S ALE R A TU^.—" A carbonate of potass, containing a greater quantity of carbonic acid than pearl ash; used in cookery."—" Ogilvie, Imper. Diet."— H. B. M.
[J239.]-PROTRACTOR-The fault lies in the protractor, and not in •' R. W. R" A protractor, properly constructed, should have a mark, either on the upper or the lower edgo of the cross-piece; which, of course, depends on the construction of the Instrument, On his Instrument, the mark should be on the lower edge of thecross-piece; alsothemarkforl°, and that for l&/°, should be ia the same straight line with the ceutre mark, otherwise the protractor Is not properly divided. Any mathematical Instrument maker win put a centre mark on it for him.—Thomas: J. O'connor.
-SPEED OF AIR AND STEAM.-Tocalculate the velocity of air or steam rushing into a vacuum we must first find the height of a column of air or steam corresponding to the given pressure. Then from the rule fer falling bodies wo must obtain the speed due to that height, which will be the theoretical velocity of the gas ou vapour. When the steam issues from an orifice into the open air, we must deduct the pressure of the atmosphere from that of the steam and then find the height of a column of steam corresponding to the resulting pressure, and proceed as before For instance, the velocity of steam at 151b. pressure rushfnginto a vacuum, would bo same as that of steam of 301b. pressure rushing into the atmosphere — Machihator.
[2251.J-DISPENSING QUERY.-By filtering the mixture it can be made perfectly clear, not without — Guillaume.
[2258.]-EQUATIONS.-Mr. Williams will find a solution by •■ Senior Op." of too treble equation in last number. The following solutions of his other equitions are suggested:
x = a, y = 6 evidently satisfy (1), and by trial they ore found to The other pair thus:
(a + h) x + Ifi - h) •?/ = c (6 + k) x + (a - k) y = c Subtracting
(a + h-b-k)x + (b-h-a + l:)r,-o Dividing by the coefficient of x and x - y - o .'.*• = y
Substituting x for y in either equation, we get c
x = =c y
a + b
[2262.]—RHUMKORFF'SCOIL.-I cannot do better than refer "T. J. O C." to "T. S. C.'s" reply to
Nemo," p. 44. Rhumlorff was simply the originator of the Induction coil, by making one with very perfect Insulation, which the application afterwards of the condenser converted into the now common Instrument —sigma.
[2262.J-RHUMKORFS COIL.-Havingprovldeda bobbin of paper, wood, or vulcanite, with (by preference) vulcanite ends, drill two holes In one of the ends each about Jin. diameter, and at a short distance from the centre. These should be In a line with the horizontal diameter of the bobbin tube. In the opposite
end drill a small hole—say —in. diameter at a
16 rather greater distance from the tube than the others, but this time over the tube. Next take your primary wire and pass one of the ends through one of the first-named boles, and wind it over the tube in a close spiral quite up to the other end, continuing to wind it back again over the first layer to the end at which you first commenced, and passing the other end of th? wire out through the remaining large hole firstmentioned. When this primary coll is completed, give two or three ooata of shellac dissolved in methylated spirits, and allow it to dry thoroughly. Next take a strip of cartridge paper the exact width of the bobbin between the ends, and wind it on tightly until
you have formed a strong tube at least —in. thick,
16 and then 'thoroughly cool, with the shellac several times, and allow it to dry. To shutout all communication between the primary and secondary coils, it will be a-i well to secure the edges of the paper to the vulcanite ends by means of several thicknes.es of gutta percha tissue cemented by a hot knife, as tbe insulation is all important, T.his done, take the secondary wire and test it on the ree by means of a galvanometer, and if the needle shows that the wire Is unbroken, you may take one end, and, passing it through the small hole before-mentioned, commence winding it on carefully and closely to nearly the other end. When one row is finished, carefully varnish it with the shellac and spirit three or four timos, and allow It to dry thoroughly, then wrap round several thicknesses of gutta percha tissue, and one thickness of paper soaked either in the aforesaid shellac mixture.or a warm mixture of guttapercha, benzole, and paraffin. You can then| proceed with the next row, and so on, till you have filled your reel and bobbin to the edge, or nearly so. The one great thing to guard is the Insulation, and of that it is better to nave too much than too little.—T. S. Conirbee.
-WORK ON ELECTRTCITY.-I would recommend the work on clestrlclty published by Messrs. W. and R. Chambers, Paternoster-row, price, I think, about 6s., as a very good and comprehensive work on electricity, both theoretical aud practical.— T. S. Conirbee.
-ELECTRTCAL BOOKS.—"S. T. P." might get Dyer's "Induction Coil," price Is., er Nosd's " Inductorium." Ss., I think, on that special subject. For general details In electricity. "The Student's Text Book," though a rather slip-slop compilation, is a useful book at 12s. Gil.; but for simplicity and scientific accuracy there Is no work superior in a small way to Ferguson's "Klectrlclty," at ss. ed., but it does not go fully into anv branch.—Sigma.
—POLES OF MAGNETS.—"H.'s" question arises from a common misapprehension. The poles are not the points of strongest action merely, but tbe points at which are united the actions of the half magnet as a whole, and from which the relations of the force to distance are to be considered; they bear thus a sort of analogy to the ceutre of gravity of a body j which Is net necessarily the heaviest part: form and arrangement Influence the position, as also does the presence of another magnet. The points of maximum attraction are at the extremities, because each section of tbe magnet hasits own power, and transmits It to that beyond; but tbe action on a body separated from It will vary according to Its distance, not from the extremity, but from the pole, which explains the by no means quite clear law of the square of the di -tance. Thus, at ltn., the force may bo very much greater than one-fourth that at iln.. and If the pole were lln. within the magnet, the body would have to be removed to Sin. to reduce the force to one-fourth that at .Jin. distance.—Sigma.
[2272 ] — GALVANOMETER FOR INDUCED CURRENTS.—An ordinary fine wire instrument, well Insulated, will do, but It must be used differently from u'u.-il. as the induced current is Instantaneous only, and attended with a reverse current at each contact; hence only the utmost swing of the needle produced by n single makeor break of contact can be used, and as the intensity and not quantity is the characteristic of these currents, to get any valuable information would require a series of resistances as well as a galvanometer. Of course, if great care be not taken In the Insulation of the Instruments while making, they would be apt to be destroyed by a spark of high tension.—Sigma.
[2283.] —PAINTING THEATRICAL SCENES.— "II. N. H." asks how to paint theatrical scene* on coarse calico with water colours. The thing Is easy enough. The calico must be stretched on a frame, and coated once with clean size. When it Is dry, the scene must be sketched with a soft crayon or blarklead peucll. The colours to be used are all earths, and they can be obtained at any oil and colour shop. They must be mixed with warm size, and, when first put on the canvas, should appear much darker than the tint that is required. Different from painting in oil, the first coat of colour must bo tbe final one; the size will then not peel off when the canvas Is rolled up. No varnish is required.—Hippahchds.
[22S4]-MEDICAL COIL.-Of course the screws belonging to the primary and secondary circuits should be marked when the coil Is made, though their positions will serve as a guide. The primary screws should be near tbe contact-breaking arrangement, and the secondary screws for receiving the handles at the other end.—Sigma.
[22880—CH ARCOAL forrnbblng down silver circles may bo obtained at most of the good tool shops; It should be carefully tried first on an old plate; to prevent the risk of scratching good new work. —EnGB \v>:!E,
[229I.]-ENGRAVING ON METAL.-The point Is used for tracing; the outline, the scraper for removing the rough burr made by the graver. I really do not know any rule for tempering the graver ; metals vary so much in toughness and hardness that practice alone Is the sure guide.—Engraver.
[22960-MONOGRAM DIE.-If a copper counterpart be necessary, take a cost and copper it by the electro process. To touch up any imperfections, a graver and a seal engraver's lathe are the tools.—EnGraver.
[22990-GENKRATION OF ELEOTRICITY.-I can scarcely give "Lancashire Lad" the Information he asks, not being sufficiently acquainted with the arrangement of the machinery. 1 suspect that the threads must rub against some dry surface of wood, or other insulating substance, or, possibly, guttapercha belting is u«ed, and work\on a wooden pulley. The beBt suggestion I can give is to fix pointed wires near to the parts at which sparks are apt to be given off, and as close as possible, and connect them to the nearest gas and water pipes. One wire will serve to connect many points. If gutta-percha is used present a comb of points thns In it at the part at which it leaves the pulleys. Will the querist, if he tries this, sayif it succeeds?—Sicma.
-POLISHING SCOTCH PEBBLES.-Lapidary mills, Ac., on a small scale, for amateurs, may be had In and about Clerkenwcll, elt her new or secondhand. Advertise in the English Mechanic, or consult Vols. VIII., IX., and X., for directions how to make the tools. — Kngravbr.
[2309.]-ETCrirNG ON GLASS has been so frequently described in the Enolish Mechanic that I should not like to occupy valuable space with it; besides, it is an unhealthy business. Draw your design as you would on metal,and give tbe plate to a professed dipper, who will use the hydrofluoric ncid Instead of the fluor spar. But after all, the effects are not to be compared to those produced by tbe diamond poiut, or .the engraving lathe.—Enoraver.
[SS12]-HISTORY OF IRELAND.-" History of Ireland, from tbe Earliest Times to its Last Chief," by Thomas Moore, 4 vols, 8vo, 24s., is contained in Lardner's "Cyclopaedia."—Pater.
[23I8.]-ErHERIAL SOLUTION OF GOLD — B. S. Burden could get this prepared by any chemist, as druggists ara usuallv called; or prepare it by dissolving chloride of gold In ether. The chloride he would obtain of any photographic apparatus dealer, or make by dissolving gold in aqua regia, or hydrochlorio and nitric acids, evaporating to perfect dryness and redlssolvlng In water, and again evaporating till ail the water is driven off.—Sigma.
[2323J-WATER POWER-If "G. P." can dam up the stream of 200 cubio feet per minute, so as to obtain 8ft. clear fall, tbe power obtained will be 3 h.p.; and deducting one-third for friction and loss, there will remain a useful poweref 2 h.p—C. 8.
[2333.]- BRILL ANTINE. — fllrcerlne, loz.: oil o1 almonds, 2oz.; oil of jasamln, loz.; mix, and shake well.-W. C.
[2348J-ELKCTROTYPE.-If "E. R. H's" objects are sufficiently larro he wonld got a better result by using hollow moulds and depositing within them, but this might bo very troublesome, as the moulds might have to be made in several parts In order to remove them from the model: moderately small objects may bo thus copied by careful arrangement ot pieces of copper within tho mould, but of course not in contact with it.—Sigma.
[2352.]—OVALS.—The best directions I ever met with for describing ovoid figures are contained in a work by D. R. Hay, "On Symmetrical Beanty," 8vr>., Blackwood and Co., 6s.. to whoso writings I acknowledge my great indebtedness. Illustrated directions for drawing ovals have been given repeatedly in the English Mechanic. Why does not every subscriber purchase the Indexes to back volumes ?—Engraver.
[2356.]—GOLD.-" Rudis" may use either of tbe following processes to recover his gold :—First mtx about loz. of mercury (common quicksilver) with the mlxture^and well shake for some time; allow It to settle, remove tho sand and drive off the mercury by heat In a crucible; the gold will be left behind. Or he may add a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, boll the whole till the gold has entirely disappeared, and allow the whole to stand; he will then have a solution of chloride of gold, which can be poured off, leaving the sand as a sediment. By mixing the solution with water and mixing with a solution of sulphate of Iron, the gold will be recovered in the metallic state as an impalpable power, which, from its fineness, will appear as a fine chocolate brown. The latter way, although very troublesome, will yield the gold chemically pure.—T. 8. Conisbee.
NOTES AND QUERIES.
[2360.]—ALUM.—Will someone kindly afford me some information on the extraction of alum from alum shale—tbe said shale being a parting of one of our Yorkshire beds of coal? 1 know It to be rich In alum, but am Ignorant as to the method of extraction. —Tuebor.
[2361,]-SOFT SOAP MAKING—In 1441 ■• Tbaekeley Lad" gives a recipe: 101b. or potash In warm water over night, in the morning boil it, adding 61b. of grease, then 15 gallons of warm water. I used the best tallow and have failed in aoap making, so If "Thackelcy Lad " er any other reader will give more information It will be thankfully received.—A ConStant Rkadkr.
[2362.1-METALLURGY OF COPPER.—Mr Joseph Roskell's articles on the metallurgy of copper Interested me much. Is there in London any metallurgy establishment where I should be admitted to assist at the operations he has so well described ?— E. V. D. S.
[2363.]—SILVERING CLOCK DIALS. — I know there have been many recipes given for silvering brass, some I have tried, but Ineffectually. Surely some of our London or Birmingham readers could give me a cheap and simple recipe that I should succeed with. It is waste of time, money, and patience to keep trying recipes ond fail—Poor C'lockjohber. [Has it ever occurred to " Poor Clockjobber" that possibly tbe fault might not be in tho recipe, but in the way he applied it ?—Ed. E. M]
[2364.] —TIME. — In the article on "Time," by "F.RA.S," No. 260. p. 648, Vol. X., he says If wo bisect the interval S S' thus measured on our meridian line atE.wesball only have to wait until the shadow of the topof our rod G just touches this point E of bisection to ascertain the days of the two Equinoxes, because, to cast a shadow of this precise length, the sun must be on the equator. It is not so, for the shadow of the rod G at the days of the Equinoxes does not cover half of the above-measured meridian line. Will "F.RA.S."explain this?—W. F. Swallow.
[2365.]-GREASE.—Will "Patience and Perseverance " be kind enough to exploln more fully what is meant by caustic or milk lime, and how made, and what quantity he would use of one to the other, as I have tried many ways, but failed to make the grease hard enough? I find the recipe on p. 580, VoL X, Feb. 25.—A Long Looker.
[2306.]—COrPER BOILER. —I purpose having a
small boiler m»do oat of sheet copper —in. thick, it
32 has to be 2ft. Ion? and lft. diameter. Will some of my brother readers kindly Inform mo as to what pressure It will be safe to work it, and what power it will drive? —Caution.
[3367.]—ANILINE COLOURS FADING.—I wish to colour the windows in my stock room to prevent goods which are made from cotton and woollen varns dyed with aniline colours, fading. Can any brother reader say from practical experience which Is the best colour for the purpose? It must be rather transparent, allowing a moderate amount of light to pass through — W. H. F.
[2368.J-CUTTING AND POLISHING STONE*.If vou or any or your numerous readers could give a description of the process from first to last, I think jt would be greatly beneficial to many of our lapidist friends—it would be to me, at least.—Lapidist.
[23B90-COLLEGEOFPRECKPTORS.—Will someone eire me some information respecting- the College of Preceptors?—when was it established? what are It objects ? and how can auyone become a member?— . S. Kent.
[2370.]—UNSOLVED PROBLEMS. — Would the author of " Unsolved Problems" kindly assist mo iu tbe follow!ng?-If the pljton rod of a steam engine, say l-borse power, was suitably connected to tho rim of the fly-wheel, what saving of power would result? Would It Increase the power of the engine? I have Invested the means of doing so; have made a rough model in wood of a horizontal engine about 4in. to lft., and it works very smoothly by pressure of the hand on piston rod; it appears to me to be equal to a crank of half tbe diameter of wheel of a stationary engine—J. Bannell.
[2371 ]—HEATING OF JOURNALS.-I'am very much annoyed wich a boll (or double) crank and other Journals heating, although lubricated with the best sperm oil. Is there anything which I can apply to keep them cold, or cool them whilst running, without hiving to Btop the engines to do so ?—Relwot.
P07S ]-WIND INSTRUMENTS.—Can any of your numerous correspondents enlighten me in tbe theory of making wind instruments, such as fifes, &e? What rules have they for the places, and sizes of tbe holes fur the finger and keys .'—Sigihmo.ii>.
[2373.]—STENCILLING ON GLASS—I shall feel
much ob llged by instructions as to the best method to
be pursued for stencilling large numbers of sheets of
glass about 18in. by Sin., with explanation of the boat
kind of utensils, *c.; also the address of a maker who
supplies the necessary apparatus and tools for the
above process, aud who supplies the stone and metal
■wheels used for putting patterns or Hoes on glass.
Does any correspondent know the process used In
Germany for the manufacture of paper table napkins,
toilet covers, and cloths? It is not an ordinary paper
mill, as the material Is so treated that it can be rolled
out either by Itself or on to linen, aud Is, when dry,
quite tough. Any information I ahull be glad of.—
S. D. T., 6, Mildmay Park, N.
[2374J-BREWING.—Where can I get a good treatise ou brewing ?—New Subscriber.
r23,-5.]-LIFriNG SACKS.—I shall feel greatly obliged to any of your readers or correspondents who will give me a practical idea for enabling sacks of corn to be lifted from the ground to a height of .it or 4ft. by one man's labour. In tbe course of the year we hare to move from our barn floor into a cart or waggon aome seven or eight hundred sacks, and I wish to do tbis with two men only—one to lift the sacks, and one In the cart. Our present mode Is to back tho cart to the barn door, and then for the men to life the sack by main force into the cart to the third man. But I imagine 6omu simple mechaulcal contrivance would enable one man to do this. At lirst 1 thought of fixing a pulley to the beam above the barn door, aud running i a rope through by which to hoist the sneks. but as the sacks weigh 25'lb., and a man about 1701b., it would obviously require a system of pulleys to effect the required lift. It has also occurred to me that an Inclined plane from the barn floor to the cart might be made effectual, but as I am not mechanic enough to carry this out, I think it belter to state my difficulty, and trust to the Ingenuity of your correspondents to offer a solution. Economy, both of labour and material, is indispensably necessary.—Rusticus.
[2378.]-GEOMETRY. — Represent three planes, each perpendicular to the other two, when two of them are inclined at 60° to 70° to the paper. Show tbe inclination of the third plane-A Teacher.
POT.]-G0VBRNORS.—Which governor for eontrolliugenglncs may be rilled on as tbe most sensitive? —Claude.
[SJ78.J-SILVER FROM LEAD.-WIll any reader give some information about the extracting of silver from lead, more particularly as regards the cupellation, and what Is the best kind of furnace? I understand the meltinir of the lead, but not tbe cupellation of It — Silver Our..
[W7».)-CLAItl<iNET._wlll Dr. Usshcr or some other correspondent that possesses a clarionet kindly give me information on the following points in au instrument In the most useful key for use, 6ay, with the pianoforte?-!. The exact length and inside diameter ol each joint. Including the bell, of which latter I require the length and diameter of each end? <|hl», of course, must not ioclude the parts with the thread rouud, us they, obviously, do not contribute to tho length.) 2. The exact distance from the extremity of the reed to each finger hole? 3 The number of keys necessary, aud the position of all except those which are between the linger holes, of which I only require the names, unless he is able and willing to supply these also which would, perhaps, be as well .' —reed Fancies.
v.,(r2^i^.F0U0AUL'I"S MERCURIAL CONTACT IMthAKK". FOR RHUMKORF COILS. - Will someone describe the above, and also state whether er not It possesses any advantages over the vibrutiu" contact breaker ?-U. S."
[2381.]—COMPOSITION FOR RUNNING IRON WORK INTO STONE.-WI1I someone explain what the above substitute for lead is made of ?—R S.
[2182.]-STARTING VALVE.—Can auv reader give a drawing and short description of a starting v»lv> for a model horizontal engine with oscillating cylinder?—A. W. T.
(2383] — INSULATING POWER OF GUTTA PKRCHA.—Can anyone inform mo what is the Insulating power of gutta percha compared with air? -S. T. P.
[2384.J-WORK ON ELECTRICITY—Will someone *f your readers (perhaps "Sigma ") be so good as to recommend mo a good modern work on electrl'ity (giving price) describing tho theory of tho Induction coll? If not In English, a work In Gorman or French would suit.—S. T. P.
[23S5.]-HARMONIUM TONGUE-RIVETS.—Can some of our provincial friends state where these said rivets can be procured? Application has been made to several houses In the metropolis to know if they can supply tbem, but the reply is no. You may purchase any amount of tongues, but not rivets in London. -I. H.
[23S6.]—TUNING HARMONIUM REEDS. —lam very glad to see the renewal of Mr. Hermann Smith's
Capers on harmoniums, and will be obliged to him if e will state whether in tuning harmonium reeds the action has to be opened and shut every time a reed is scraped ? Is there no other method of trying whether they are in luue ?—Vibrator.
[23B7.]-SHOWER BATH.-Could any subscriber Inform me how to make a shower bath at a trifling oxpense, as I cannot afford to buy one?—T. A.
[2388.]- UNANSWERED QUERY.-Will some kind friend favour me by describing- the material used In solution to deposit a blue snd red surface on tinsel plate or flattened wire—such as Is used for fire stove ornaments, and by fishing tackle makers, and If It Is deposited by a battery, and If used hot or cold ?—InQuiring Workman.
[2389.]-VARNISHING GILT MOULDINGS.-I have heard that there is a process or means of varnishing gilt mouldings so as to prevent the gilt from rubbing off when cloauod or dusted; if such be the case. I shall feel extremely obliged to any of your numerous intelligent correspondents for information on the subject.— Desideratum.
[239o.]_iNDUCTION COIL.—Will some brother reader kindly tell me what battery power 1 can sately use with a coll of the following dimensions?—Primary wire, Mf'„, wound on in four layers; secondary wire, 3168ft., wound oniu thirteen layers? The large wire weighs lib., and the small (No. 39), Jib. —Thomas J. O'connor.
[2391.]-GA8 STOVE.—Would "J. B.." or any reader of our valuable paper, kindly tell me the boat form of gas stove and burner for heating the water to nearly boiling in a coll of Jin. Iron pipe .Ifift. long, and the time It would take to heat tho water ?—Robt.
[2392.1—WRITING ON GLASS.—Would any of our scientific contributors oblige by giving the process for embossing the name. &c, on glass bottles—such as you see on publicans' bottles In the form of a lable, the letters being dear, and the ground embossed .'-Jr. NP. Sai Pas.
[2293.]—NICOTINE.-I should be glad If someone could Inform me If there Is any non-poisonous liquor that will absorb nicotine.—Mauks.
[239i.]-WLNDMILL.—Would Mr. H. Algar be kind enough to explain the plan (described on p 560, Vol. X.) he has for regulating the mill In accordance with tho power of the wind, and if the sails be wood or sheet iron, and what length the arms would require to be to have power to drive a thrashing machine?— C. C. J.
[2395.]—CANARY CAGE.-Can any correspondent inform me how to give tho wire of a cage a silvery appearance ?—Aviary.
[2398)-CH AMBER MUSIC—As wo cut the leaves of the Mechanic and stitch It tor dad's perusal, we always get a peep at tho contents, Bnd are much pleased with the drawing- len-ous now publishing. We should bo thankful if Dr. Ussher, the " Harmonious Blacksmith," or any of your musical readers would recommend some good trios for violin, English concertina, and cello. Also a few slow movements as quartette for the piano, aud the above-named instruments.—Ophelia And Alma.
[2397.]- HARMONIUM. - I have an excellent harmonium by Alexandre, with two rows of vibrators —one of 8ft., tbe other 16ft.. it has this defect, viz., when I pull out the stop grandjeu, the wind seems to run, and It Is with difficulty I can sufficiently supply It, even by hard blowing, otherwise It is iu excellent order. Will some kind subscriber point out the cause, and how to remedy the defect ?—J. H. C.
[23980-UOOK-KEEPING.—Will someone tell me of a good treatise on book-keeping suitable for a manufacturing concern—such as au Iron works ?—T. W.
[2399.J-DIE FROM MEDAL.—I have a beautifullyworked medal. What would be the best way to make a die, or stamp tho same pattern, and what Is tho best material ?—Medal.
[2400.J-CLE.VNING BLUE TILES—Wouldanyof your readers kindly tell me the best way to clean blue Staffordshire brioks from lime which has fallen upon them la white-washing? Perhaps you coald suggest some method either by a cheap acid, or otherwise.— E. 1). B.
[2401.]-BREAKING WEIGHT OF OAK BEAM. — Allow me to ask Robert Plckwell the method of finding the strain and breaking weight of an oak or any ether wood beam—say of tho following dimensions: 18ft. long and 121n. square, supported at each end?—John Kvle.
[2402.J-ELECTKIC BELL AND BATTERIEfi.Vtlll Mr. W. H. Stoue, who has lately gtvesi us a description of the manganese battery, answer me] a few questions concerning it? In the first place, then, how many cells should be required to riti - a bell that rings well with two-plut Sniee oella? I havj tried It with eight Miuotto'a cells, and It would nutrlnj at all.
1 then tried one three-pint cell of tbe manganese battery and that also took no effect. Will W. II. s tell me the number of colls I should require to make It equivalent to two cells of Smee, and what Is tbe best size wire to use in the construction of bells? Any information I shall bo glad of—A. Spencer.
[2403.]—FLUXES.—Will .Mr. Roskell or Mr. Davis kindly Inform me where to obtain fluor spar, and can It beobalued In a powdered state? Also what Is white argol, as 1 cannot find in Park's " Treatise on Chemistry," any'meutieu of it? I presume it to be a mineral substance to be used as a flux.—Dorset.
[2404.]— TELESCOPE QUERIES. — Would Mr. Blv-cklock kindly say If he can use a power of 500 or 61X1—which his 6ain. speculum ought to bear uader favourable circumstances—without screw motion In szimuth? Mr. Peters would also oblige very much by a description of his fine screw motion in azimuth. I am thinking about setting up a reflector, and like the plans of both the above gentlemen, especially Mr. Peters'—chiefly through his stand having screw motions In each direction. Have any of your readers compered or tested Mr. Purklss's specula against Mr. Willi's? The prices of tbe former are so gloriously low compared with the latter, that I hardly dare hope for results so good as those obtained from the With Browning specula.—C. S.
r2405.J — MANGANESE BATTERY. — TO MR STONE.—I duly appreciate the valuable service Mr. Stone has rendered to your readers iu bringing the manganese battery so comprehensively before them. I am sorry he should feel It necessary to deprecate the information I have given, but my object in doing so was to describe a cell which acted so perfectly. 1 use uncovered copper wire (No. 17 gauge) insulated at the supports through a piece of india-rubber piping, and tbe thickness of the wire is, I am told, rather a disadvantage. I have, since Mr. Stone's last communication, fitted up a quart cell according to the dimensions be there gives, but I exceeded his estimate of 2s. 8d. for a quart cell, as I had to buy binding screw and platinum foil. This sized coll works my bell very well, but tbe ring Is not quite so powerful. I intend to use tho cells alternately—a week each. Will Mr. Stone kindly say whether they will gain much lu power by this interval of rest? I should also feel obliged If Mr. Stone would Btato how the binding screws aud platinum can bo dispensed with, as they form no Inconsiderable item in fitting up three or four oells.— E. II. B.
[2400.]-MANGANESE BATTERIES.—I am about to construct some manganese batteries, but before commencing, would like to know what surfaceof zinc should be exposed to the carbon, so as to obtain tho greatest power? Of course tho more zinc the longer It will last but Is there any method of getting at the
froper proportion that should be exposed of each, also thought of constructing a single fluid battery of carbon and zinc, to be charged with a saturated solution of salt and water. Has such a battery been tried, if so, what are its merits? Will "Sigma" kindly answer the above ?—E. C. Murray.
[2407.]—COLOURS.—Could any fellow reader inform me of a book showing how to obtain different shades of colours from chemical dyes—as fustic, prusslate, potash, &o. ?—Mordant,
[2408.]—METRONOME.—Would some reader give illustrations and description of a dock metronome ?— Metronome.
[2409.] —MENDING TORTOISESHELL. — Will someone explain tho process of mending tortjlseshell ornaments?—A. S. C.
[2410.]—PEDAL PIPES.—I am building a chamber organ (6 stops), the stopped diapason w the only one I am carrying through, the others only extending to t*uor C. As I intend having a separate pedal organ, would any of your readers Inform me what scale of pipes they would advise for the pedals—whether a bourdon or a 4ft. stopped (large scale), or a principal? Perhaps " An Adept" would kindly answer my query. The organ is to be more particularly for lugue playing, to contain the following seeps:—Open diapason, 42 notes; stopped diapason. 54: iliilcianj, 42; principal, 42; twelfth. 42 ; fifteenth, 42—Geo. at Little.
r24.ll.]—GRINDING LENSES.-Wlll any kind reader inform me where I can buy tho gauges and counter-gauges used In grinding the louses of microscope objective?—Hipparchus.
r2412.]-MANGANE3E BATTERY.—Will Mr. A. J. Jarman, of Ramsgate, oblige with a;descriptlon of bis maugaueso battery. Its construction and arrangements, lu our next number, for a fellow-subscriber ?— Electro.
 —DOMESTIC TELEGRAPH.— Will some practical reader answer query 2099, p. 601, of the last volume ?—J. O.
[2414.]- ALGEBRAIC EQUATION.—Whatare those two numbers whoso difference is 2, and product multiplied by their sum is 12? Please work out at length. —Pateii.
—SARSAFARILLA—Could any reader Inform me how I could make a decoction of sarsaparilla? I want to make it so that it shall be strong enough so as not to use more than one or two tablespoonfuls iu a wineglass of water.—Sarsaparilla.
[2416.] —ADHESIVE MATERIAL. —Would any reader inform mo what is the best adhesive material for affixing ordinary paper labels on brown paper parcels, how It Is made, what It Is made of ?—Bkta.
[2117.]-FERNS.-Will any reader Inform me how to construct a fern case, medium size, and the best speoles of ferns to stock tt with? 1 do not want costly ones. A few hints ou their cultivation would bo very welcome.—Ignorant.
 -OXFORD AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITION.—Can any reader inform rao what class of implements will contest for the prizes at the Agricultural Society's meeting at Oxford?—Geo. Holdon.
[3419.]—GALVANIC BATTERY.-Is It necessary to amalgamate zlno wire for a salt-water battery? If so, which is tho beat way to put the mercury on ?— Voltaic.
[M2').]-SPRING BOW—Can I weaken the spring of a spruig-bowwithout mi king tt thinner? It caunot be mode, loagor, bolus In one pieee.—Voltaic.
[2421.] — MEDICAL WORKS.— Can any brother readerinfbrm me of the publishers' namesundaddresBes of the following books :—•'Cu'pepper's Translation of the London Dispensatory;" Culpepper's "Ephemerls," 1641; and Galon's "Art of Physio" fherbal works); or where they can be obtained?—GeoRgf. Gregory.
[2422.]—MORTISING.—Can any fellow-subscriber inform tae how to make a machine for mortising small stocks of wheels ?—Subscriber.
[2423.]—AQDARIUM EXPERIENCE.—Will water, in passing through about oft. of gutta-percha tubing from a reservoir to an aquarium, be impregnated with anything at all injurious to the health of the fish or other inhabitants thereof? Where can I procure, in a small quantity, cement (what name?) suitable for sticking artificial rock-work together, and capable of withstanding the action of the water ?—Gh As. Aubrey.
[2424.]-MICROSCOFICAL.—What are the advantages' offered by the Quckctt Club to persons so situated as to time and circumstances as to render attendance at their meetings Impossible? Where is "Cox's gelatine" to be procured? Will isinglass answer the purpose (preserving microscopic objects) equally well?—J. Cherry.
[2425.]—TO F.R.A.S.— Will you kindly supplement your interesting articles on "Time" by saying what is the right way of calculating Greenwich mean time from local sidereal time (and vice versa) it a place not on the meridian of Greenwich—for example, in Smin. 7see. West long.? In the " Nautical Almanac" the "explanation" on p. ii. says that if the place be not on G meridian, the side real.'time must be" corrected by the addition of 9 8565sec. for each hour of long., If to the west;" that is to say by the addition of l'33aec in the supposed long, of 8min. 7sec, but the result seems not correct.—Not A F.R.A.8.
[2426.]-UNANSWERED QUERY.—PIG IRON.Coulil some resder of your valuable and widely-circulated journal tell me the reason why pig iron that has been stocked some six, nine, or twelve months' exposed to atmospheric influences, almost invariably works better in every respect in the forges, and its products In the mills are more satisfactory than iron that Is newly made at the blast furnaces? —An Iron Worker,
[2427.1 — VARNISHING CASTINGS. — Will any reader kiudly inform me of some method of varnishing (blaok) small castings to make them perfectly smooth, so that dust and small librcs will not adhere to them? -W. II. B.
[2428.J—HORSEHAIR AND FEATHERS.—Conld any reader iuform me how horsehair is cured and curled ?—also how feaiher are steamed and purified? Any information will be kiudly received.—An Old Sub.
[2429.]—PROTECTING WOOD AND IRON FROM STEAM.—Will you permit me to ask some of your correspondents how to protect the surface of cast or wrought iron so as to withstand the heat of steam, and not be affected by grease or moisture? A substance similar to that used for lining saucepans. Sec, would answer well if it can be readily applied to large surfaces ?—Thomas Baxter.
r2430.]-TO MR. GEORGE BATES.—I Bhonld be much obliged to Mr. George Bates, agent for Hopkinaon's valve, if he would give me the rule by which the calculation is made as regards loading the valves, one valve being smaller than the other, aud one being without a lever aud likewise the float; what weight it would take to lilt the small valve at a pressure ofjsay, 251b. to the square Inch? I should like to correspona alittle more with Mr. Bates on the mechanical improvement he sees in bis daily travels (through the medium of the Mechanic), which will benefit me and others also to insert his address. His last information corresponded exactly with my views on the compound safety valve.—A. F., Leamside.
p431.]-WEDGWOOD.PLAQUES.-Where can I procure the above, of small medallion size for.eulaying, and about what would be the cost?—K. S.
—STONE CARVING ON SCULPTURE.— Would someone of experience tell me a little about the tools aud mode of procedure, and working? I can work at wood carving.—F. 8.
[H433.]-KEYLESS WATCH BUTTONS. — Will some reader tell me how the gold is put on the iron or steel in the buttons of keyless watches ?—J. Holt.
[2434.]—MEASURING LABOURER'S WORK.— Will any brother reader inform me how to measure land, &c—such as Is required upon a farm—as I wish to be able to measure the work done by the labourer? —A Youno Farmer.
[2435.]—PROJECTION.—I will be obliged if Mr Quilosa or any other subscriber will give an explanation of the following problem :—A cube of lln. edge is to be represented by its plan and elevation when the planes of two faces are inclined at 50° and
70" to H. P.—T. I'ORNFORTH.
[24S6.]-TO "F.R. A.8."-I am much obliged to onr learned friend ■' F. R. A.S." for his courteous reply, but regret that my letter was not fully understood. 1 stated that I proposed grind in an object glass of 18rt. Sin. focal, and that the gloss I intended using would require the crown lens to bo 6ft. 10m. focal length to correct the chromatic aberrati '•-. I know for certain this will do it, so that the focal lengths are settled. But what I wish to know is. what would be the best curves to correct the spheiloal alteration, the outer curve of the crown, and the inner curve, also the outer and Inner curve of the flint leus? I know that our learned Irlend could do this in a few lines. I should like to grind them according to bis formula, if he will favour me with one—Neptune.
USEFUL AND SCIENTIFIC NOTES.
The Imperial Academy of 8cicnce, Agriculture and Art. of Lille, offers two prices of a thousand francs each; one for the bust work on some branch of experimental physics, the other for the best work on the use of the thermometer In medicine.
THE GULF STREAM. — Professor Maury has recently delivered a lecture in New York on the Gulf stream, which shows that he does not share the scepticism which has arisen concerning it. He declares that It is in volume nearly equal to thegreatequatorial current Itself, and 1000 times larger than the Mississippi river; that it moves across the Atlantic on the tract of a great circle of the earth, and in obedience to its diurnai rotations; that it unites with the waters of the Mlssissipl beyond the Bahamas. With touching enthusiasm he compared the Gulf Stream to the Milky Way, because its warmer water was sought by myriads of phosphorescent insects, which make It sparkle and glow like a Ben of fire.
THE PANNIER RAILWAY 8YSTEM.—A new arrangement for railways will shortly come before the public under the title of the Pannier system. A single row of piles carries sfcontinuous g'rde'r on, which the train runs, the carriages hanging down on each side to within a short distance of the ground. The carriages are so arranged that inequality of weight on one side to the extent of a ton will not affect the action. The small quantity of land required, cheapness of construction, aud speed are advantages claimed for it. Mr. Samuel, C.E., has taken the invention iu hand, and we shall doubtless soon hear more of it.
THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY' has commenced its session for the delivery of popular scientific lectures. Some of last year's courses, were of the deepest interest. Mr. Huggins has already given one of the present course of lectures "On Recent Solar and Stellar Discoveries." Amongst others it is announced that Dr. R. M'Donnell will give a lecture "On Phosphorescence and Fluorescence;" Proressor Hull, "On the Coal-fields of Great Britain ;" Dr. Wyville Thomson, "On the Deep-sea Soundings during the Cruise of the Porcupine;" Dr. Humphrey Minchln, "On Some interesting Phenomena of Sound;'* and Dr. J. Emerson Reynolds, " On Ozone, its Nature, Properties, and Uses."
DIAMONDS.—Professor Tyndall has just succeeded in igniting a diamond in oxygen by the concentrated rays of the electric light. He has no doubt of his ability to ignite it by the purely Invisible rays from the same source. It is interesting to kuow that a new locality for diamonds is reported by Hcrr Gustav Rose, of Berlin, which may be considered the first in Europe, if the western slope of the Ural is placed out of the question. The stone referred to was found in the granite quarries of Count Schonborn In Bohemia, and has been unquestionably Identified as a diamond, bsth by the combustion of a splinter into pure carbonic acid, and by its physical and miueralogieal profierties. Its weight is 57 milligrammes; it Is cubical is shape, and is of light yellowoolour, and is probably not the only one to be discovered. Prof. Wohler, of Gottiogen, has also discovered minute diamonds in a piece of platinum from Oregon.
SUGAR FROM BEET-ROOT.-Now let trs see (keeping as clear as possible from technical terms) what happens to the beet-root when it is brought to the factory. The usual plan of operation is to wash the roots well, so as to free them from clay and dirt, aud theR to place them within the clutches of circular saws making over 1000 revolutions a minute, by which they are torn to pieces and reduced to pulp. This latter it then packed In linen bags, and subJecteM to the action of an hydraulic press, by which the juice is all squeezed out, and the pulp becomes a cake This not only forms the beet-bread so valuable for feeding purposes, but, if not required for that purpose, can also be used for making brandy and vinegar; or what is still more remarkable—paper, it being found by paper manufacturers to be superior to rag pulp. So that whatever taay be the defects In the beet pro
ces-, Incapability of utilisation Is not one of them.
SOLID BEER.—The age produces some queer paradoxes, and none more so than In the results of manufacturing science. In former days It was the custom to buy bread and even beef by the yard; but we believe that It is only in the present day that we can get onr beer by the pound. By a very simple process, introduced by Mr. Mertens, the wort, after being made in the mash-tub of malt ana bops In the usual mauner, Is Bucked up by a pipe Into a large vacuum (exhausted by an air-pump) and then persistently worked round and round, while the moisture is evaporated. The wort emerges from Its tribulations with a pasty consistence, and is allowed to fall from a considerable height into air-tight boxes, in which it reposes, like hard-bake. It soon gets Bo exceedingly tough thatithas to be broken up with a chisel and mallet, and In that condition is easily sent abroad, or to any part of the world, for people to brew their own malt liquor. We have had the wort subjectod to analysit.the results of which. In 100 parts, show that there is almost absolute purity:—Gum-, 64 219; Bugar, 20-064; lupulin (the active principle of hops), 2 o 0 • albumenous matter, 0 600; mineral matter, 1-500moiBture, 11-017.—Food Jeumat.
THE USE OF SALT IN AGRICULTURE.Whether common salt is of any value to plants, is still a mooted question, and one that finds advocates on both sides. 1 ho luxuriant growth of marsh meadow grass is taken as a proof that salt water must be favourable, and farmers attempt to imitate this state of things by putting salt on the grass without refiYctlng that all other conditions are omitted in the experiment. They are generally astonished to find that the grass is killed, instead of b«iuj; promoted iu its grswth. It is a remarkable fact tint this same salt marsh grass, on analysis, Is fonuii to contain very little soda, but to have Its full complement of potash. I bis would seem to indicate that it hint grown In spite of the salt, rather than io roiisequeucc of it. According to some receut researches, made in France,
potash is h hundred times more valuable to plants than soda. It is true that small quantities of soda have been found in plants, but generally under circumstances that seem to point to its accidental rather than essential presence. Direct experiments have shown that salt Is injurious to tobacco and to the sugar beet. An examination of the plants growing near salt Bprlngs and salt marshes shows that the vegetation Is of a limited and peculiar character. All of these observations point to the conclusion that the direct use of salt, as an artificial fertiliser, is only applicable to such plants as grow on the sea shore, or near salt Bprlngs, and not at all to the usual gross and cereals of our farms. The whole system of manuring farms is based upon the principle to restore to the soil the constituents that are removed by the crops. As the crops carry away no soda, it follows that none Is necessary to their growth, There is another objection to the use of common salt, and that is the chlorine contained in it. This element is decidedly injurious, as has been shown by the experiments of Wolf and others. Public opinion in Germany has set so strongly against the use of salt, that in the famous mines of Stassfurt, where vast quantities of artificial fertilisers are manufacture!, the exclusion of chloride of sodium, or common Bait, is now considered necessary, and the value of a manure Is made to depend upon Its percentage of potash.
SPURIOUS TEA—The discovery of spnrious te», by Dr. Letheby, is a very serious matter, looking at the enormous quantity already brought over to this country, ond the still larger supplies, said to be 7,000,0001b., which are reported to be on the way. This tea, which is described as "Fine Mon lug Congou," is really nothing but the re-drled leaves of the exhausted tea, the peculiar piquancy of which Is increased by the fact that, in Shanghai, the pigs and dogs freely promenade amongst the rotting heaps in the streets. "The leaves are for the most part quite rotten from the putrefactive decomposition, and do not contain more than a trace of the active principle of tea. The odour of them is very offensive; and, when infused in boiling water, they produce a ^nauseous, unwholesome liquid." Tho value of this precious article is from ltd. to 2Jd. per lb., though for purposes of adulteration it has already been sold for from old. to 7|d. per lb. We regret to learn that the prosecution of the guilty parlies has been to a great extent rendered abortive, by the action necessarily taken by tbe Custom House authorities. If nothing else, however, results from the discovery, it will put an end to the fraud— at all events for a timo—and In this particular guise.
FARADAY ON OPTICAL GLASS.—In I82*\ Farad'iygavetbeBakerlan Lecture ntjthe Royal Society on the Manufacture of Glass|for;Optical.purposes. This most laborious investigation did not end in the desired improvement iu telescopes; but the glass thus manufactured became of the utmost importance in his dlomagnctlc and mtagneto-optical researches. He soys, "When the philosopher desires to apply glass In the construction of perfect Instruments, and especially the achromatic telescope, its manufacture is found liable to Imperfections so important and so difficult to ovoid. that science Is frequently stopped inner progress by them—a fact fully proved by the circumstance that Mr. Doll.iud, one of our first opticians, has not been able to obtain a disc of flint glass 4Jin. in diameter, fit for a telescope, within the last five years; or a. similar disc, of 5ln., within the last ten years. This led to the appointment by Sir H. Davy, of the Royal Society Committee, and the Government removed the Excise restriction and undertook to bear all tbe expenses, so long as the Investigation offered a reasonable hope of success. Tbe experiments were begun at the Falcon Glass Works, three miles from the Royal Institution, ond continued there in 1825,1826, aud to September 1827, when a room was build at the Institution. At first the Inquiry was pursued principally ao related to flint and ground glass; but in September 1828 it was directed exclusively to the preparation and perfection of peculiar heavy and fusible glasses, from which time, continued progress has been made." lhe paper than proceeds with an exact description of this heavy optical glass: "its great use being to give efficient instructions to the few who may desire to manufacture optical glass." Iu 183o. the experiment* on gluss making were stopped. In 1831, the Committee for the Improvement of Glass for optical Purposes reported to the Royal Society Council that "the telescope mode with Mr. Faraday's glass has been examined by Captain Koter and Mr. Poud. it bears as great a power as can reasonably be expected, and is very achromatic. The Committee therefore recommend that Mr. Faraday be requested to make a perfect piece of glass of tho largest size that his present appaiatus will admit, aud also to teach some person to manufacture the glass for general sale." Faraday declined to continue the investigation at the time ; and iu 184o;he says: "I [consider our reaulto as negative, except as regards any good that may have resulted from my heavy glass iu the hands of Amici (who applied It to microscopes), and In my late experiments on light."—" Life of Faraday," by Hence JonesVol. I.
HAMPDEN'S CHALLENGE.—Our readers probably remember the challenge boldly given to the "lyiug astronomers" some weeks since by Mr Hampden and to which he offered to stake £50Jag.iin»t nny astronomer's proof of tne "convexity of a river, canal, or lake." Jlr.L. A. Scott, orst.Nejts, Hunt), hat kiudly lorwarded an account ot the proof which was undertaken by Mr. Alfred 11. Wallace, who engaged to demonstrate that the middle point of the surfuse of six miles of still water would be found about 5ft more or 1> Bs, above an imaginary straight llnedrawn biweeo, tbe Burface points of the water at the end of that distance. The experimeut has been made ou a suitable piec- of water culled the Old Bedford river, a large fen drain in the north of Cambridgeshire, and the result Is, as o matter of course, thnt Mr. Hampden's £501 is about to change hands. We trust hts loss may render him less pragmatical, and a Utile more inclined to give due credit to the results of tho disinterested labours of astronomers.
ARMOUR PLATE TESTING.-A new method of testing thick armour for Her Majesty's ships Us» bcm introduced during the past week at Portsmourh in the trial of two Urge plates for the Glutton, uud the Pevaatatlon breastwork monitors. Hitherto, the practice has been to fire at the plate with spherical shot from the *mooih bore 8ln. gun, but the method now brought into use by the Admiralty substitutes the 7in. muzzle-loading rifle gun with chilled shot for the smooth bore. The powder charge varies according to tho thickness of the plate under teat in the following decrees: Tor 12in. plates, 211b.; for llln. pistes lS,lb. ; for lMn. plates, l«lb.; for91n. plates. 111b The distance between the gun and the plate is 30ft.'. and four shots are fired at the plate within an an area of two square feet. The plate for the: Glntton was from the rolling mills of Messrs. Charles Cammell and Co.. Cyclops Iron and Steel Works. Sheffield, measuring 10ft in length, 3ft. 6in. In breadth^ 12ln. in thickness, and weighed 7 tons and I ewt. The plate t,jr the Devastation was from the rolling mills of Messrs. John Brown and Co., Atlas Iron and bteol Works Staetneld. Its dlmensionswere Hft. in length by 4ft 6in."In width and Win. iu thickness, and weight 10 tons The average penetration of the shots in the 13in plate was 7.2in., and in the lOln. plate the penetrations were 6-3,'-8, 6-8, and 7-8iu. respectively. It is a remarkable feature in the manufacture of there enormous xlabs »f Iron for our new turret ships that xh'j are bent to the required form direct from the rolls, and when at cherry-red heat.
CANDLE STAMP.—It is marvellous, writes the Scientific Review, to observe what trilling articles may form the subject of a useful invention j the stamping of candles, for example, would appear to.be arery unimportant matter, yet Mr. Schleidner, ol Pans, has designed a special machine for the purpose. The candles are placed on an inclined plane, from which they successively slide Into the notches of two similar wheels or rings, which, at each revolution of the drlvino- pulley, bring a caudle under the stamp. This itanip'suitably engraved, is heated to an unvarying ie-nwiratnre by steam or otherwise, so that on pressing tahtly upou the candle It melts the fatty matter, leavine the candle stamped with a very clean Impression, ootained without ?hock or stain. The candle then leaves the notches, falls upon another inclined plane, and passes thence into a box.
HEW METHOD OF EXTRACTING GELATINE, Ac —ft 1« announced that a mode of obtaining gelatine from all animal substances capable of yielding glue has been discovered. The oils and grease are separated from the gelatine by means of beniine, coal-oil, or other hydrocarbon*. In Boroeeases It is fuund advantageous to treat the material with lime, before the hydrocarbons are employed: bnt these are exceptional. After the substances treated have lain for a considerable tirno in beuxlue, or other agent employed, the laity mattir< arc dlswlved. and the pure gelatine is found at the bottom ol the vessel -, they are, therefore, easily weyavated in order to be treated In the usual manner. Tlie hydrocarbon* are recovered by evaporation, by
■means ot steam and condensation, and both the gelaine and the fatty matters are afterwards pnriued by
*u» ordinary processes.
THE WATKB TYPE.—Mr. Wanklya has recently published an important paper .that will probably give rise to much controversy. It does not admit of brief abstraction. The author deaies the analogy between Che acids and metallic salts; that the acids are built on the water type he Is iudeed not prepared to deny, but be maintains that the acids and the metallic salts are built on totally different types. The alkalies. Instead of being waters, aud like the acids in structure, are like metallic salts. Thus caustic soda is IO"
It is reported, on the authority of the late Major General Davis, of the Roy al Artillery, that the Urdurius serratus. conimonlj known in the West Indies es the " wheel bug," can, like the Gymnofu* eketrievs, commanioate au electric shock to tbe person whose flesh it touches.
M. Hebling states, In the Journal dePharmacU ti de Chimie, thateveu long before milk becomes sour there are generated in it very small organised spores of an Ascophora species.
The exports of railway iron from the United Kingdom attained a heavy total last year, having risen to .s»;>,tyi8 tons, while the corresponding total for 1667 was only 583,488 tons.
M. Aiphonse Miloe-Edwards shows that at the time of the deposition of the tertiary beds of Bourbonnais its Fauna represented that now existing in Africa.
M. Hurtault has patented a process for rendering petroleum inexsiosire by the addition of a certain proportion of amyl alcohol.
A process for the manufacture of artificial butter has been patented in France.
M. Oudemons has succeeded In making an alloy of zinc and iron. The new metal, which contains 4al per cent, of iron, Is remarkable for Its whiteness and tenacity.
A3SWERS TO COHRESPONDEITTS.
ANOTHER TESTIMONY. 8ir,—I have great pleasure in adding my testimony to that of the other subscriber!, aa to our Micbahic being A first cUu advertising medium; in fact, I have found it so good that I have been obliged to very much increase my facilities for the execution of orders. I may also say, I am much pleased with tbe new arrangement for advertisements to appear outside, and tbe general improvement of tbe paper.— ". Peeks, Wolverhampton.
It may be brfefiv stated that the accuracy of the mode of icpre-entation proposed by this distinguished chemist entirely depends on the question, is there, as a matter of fact, a fundamental analogy, or fundamental want of analogy, between hydrogen and the metals? In Mr. Wanklyn's opinion. In favour of which he gives strong reasous, there is a fundamental dissimilarity between hydtogenand the metals.
DETECTION OP ARSENIC IN FUSCHINE— Dr. Eiecker rinds da' iho pigment Fuschine contains arsenlous acid, the amount in some samples beii:g 2U7 per cent-; he therefore recommends that there should be legal prohibition to the employment of this pigment au a colouring for sweetmeats.
CONVERSION OF CRTSTAI/LINE SULPHUR INTO THE AMORPHOUS MODIFICATION.—
M. Lallemand Units thiit the direct action of sunlight converts crystalline sulphur Into sulphur insoluble in "ulphlde of carbon. By placing a solution of sulphur in sunlight concentrated by a fens, the author elates chat th.- sulphur is rendered lnsolublo and deposited iu the amorphous form.
M\ Somxeb propounds a new theory of sloop •. hU idea in that sleep i* simply a result of the denxygeoatiou ot tbe aysiem, aud he believe)* that fOefpiue*** cornea Od as soon aa the oxygen stored In the blood U extiuuettd.
"Cosmos " a»-erta that It has recently been demonstrated by reference to authentic documents that <iuernaey and Jerm-y hayo sunk more than Hfteeu yards during the last Hvo centuries.
Osc Saturday tae 25th ult., M>. Green, the celebrated ivroiiaut, died auddenly ut hi* residence, TuffuelI/ark, iu the 8*th year of hl» age.
Da Hooker has been elected an honorary membei ot the French Acclimatisation Society, mi account ol liU exertiuna in regard to tbe Cinchona plant.
There are iu America and Rurnpe more than Z'/i m vuufjif'torite of rubber articles, employlutr some 50< operative* e»ch, aud couBuraiog more titan ^OOO.Oooib<jl gam per year.
The Vocalist's Sour.—Tske three ounces of sago, and, after washing it in boiling water, add it gradually to about two quarts of medium stock, which should be almost boiling. After kalf-an-hour's simmering, it will be well dissolved. Beat up the yolks of three tni, add half a pint of boiling cream, and stir them all quickly in tbe soup, not sllowing the letter to boil, lest the eggs should curdle. These materials will make sufficient soup for eight people, so th-.it it can be recommended for dinner before an amateur concert.
Potted I'iukons.—Stew the gizzards and livers of the pigeons, chopped tine, aud add grated bum, bread crumbs, snd herbs. This is to be made into a force-meat, with the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, and the pigeons are to he stuffed with it. 'Put them into a slewpan, with water sad a little butter; add the gravy from the gizzards, some four, and an onion, with the addition of a glass of wine, and stew gently until done.
Veal Soup.—Boil the veal with two-thirds of a cup ol nee, and add awect herbs or celery, and the usual seasoning. This makes a plain, wholesome soup.
The Preservation Op Milk.—The following recipe appeared in Cmmm.- — "To every litre (= 1J pints, i ot.) of uiiskimmed milk, previously pound into a well.annealed
glass bottle, add 40 centigrammes (abont « -Trains) of bicaronateof soda. Floce tbe bottle (wluch must be well corked) containing the milk for about Tour hours in a water-bath heated to 9(k? (194° Fahr.). Ou being taken out, the bottle is varnished over with tor; and in that slate the milk con laiucd iu it will keep sound and sweet for several weeks."
PotAtoes A LaMaiteed'hotei.- Peel the potatoes, when boiled, und, after trimming them into the shape of large corks, cntthem into slices jm. thick; then place them in a Btewpan, with sliced green «nions nod miuceel pursley, pepper, salt, and butter. Moisten tlieui with stock, and let tbem be well tossed, until the parsley is cooked.
Hare A La St. Hubert.—Persons who object to " high" game will find the folluwini; recipe most useful:—The dish is called Hare a la St. Hubert. The hare must first be skinned soon after death, put into a copper, nrid gnat care taken to save as much blood as possible; secondly, 4oz. of bacon fat arc to be added, with leeks, parsley, &c.; and, lastly, a pint and a half of good strong, spirituous red wine' The copper is then to be hooked on a put hanger, aud the wine set on fire. While this is naming, roll six ounces of butter in some flour, and when tbe wiue ceases to burn, add thi butter rolls to the stew, which may be allowed to remain on the fire for lialf-an-hour. A veteran French spinster, whose word on such matters is law, bids ua, on eating the dish, bless the memory of the propitious saint. A hare, thus cooked, merits this effusion of gratitude.
How To Cook Tough PoDLTRT.-Madame Miau is, what may be called an Anglo-French authority on culinary operations. At least she was born in England, educated in France, came back to England, studied, talked, cooked, and ate a great deal in both countries. A friend iu extremity once asked her, whst she could do with "a miseralile half-starved chicken that tbe dogs had killed >" Her answer was prompt and encouraging to those mistrustful people, who sre com pelled to dine iu doubtful eating houses. •* Truss it neatly.' Madame Miau replied, •' stuff it with sausage and bread crumbs; mix some Hour and butter, takiug due care it does not rolour in the pan, for it must be a white rout; plump yonr chicken in this, anil add a little water, or soup if you have it." We are tuld besides to put carrots cut in half, tops of celery, chives, bay leaf, parsley, fcc, then " cover close, so tbst all air may be excluded, and keep It simmering two hours and quarter; it will turn out white aud plump ; place tbe vegetables round it. stir in an egg to thicken tbe sauce, off the lire, and jour diab will make you blush." Without actually auatdliiug hall-starved chickens from the ni.nii.li- ul' cln^s, might not Madame Miau's instruction render uiuny a lough old bird palatable?
Wilfred.— Your query, like too sassy which roach as, is rery arrliiguouslv worded. You do not sav what toMtitr ynur couch ia covered with, therefore no cue ci>ald sdviss' you how to clean it.
Hvro.—We never pass any correspondent unnoticed.
Sioismohd.—State more precisely what instrument You require muaic for.
J. D. M.—Could only ssy after perusal.
Peskst Cuss—Replies dealing with soeh a malady Btipeared some time back. Why adopt such a signature?'
H. G. Hocr.T.—Communications on mesmerism reached us in su'h numbers that a general acknowledgment only was made of their receipt.
E. G. WiLl.lKGLT.—Send us the sdsresse*. Our simile was
;, founded ou the Biblical account of the fate oftbe marieian3' nds. whose owners attempted to compete with Aaron in miracle-working.
W. J. B.—You write anonymously, and, therefore, to no purpose.
Samuel Foaar.sTER.— Only at certain times, which vary in different districts.
A Chemical Mam.—If you choose to darrxbe yonr invention our columns are open to you. If you want to push it commercially, we can only help you through our advertisement pages.
Phonography.— Shorthand-writers are divided in opinion to a certain extent as to the merits of the systems you name, bnt the great majority prefer Pitman's.
George Whitakek.—We know no other address.
Lux.—We think uot.
Metronome—Second qnery inserted. Reply S0»1 will help you to solve the first.
Samukl Wymee.—We cannot advise you.
Gilbert.—You send a query to which replies are even nowappearing. Be more considerate.
Amicus Scienti«—The information you ask for tins been given repeatedly. It is notour fault thatyou do not possess the back numbers.
* Bamnell.—First query iaserted. A search at the Patent Otsre will give you the desired information.
J. W. Bedford.—The correction did appear m this column.'
A Brother can only aave his query inserted as au advertisement.
Kovice thanks Mr. A. W. Blacklock for answering his question on parabolising specula. With the assistance ol the diagram "Novice " says he " saw the thing at once."
J. CiiEBRr.—Please send the note on starch.
F.R.G.S.— Thanks for yonr offer to "supply epitomised accounts of the proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society." We are sorry, however, we esnnot givo you much space.
Dr. B— As you say, nothing is perfect. Whilst bestowing praise on uaost tilings you ridicule others. We canaut reply to all. but will refer to one as an »xample—that of "Fills." Yoa have no patience with "Wry Face " for asking such a question, and you are not the only one who has so written. On the other hand, we beg to say that the question was asked by one of our most intelligent currcspondeuts; that it was a lit question to ask, and that it has elicited several valuable suggestions, one of which appears to-day A qnestiou like this, or the answers it elicits, may not be interesting to "Dr. B" and others, but they are interesting because useful to many others.
J. Mills—See letter "Criaiinal Literature" on auoLher page. ' One letter on the disagreable matter is enough.
Dh. B—We cannot advise as to the quality of the goods mentioned in advertise" eats. The house you mention, that of Mr. Cox, Ludgute-hill. London, is a respectable one.
Dr. Usshek — In printing a large number of copies, and rapidly.some badly-printedsheetsoccasionally pass through the machine, and we suppose your copy last week was an unfortunate one.
Canute—You give good reason for using "Terset Deuroy," the name of your residence. "Canute* rolls over the tongue a little more easily. Certainly •' Neptune" cannot object to it.
RobertCosskhs— You inclosed no stamps.
W. T.—The drawing you send is not clear; our draughtsman can make a good illustration if he is supplied with a good drawing.
OxiHYDaooEN Gas Stote—"Hnubloa" thanks J. C. Sbewan for Ins interesting communication, p. 41, No. -201 respecting his method of applying beat by means of ordinary coal gas to domestic purposes. He thinks it may be generally adopted, provided a continuous stream of fresh air could be supplied by some simple and cheap apparatus.
A FxiKND TO Improvement?.—There la no person or society to give a reward for such an invention; bat if it be as you say, any capitalist would co-operate with you, or if you gave the invention to the nation, the Government might give some kind of reward. Sir Wn. Armstrong, for instance, was rewarded vastly and made a baronet in the bargain, when he offered his invention to the Government, but the invention was worthless, nevertheless. But Sir William wat an adroit and persevering diplomatist. His gun has cost the country at least £3,000,000, and we shall never get in return 3,000,000 farthings.
Anr.rs.—The suggestion, if made, would not, in all probability, be adopted.
Scrittatosu — The matter in dispute between you and "Minnehaha," would hardly justify the insertion of more letters on it.
Wm. Turner.—Questions publicly asked, must be publicly answered.
Equation.—No. 8258. Several answers have been received. We give preference in such matters to the shortest.
Heraldry.—W. H. H. says:—"If'Lincolniensis' has not yet purchased a work upon heraldry, and if, furtber, money is any particular object to him, 1 shall be happy to send him 'tree gratis " an old, but, I believe, perfectly reliable book, containing, besides the treatise, 'the arms of the nobility of England, Scotland, and Ireland.' If he would like to have it, and will send hia address to me at IS, Chapel-street, Bedford-row, W.C., I will despatch it by next book-post."
The Sixpenny Salr Council is the only place in which can appear queries forwarded by E. Spencer (second query), "Vulcanite," J. Benson. MW. G. H.," **Tyne," "Metal Head." "Tackle Maker."
John C. 8cott.—Not received.
W. R. Bland.—We intend to give chess problems, but yours is incorrectly stated, aad is not a very good one. In the first place the W. R. moves to the Q. B. ith, and not to the Q.B. 6th square; next the White Queen moves to Q. 5th, and checkmates, and not as you say, to Q. 4th.
J. W. T.—If the drawing and description were given they would be of no use to anyone but yourself.
W. S. Mckay.—Ingenious but impracticable.
Lotteries—Great Prizes, be—J. T. Keighley, of 20, Bar ton-street, Ribbleston-lane, Preston, writes to complain of the non-receipt of a prise drawn bv him in a distribution which took place some time back in connection with another journal. He and any others who have similar complaints to make had better apply to the former publisher. We have uad nothing to do with "prize distributions," and never will. There is really nothing given to the subscribers. When these distributions are honestly conducted, (which we fear is but seldom the case), each subscriber has to forward four or six stamps, which more than defray the cost of a considerable number of " magnificent prizes," which generally consist of bull's-eye lanterns, concertinas, and similar valuable articles.
Kenninotoh Amateur.—Inquire through a bookseller.
J. W. Russell—We are afraid you are hard to'please. Such letters only discourage.
E KrmNAH.—With M9S., making four packets in all.
F. D. Hart.—Mispickel is arsenical pyrites.
B. Johnson.—" Hungary " is thus made on a large sesle. 10 gallons of rectified alcohol, 60^ over proof, 15 oz. of otto of neroU of lemon, 5 oz. otto petit grain of orange, 6 oz. otto of rosemary, 3 oz. stto of citron zesle, 2 oz. of otto neroli of orange.
M- Van B.—Probably mtile (native oxide of titanium, coloured by iron). It has sometimes been met with in
7* obedience to the ■Uffsstlons of * number of readers, w« hsvs decided on appropriating a portion of our space to a condensed liat of paUau as nearly M possible op to the date of our issue.
APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT DURING THE
840 3. Milne, St. Andrew'*, fire crates
Kin R. B, Turner, Wortborou^b, Massachusetts, machines for sewing straw
847 J. H. Johnson, 47, Uncoln'a-inn-ficlds, Improvements In locomotion,—A eommonloatlon
848 D. Gray, Wishaw, wheel tyres
849 T. J. Smith, of Robertson, Broonun, and Co., 166, Flcotstreet, treatment of ores.—A communication
860 C. J. Eyre, Wejtboorno-grove, apparatus for producing molivo power
KM J. and J. Bradbury, Denton, machinery for felting hat bodies
80S W. T. Calmer, Hornsey-rood, new mode of manufacturing bnuees
863 J. B. Colbran, and W. Pollard, Holloway, trap for Terrain or animal
854 C. Farrow and R. B, Jackson, Great Tower-street, iron wine bins
855 M. Chapman,Charterhouse-buildings, Gosw«lI-road. Improved album
858 W. R. Lake, Southampton-boll dings, bars, plates, and sheets of steel.—A communication
857 J. Moore, Dublin, metal bushes for bung hole* of castes
858 J. C Cushion, Penrose-street, WalworLh, improvements in mill Mils or chl«cla
859 J. II. Miles, Birmingham, velocipedes
860 S, Mawson, Bradford, nitrous oxide gas (orother gas that may be Inhaled) Indicating the quantity at each and every Inhalation
861 T. P. Hawkealoy, New Bond-street, clinical thermometers 863 J. Gilchrist, Glasgow, ratchet drill, brace, and grab combined
863 H. R. Fanshawe, 14, rHnsbury-pIaoe, and TV. H. Smith. 1?, St. Ann's-gardens, Havorstock-hlll, treatment of hides and skins ia t>uining
864- H. H. Ray, and A, T. Richardson, Mobbsrssr, improvements In mannfacture of crape.
865 J. Sawyer. Alma-street. New North-road, London.N.. and J. Brindlcy, Snnnyslde-house, Cbtngford, improvements In furnaces
866 S. Bute-man, Asnleres, apparatus for measuring card filleting whilst making
867 ft. A. Buchhols, Regent's-park, machinery for manufacturing semolina
868 K. Cambridge, Bristol, improvements applicable to steam boilers or generators
889 T Clarldge, Bilatctt, and J. Jeavens, Sheffield, armour plates
870 W. R L^lce, Improvements in turbine water-wheels.—A com man 1 eatto n
871 L. Watson and J. Ttall. Craven-str*«t, Strand, registering goods raised or lowered in breweries. and other buildings
87S W .R, Lake, preparation of ammonlated sulphuric odd.—A communication
873 A. Bsumsnn. Hdlbronn, steam engines
874 T.Gibb, andCGelstharp, Jarrow-oo-Tyne, smelting copper and other metals.
875 T. GlbbandC. Gcltsharp, Jarrow-on-Tyue, extracting copper from ores
876 T. J. Smith, of Robertson. Brooman. and Oo., 166, Fleetstreet. new docimastle process for treatment of simple and complex aulphureu and the arsenic sulphurate of leid, antlmeuv. copper, ana iron, as well as coppery matte and coppers containing precious metals, to extract silver and gold therefrom.—A communication.
877 W. R, Thomson, Glasgow, improvements la locks, latches, or bolts
878 E. T. Truman, Old Burlington-street, improvements in treating and preparing gutta-percha
879 R. F. M. Hareourt, 9, Essex-street. Forest gate, Essex, Improvements in fastening railway carriage doors
880 J. Cross, Bristol, propelling Teasels
881 J. Townsend. Glasgow, obtaining and applying Iron and manganese protoxides in utilising bye or 'waste ' products in the manufacture of chlorine, copper, and alum
883. B. Hunt, l.Serle-street, Lincoln's-Inn, valves.—A communication.
888. A. Dlxtm. Railway-place, Fenchurch-street, railway or other season tickets
884 C. Jean, Paris, weighing cart
885 W. R. Lake, improvements In ▼aires.—A communication
886 W. Ramsden, J. C, Pearce, and B. Array, Bradford, apparatus for sorting wool
887 A. Angelt, Rio de Janeiro, heating and dellrering metal bars. —A communication
888 W. H. Graaaam, Spalding, improrements in horseshoes
889 CD. Abel,90, Southamnton-bnilfilngs, machinery for grindlug and polishing saws.—A communication
890 J. C. and G. Watson, Leeds, machinery for making dip candles
891 T. J. Smith. Robertson, Brooman, and Co., apparatus for regulating driving of millstones.—A communication.
893 A. Dickinson. Hartshlll. Stoke-upon-Trent, W. W. De la Rne, Bnnhlll-row, beslque markers
893 J. C Morgan, H. Macaulay, and F. W. Waldo, Rothcrham. register stoves.
894 W. Dobson, Stockton-on-Tees, apparatus for cooling liquids
895 W. Bailey, Wolrcrhampton, brewing
898 J FL Johnson, exlr&cing moisture from peat, clay , and other
898 J. W. Perkins, Heme-hill-road, ruminating compound
899 R. Smith, Manchester, doubling and winding yarns and threads
900 J.Hopklnson, LowerTown. near Keighley, and R, Newton, Engineer, spinning and twisting fibrous substances
901 J. Sampson, and R It. Mint-on, Liverpool, Improved Tarnish paint
903 W. Gray, andT. Bipgln,Sheffield, metal bushes for casks or barrels
903 R P. Baker, Whitton, near Hounslow, locking and unlocking gates on railways
904 J. H. Johnson, 47,Lincoln'*-Ion-fleIds, wrenches.—A coramnnlcation
905 A Nicole. Soho-square, improvements in lerer escapements
906 W. BV Lake, Improvemcntsin anchors.—A communication
907 W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane, improvements In pumps.—
908. J. S. Davie*, and W. E. Yates, Manchester, looms.
PATENTS BEING PROCEEDED WITH.
S397 G. R. Mather. giving form to wood
3306 J. Garrard, buffers
2307 W. Niell, Lancaster, Engineer, blast engines
3313 S. J. Mackio propulsion of vessels
33.'4 C. Paurs, galvanic batteries
83-28 H. A. Hammond, imoroved chimney cowl
8639 G. Petrie. brick and tiles and manure
S334 T. E. Lundy, and J. L. Dunham, improved means of communication between passengers
3340 W. and M. Bayllsa, cast-iron earth screws
3343 W. J. and F. W. Edmondoon, engraving cylinders used in printing
3346 H. Wilson, lubricating apparatus
3347 B. Giuseppe, boilers
3353 T. R Hethericgton, machinery for preparing, spinning and doubling cotton
3354 D. Morgan, lubricating oil or grease
3355 T. F Lynch, bottles for holding poi*on*
3360 5. L. Loomls, apparatus for tightening and holding window
3376 II. A. Bonneville steam-boiler supply cock
3377 H. A- Bonneville, Improvements In cloctro-raetallurgy
8391 J. E Crooe-Splnellt. propelling and steering vessels
3381 E. Round, indiea-Op for marking games
>JM W E. Gedge, Improved «ystrm of hydraulic traction
3397 J. Tu^nbull, connccilag sui disconnecting carrlsges and waggons
3338 S. Gh<»twood and T. Sturgeon, apparatus for forcing and drawin* fluid:*
3*02 P. C Kvnn«, apparatus for fibrous materials to carding or other machines
340i T. Richardson, forms, desks, or tables
3410 A. McDooyall, blacking
3415 W. 15. God>je, powder fur destroying the old I am in vinos and other plants
3419 J. and W. Fletcher, mortar mills
3433 A. BareUv. improvements in condensers
3*44 S. Fox and J Rente, boring, turning, and polishing treenails,
3517 A. Ripley, pipe wrench
35Su 6. Chatwood. esrape valve
3563 \Y B, Lake, lmproremenu In vices
3570 W, E. Gedge, velocipede*
3645 A. M. Clark, manufacture of superphosphate of lime 319 F. Kohn, extracting juices from plants 653 H. Bessemer, lessening or preventing sea-sickness 569 J. Saxby and J. S. Fanner, locking or securing railway points. and sip-nil* 594 O. W. Siemens, treating Iron ores 656 E. Stevens, apparatus used in cooking 696 J. Neilson. hollow east-Iron cooking utensils 711 J. Jeavons, armonr plates
735 II. A Bonneville, machines for setting types
736 J. Poison, treating grain
775 ft. Holdswerth. preparing designs on ruled design paper for manufacturing purposes
780 J. T. Walker, horseshoes
783 W. R Lobe, forming trenches or ditches
819 O. W. Fox, treatment of medicinal oils, to render the same palatable
All pnn on* having an Interest In opposing any one of *neh appl ieatlos are at liberty to leave particulars In writing of their objections to such application at the office of the Uommis.iiouer» beforethe 9 UOf April, 1879.
3613 J. Porteous and H. Gibson, manufacture of tobacco
3905 R. Harlow, Improrements In valves
3810 T. R and T. W. Harding, leather driving bands
3815 J. Taylor, bradawls
3816 W . Wbltek-y, apparatus for roving and spinning fibre as rabstsnees
3933 H. T. D. Scott, Improvements In kilns
3835 H. Hughes, reducing metal rods, bars, or tubes
3837 J. Anderson, Improvements In treating malse
3839 R. Woolf, hat brims
2846 J Dewa, construction of locks and Indicating number of times lock has been opened
3949 F. S. Berff. utilising vapours arising from furnaces
3873 F. Grau, improvements la lamp sockets
3890 C Montagn, improvement In umbrellas
3933 A. Brooman, liquid meters
2938 B. Baugh and B. Walters, ornamenting bricks
3964 W. Bennett and J. Currsll. Improvements In latch on ranges
3040 A. Y. Newton, a sacking for bedsteads
3131 W. E. Newton, improvements In drawing frames
3856 A. J. Ell and H. Sawahn, apparatus for registering distances travelled by vehicles
3864 C. A. Maugin, silvering looking-glasses
3869 T. W. Bunnlng, and W. Cochrane, apparatus used in gettlnsmlnerals
3949 A. Welch, cattle trucks
3387 W. R. Lake, permanent way of railways
3005 W. R. Lake, Improrements In sewing maehines
3038 C. E. Spagnoletti, apparatus for signalling
3039 A. Welch, cattle trucks
3096 J. H. Johnson, adhesive compound for stamps
3163 R Blanch), cartridges
3311 A. H. Clark, boring tools
3383 H. F. Shaw, cutters for mowing machines
3497 J. Smith and T. Eastwood, working and reversing valves of engines
3544 J. R Reberteon, improvements In borse-ahoos for frosty weather
3680 F. Ellershausen, snd T. Wshls, apparatus for utilising thoforoe of the I
33 C Wyndham, apparatus connected with bicycles
64 B. Brown, improvement in machinery for spinning nbrru# substances
109. J. Cross, frames of umbrellas and parasols
190 W. R Newton, of Middlesex, Civl Engineer, for on Invention of preparation <t natural substances, to render them applicable for use in journal boxes
351 W- R. Lake, improvements In lawn-mowing maehines
366 C H. Perham, hinges
388 J. 1L Johnson, sawing machines
384 J. H. Johnson, improvements in motive p
387 B. Latchford. spur boxes
399 C,Vsro, hots, caps, and other coverings
333 A. M Clark, printing presses
364 G. W. Wigner, purifying sewogs
PATENTS ON WHICH THE STAMP DtTTT OF £50;HA3 *~*~* BEEN PAID.
885 R. MoTcland. constructions of floors snd rooms for buildinrs 834 G. Little, combing fibrous materials
646 J. and A. Gam^ce, preservation of animal and vegetablosubstances
934 F. Shaw, on Improved air engine
866 W. Clark, Improvements in breech-loading firs-arms and. cartridges
893 G. R. Postlethwaits, improvements in ths manufacture of screw nuts and washers
901 J. Werndl, fire arms
911 D. Foster and R Cooke, easting of Bessemer steel hoops for the tyres of railway wheels
859 G. Da vies, rotary digging machines
861 J. Johnson, textile materials
863 A. Wyley, breech-loading fire-arms, and bayonets
874 E. O. Greening, iron and continuous fencing
886 G. R Donlsthorpe. getting oeal and other minerals
933 E. H. Aydon and E. Field, smelting iron and other ores
935 W. Bywater. drawing, spinning, twisting, and laying of hemp, flax, dec
1034 W. P. Butohart, treating and oof toning jute, homp, flax, and. other fibrous substances
917 G. A. Buchholz, manufacturing semolina
918 J. Howtrd and E. T. Bousfield, machinery for cutting aal spreading grasses
1004 J. II. Barker, improvements in milling machines
PATENTS ON WHICH THE STAMP DOTY OF *i00 HAS
770 G. Davios, Improvements in wrappers or papers for noodles